Transcriptome comparison of wild type Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 grown under nitrogen fixation (experiment) with cells grown with combined nitrogen (ammonia) as nitrogen source
ABSTRACT: Model endophyte Azoarcus sp. BH72 is known to contribute fixed nitrogen to its host Kallar grass by nitrogen fixation and also expresses nitrogenase genes endophytically in rice seedlings in gnotobiotic culture. Availability of fixed nitrogen is one of the important signals regulating the transcription of nitrogenase genes and hence nitrogen fixing activity. Therefore, we analysed global transcription in response to differences in the nitrogen source. Transcription profiles of cells grown microaerobically (0.6% oxygen) on minimal medium with nitrogen (N2-fixing) versus ammonium (combined nitrogen) were compared using a genome-wide microarray approach and differences in the gene expression profile were monitored. RNA from cells grown on nitrogen-free synthetic medium under nitrogen fixation (experiment) and combined nitrogen source as ammonium chloride (control) was used for two-color whole-genome microarray approach.
Project description:Azoarcus sp. BH72 is known to express nitrogenase genes endophytically in rice seedlings in gnotobiotic culture. Availability of fixed nitrogen is one of the important signals regulating the transcription of nitrogenase genes and hence nitrogen fixing activity. NifA is the essential transcription activator of nif genes. RNA isolated from the nifA knockout mutant of strain BH72 was compared with the transcriptome of wild type under nitrogen fixing condition using a global genome wide microarray approach and the differences in the gene expression profile were monitered. RNA isolated from wild type strain BH72 and nifLA mutant strain BHLAO grown respectively under microaerobic nitrogen fixing condition with glutamate as poor nitrogen source was used for two color whole genome microarray approach
Project description:Low oxygen tensions are often encountered in flooded soils of rice fields by root-associated, strictly respiratory, beta proteobacterium, Azoarcus sp. BH72 which fixes nitrogen only under microaerobic condition. In this study, genome wide oligonucleotide microarrays were used compare the global transcription profile of Azoarcus sp. BH72 under microaerobic condition with cells grown under aerobic condition, both with ammonia as sole nitrogen source. The outcome of this study will provide a better insight about the establishment of this endophyte in the microaerobic environment, probably prevailing inside of the rice root niche . RNA from cells grown under microaerobic condition with 0.3% oxygen (experiment) and aerobic condition with 21% oxygen (control), respectively was used for two color whole genome microarray approach.
Project description:Azoarcus sp. BH72 is able to communicate via cell density-dependent gene regulation. Here, the impact of cell-free conditioned culture supernatants, obtained from stationary phase Azoarcus wild type cultures, on gene expression was investigated determining changes in transcript profiles when early exponential aerobic cultures were incubated with cell-free culture supernatants for one and four hours. Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) is involved in the regulation of several cellular mechanisms such as metabolic processes, microbe-host interactions or biofilm formation. The nitrogen-fixing model endophyte of grasses Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 shows density-dependent gene regulation in the absence of common hydrophobic autoinducers for pilA encoding the structural protein of type IV pili that are essential for plant colonization. Here, we used a transcriptomic approach to identify target genes differentially regulated under QS conditions in conditioned supernatants in comparison to standard growth conditions. Analysis used RNA from the early exponential growth phase as control samples for comparison to the quorum-sensing condition samples taken at one hour and four hours after incubation with cell-free culture supernatants.
Project description:Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops.
Project description:Transfer of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes from diazotrophs to amenable heterologous hosts is of increasing interest to genetically engineer nitrogen fixation. However, how the non-diazotrophic host maximizes opportunities to fine-tune the acquired capacity for nitrogen fixation has not been fully explored. In this study, a global investigation of an engineered nitrogen-fixing Escherichia coli strain EN-01 harboring a heterologous nif island from Pseudomonas stutzeri was performed via transcriptomics and proteomics analyses. A total of 1156 genes and 206 discriminative proteins were found to be significantly altered when cells were incubated under nitrogen-fixation conditions. Pathways for regulation, metabolic flux and oxygen protection to nitrogenase were particularly discussed. An NtrC-dependent regulatory coupling between E. coli nitrogen regulation system and nif genes was established. Additionally, pentose phosphate pathway was proposed to serve as the primary route for glucose catabolism and energy supply to nitrogenase. Meanwhile, HPLC analysis indicated that organic acids produced by EN-01 might have negative effects on nitrogenase activity. This study provides a global view of the complex network underlying the acquired nif genes in the recombinant E. coli and also provides clues for the optimization and redesign of robust nitrogen-fixing organisms to improve nitrogenase efficiency by overcoming regulatory or metabolic obstacles.
