Whole genome expression analysis of tumor regulatory T cells expressing interleukin-10
ABSTRACT: The tumor microenvironment contains high frequencies of inflammatory regulatory T (Treg) cells. These Treg exhibit superior regulatory function compared with those from other environments such as the spleen, partially due to expression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. In order to gain insight into the origins and functional roles of different Treg subsets, we used whole genome microarray analysis to characterize tumor IL-10+ and tumor IL-10- Treg subsets obtained from VERT-X reporter mice bearing transplantable tumors, along with total tumor Treg and spleen Treg from FoxP3-EGFP reporter mice. Few genes were found to differ between IL-10+ and IL-10- tumor Treg subsets (29 upregulated, 88 downregulated), suggesting a common origin of each Treg subset. The specific gene expression profile of IL-10+ tumor Treg was associated with the tumor microenvironment and absent from spleen Treg, suggesting it to be driven by components of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. The IL-10+ tumor Treg gene expression profile displayed upregulation of genes associated with a higher activation state and greater effector function. Pooled MC38 tumor tissue from VERT-X or FoxP3-EGFP reporter mice were used to obtain IL10+ tumor Treg (VERT-X), IL10- tumor Treg (VERT-X) and total tumor Treg (FoxP3-EGFP). Spleens from tumor-free FoxP3-EGFP mice were used for spleen Treg. Three experiments for each population gave a total 12 RNA samples.
Project description:Naïve Treg cells were purified from the resting spleens of FoxP3-GFP knock-in mice made in the 129/SvJ strain. Ascites Treg cells were tumor-associated FoxP3-GFP+ cells sorted from the tumor ascites of 129/SvJ mice IP-injected with 1 x 10e6 RMAS cells 5 days earlier; Spleen-T Treg cells were purified from the spleens of the same tumor-bearing mice. Keywords: in vivo samples Affymetrix MOE430v2 arrays were used to perform gene expression studies. The purity of the sorted Treg cells is >99%.
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Treg cells also suppress a variety of other immune responses, including anti-tumor and alloimmune responses. We have previously reported that tumor-activated Treg cells express granzyme B and that granzyme B is important for Treg cell-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immune responses (GSE13409). Here, we report that allogeneic mismatch also induces the expression of granzyme B. Granzyme B-deficient mice challenged with fully mismatched allogeneic P815 mastocytoma cells have markedly improved survival compared to WT and other granzyme- or perforin-deficient mice, suggesting an immunoregulatory role for granzyme B in this setting. Treg cells harvested from the tumor environment of P815-challenged mice express granzyme B. Treg cells also express granzyme B in vitro during mixed lymphocyte reactions and in vivo in a mouse model of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, in contrast to findings from our previously published tumor model, granzyme B is not required for the suppression of effector T cell (Teff) proliferation in in vitro Treg suppression assays stimulated by either Concanavalin A or allogeneic antigen presenting cells. Additionally, in an ex vivo assay, sort-purified in vivo-activated CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells from mice with active GVHD -- under conditions known to induce granzyme B expression in Treg cells -- suppressed Teff cell proliferation in a granzyme B-independent manner. Adoptive transfer of naive granzyme B-deficient CD4+CD25+ Treg cells into a mouse model of GVHD rescued hosts from lethatlity equivalently to naive wild-type Treg cells. Serum analysis of GVHD-associated cytokine production in these recipients also demonstrated that Treg cells suppressed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, and IFN-gamma in a granzyme B-independent manner. In order to determine whether the context in which Treg cells are activated alters the intrinsic properties of Treg cells, we used Foxp3 reporter mice to obtain gene expression profiles of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells purifed from naive resting spleens, spleens from mice with acute GVHD, and from ascites fluid of mice challenged intraperitoneally with allogeneic P815 tumor cells. Unsupervised analyses revealed distinct activation signatures of Treg cells among the 3 experimental groups. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that granzyme B is not required for Treg cell-mediated suppression of GVHD, which is in contrast to what we have previously reported for Treg cell function in the setting of tumor challenge. Cell intrinsic differences could partially account for these differential phenotypes. These data also suggest the therapeutic potential of targeting specific Treg cell suppressive functions in order to segregate GVHD and graft-versus-tumor effector functions. Experiment Overall Design: Six replicates of Naive CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were purified from resting spleens, five replicates of allogeneic tumor-activated Treg cells and three samples of GVHD-activated Treg cells. Experiment Overall Design: Naive reps 1-3 are controls for the GVHD-activated samples. Experiment Overall Design: Naive reps 4-6 are controls for the Allogeneic tumor-activated samples.
Project description:Project abstract: Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells have important functions in suppressing immune cell activation and establishing normal immune homeostasis. How Treg cells maintain their identity is not completely understood. Here we show that Ndfip1, a co-activator of Nedd4-family E3 ubiquitin ligases, is required for Treg cell stability and function. Ndfip1 deletion in Treg cells disrupts immune homeostasis and results in autoinflammatory disease. Ndfip1-deficient Treg cells are highly proliferative and are more likely to lose Foxp3 expression to become IL-4-producing TH2 effector cells. Proteomic analyses indicate that Ndfip1 deficiency alters the metabolic signature of Treg cells. Metabolic profiling reveals elevated glycolysis and increased mTORC1 signalling. Additional data suggest that Ndfip1 restricts Treg cell metabolic capacity and IL-4 production via distinct mechanisms. Thus, Ndfip1 preserves Treg lineage stability by preventing the expansion of highly proliferative and metabolically active cells that can cause immunopathology via secretion of IL-4.
Project description:Donminant negative transform growth factor receptor II (DNR) mice were served as a murine primary biliary cirrhrosis model. CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in self-tolerance and in regulating PBC. In order to determine whether DNR mice derived Tregs processed defective function compared with WT Tregs, CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were sorted from DNR and WT mice, respectively, then gene expression analysis was performed by using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs were sorted from the spleen of 10-week-old DNR mice and B6 wild-type mice, respectively. RNA of each sample was then extracted and hybridized on Affymetrix microarrays to detail differences between DNR Tregs and WT Tregs in gene expression.
Project description:CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are pivotal for peripheral self-tolerance. They prevent immune responses to auto- and alloantigens and are thus under close scrutiny as cellular therapeutics for autoimmune diseases and the prevention or treatment of alloresponses after organ or stem cell transplantation. We previously showed that human Treg cells with a memory cell phenotype, but not those with a naïve phenotype, rapidly down-regulate expression of the lineage-defining transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) upon in vitro expansion. We now compared the transcriptomes of stable FOXP3+ Treg and converted FOXP3- 'ex-Treg' cells by applying a newly developed intranuclear staining protocol that permits the isolation of intact mRNA from fixed, permeabilized and FACS-purified cell populations. Whole genome microarray analysis revealed strong and selective upregulation of Th2 signature genes, including GATA-3, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, upon downregulation of FOXP3. Th2 differentiation of converted, FOXP3- ex-Treg cells occurred even under non-polarizing conditions and could not be prevented by IL-4 signaling blockade. Thus, our studies identify Th2 differentiation as the default developmental program of human Treg cells after downregulation of FOXP3. RNA preparations from FOXP3 stained in vitro expanded CD4+CD25highCD45RA- “memory” Treg cells from five independent donors were analyzed using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarrays (Agilent). An adapted FOXP3 staining procedure to stain FOXP3 in human regulatory T cells to isolate intact RNA for microarray hybridization was developed (see extract protocol).
Project description:CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subpopulation of T cells, which regulate the immune system and enhance immune tolerance after transplantation. Donor-derived Treg prevent the development of lethal acute graft and host disease (GVHD) in murine models of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. It was reported that a single treatment of the agonistic antibody to Death receptor 3 (DR3) in donor mice resulted in the expansion of donor derived Treg and prevented acute GVHD, although the precise role of DR3 signaling in GVHD has not been elucidated. We analyzed the gene expression profile, immune phenotype, and function of DR3-activated Treg in a murine model of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. CD4+Foxp3+ Treg were sorted from the mice stimulated with anti-DR3 or control antibody using fluorescence-activated cell sorter for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an indispensable role in immune homeostasis. The development and function of Tregs are dependent on transcriptional factor Foxp3, but how constant expression of Foxp3 is maintained in Tregs is not clear. Here we show that ablation of the conserved non-coding DNA sequence 2 (CNS2) at the Foxp3 locus in mice led to spontaneous lymphoproliferative disease and exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). CNS2 is required for activated Treg cells to maintain elevated Foxp3 expression, which is critical for their suppressor function and lineage stability. Mechanistically, upon TCR stimulation, NFAT binds to both CNS2 and Foxp3 promoter and mediates the interaction between CNS2 and Foxp3 promoter. Our findings demonstrated an essential role for CNS2 in maintaining the stability and function of activated Treg cells and identified NFAT as a key mediator of its function. Gene expression was profiled in T regulatory cells (Treg) in WT and CNS2 knockout mice. CNS2 knockout mice lack a conserved non-coding DNA sequence 2 (CNS2) at the Foxp3 locus. Treg cells were further sorted into Foxp3-high and Foxp3-low populations based on the expression level of Foxp3. mRNA was profiled using RNA-Seq (unstranded, polyA+, SE100) in replicate for each condition
Project description:Natural CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a unique T-cell lineage that plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and immune tolerance. Recent studies provide evidence for the heterogeneity and plasticity of the Treg cell lineage. However, the fate of human Treg cells after loss of FOXP3 expression and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we compared gene expression profiles and histone methylation status on two histone H3 lysine residues (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of expanded FOXP3+ and corresponding FOXP3-losing Treg cells. DGE assay showed that human Treg cells down-regulated Treg signature genes, whereas up-regulated a set of Th lineages-associated genes, especially for Th2, such as GATA3, GFI1 and IL13, after in vitro expansion. Furthermore, we found that reprogramming of Treg cells was associated with histone modifications, as shown by decreased abundance of permissive H3K4me3 within down-regulated Treg signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4 and LRRC32 loci, although with no significant changes in H3K27me3 modification. Thus, our results indicate that human Treg cells could convert into a Th-like cells upon in vitro expansion, displaying a gene expression signature dominated by Th2 lineage associated genes, and the histone methylation might contribute to such conversion. mRNA profiles of in-vitro-expanded FOXP3+ Treg and FOXP3-losing Treg cells generated by deep sequencing.
Project description:Thymic-derived natural T regulatory cells (nTregs) are characterized by functional and phenotypic heterogeneity. Recently, a small fraction of peripheral Tregs have been shown to express Klrg1, but it remains unclear the extent Klrg1 defines a unique Treg subset. Here we show that Klrg1+ Tregs represent a terminally differentiated Treg subset derived from Klrg1- Tregs. This subset is a recent antigen-responsive and a highly activated short-lived Treg population that expresses enhanced levels of Treg suppressive molecules and that preferentially resides within mucosal tissues. The development of Klrg1+ Tregs also requires extensive IL-2R signaling. This activity represents a distinct function for IL-2, independent from its contribution to Treg homeostasis and competitive fitness. These and other properties are analogous to terminally differentiated short-lived CD8+ T effector cells. Our findings suggest that an important pathway driving antigen-activated conventional T lymphocytes also operates for Tregs. Gene expression analysis was performed of this and other Treg subsets based on expression of CD62L, CD69, and Klrg1 to define the molecular properties of Klrg1+ Tregs and its relationship to other Treg subsets found in the peripheral immune tissues. Mice were euthanized, spleen cell preparations were made, and each Treg subset was isolated by FACS cell sorting. RNA was immediately prepared for processing.
Project description:The interplay between effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for adaptive immunity, but how Treg control effector cell flexibility is elusive. We found that the phosphatase PTEN links Treg stability to the repression of TH1 and TFH (follicular helper) responses. Depletion of PTEN in Treg resulted in excessive TFH and germinal center responses and spontaneous inflammatory disease. These defects are considerably blocked by deletion of Interferon-γ, indicating coordinated control of TH1 and TFH responses. Mechanistically, PTEN maintains Treg stability and proper metabolic balance between glycolysis and mitochondrial fitness. Moreover, PTEN deficiency markedly upregulates mTORC2-Akt activity, and loss of this activity restores PTEN-deficient Treg function. Our studies establish a PTEN-mTORC2 axis that actively maintains Treg stability and coordinates Treg-mediated control of effector cell flexibility. We used microarrays to explore the gene expression profiles differentially expressed in CD4+CD25+Foxp3-YFP+ Treg cells from wild-type (WT; C57BL/6 crossed with Foxp3-Cre) and Ptenfl/flFoxp3-Cre (Ptenfl/fl mice crossed with Foxp3-Cre) mice