Project description:The multicellular communities of microorganisms known as biofilms are of high significance in agricultural setting, yet it is largely unknown about the biofilm formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Here we report the biofilm formation by Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, a free-living rhizospheric bacterium, capable of fixing nitrogen under microaerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. P. stutzeri A1501 tended to form biofilm in minimal media, especially under nitrogen depletion condition. Under such growth condition, the biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface (termed as pellicles) and the colony biofilms on agar plates exhibited nitrogenase activity in air. The two kinds of biofilms both contained large ovoid shape 'cells' that were multiple living bacteria embedded in a sac of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). We proposed to name such large 'cells' as A1501 cyst. Our results suggest that the EPS, especially exopolysaccharides enabled the encased bacteria to fix nitrogen while grown under aerobic condition. The formation of A1501 cysts was reversible in response to the changes of carbon or nitrogen source status. A1501 cyst formation depended on nitrogen-limiting signaling and the presence of sufficient carbon sources, yet was independent of an active nitrogenase. The pellicles formed by Azospirillum brasilense, another free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacterium, which also exhibited nitrogenase activity and contained the large EPS-encapsuled A1501 cyst-like 'cells'. Our data imply that free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria could convert the easy-used carbon sources to exopolysaccharides in order to enable nitrogen fixation in a natural aerobic environment.
Project description:Nitrogenase catalyzed nitrogen fixation is the process by which life converts dinitrogen gas into fixed nitrogen in the form of bioavailable ammonia. The most common form of nitrogenase today requires a complex metal cluster containing molybdenum (Mo), although alternative forms exist which contain vanadium (V) or only iron (Fe). It has been suggested that Mo-independent forms of nitrogenase (V and Fe) were responsible for N(2) fixation on early Earth because oceans were Mo-depleted and Fe-rich. Phylogenetic- and structure-based examinations of multiple nitrogenase proteins suggest that such an evolutionary path is unlikely. Rather, our results indicate an evolutionary path whereby Mo-dependent nitrogenase emerged within the methanogenic archaea and then gave rise to the alternative forms suggesting that they arose later, perhaps in response to local Mo limitation. Structural inferences of nitrogenase proteins and related paralogs suggest that the ancestor of all nitrogenases had an open cavity capable of binding metal clusters which conferred reactivity. The evolution of the nitrogenase ancestor and its associated bound metal cluster was controlled by the availability of fixed nitrogen in combination with local environmental factors that influenced metal availability until a point in Earth's geologic history where the most desirable metal, Mo, became sufficiently bioavailable to bring about and refine the solution (Mo-nitrogenase) we see perpetuated in extant biology.
Project description:Most biological nitrogen (N(2)) fixation results from the activity of a molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase, a complex iron-sulfur enzyme found associated with a diversity of bacteria and some methanogenic archaea. Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe, fixes nitrogen via the oxygen-sensitive Mo nitrogenase but is also able to fix nitrogen through the activities of genetically distinct alternative forms of nitrogenase designated the Vnf and Anf systems when Mo is limiting. The Vnf system appears to replace Mo with V, and the Anf system is thought to contain Fe as the only transition metal within the respective active site metallocofactors. Prior genetic analyses suggest that a number of nif-encoded components are involved in the Vnf and Anf systems. Genome-wide transcription profiling of A. vinelandii cultured under nitrogen-fixing conditions under various metal amendments (e.g., Mo or V) revealed the discrete complement of genes associated with each nitrogenase system and the extent of cross talk between the systems. In addition, changes in transcript levels of genes not directly involved in N(2) fixation provided insight into the integration of central metabolic processes and the oxygen-sensitive process of N(2) fixation in this obligate aerobe. The results underscored significant differences between Mo-dependent and Mo-independent diazotrophic growth that highlight the significant advantages of diazotrophic growth in the presence of Mo.
Project description:Rhodobacter capsulatus is capable of synthesizing two nitrogenases, a molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase and an alternative Mo-free iron-only nitrogenase, enabling this diazotroph to grow with molecular dinitrogen (N2) as the sole nitrogen source. Here, the Mo responses of the wild type and of a mutant lacking ModABC, the high-affinity molybdate transporter, were examined by proteome profiling, Western analysis, epitope tagging, and lacZ reporter fusions. Many Mo-controlled proteins identified in this study have documented or presumed roles in nitrogen fixation, demonstrating the relevance of Mo control in this highly ATP-demanding process. The levels of Mo-nitrogenase, NifHDK, and the Mo storage protein, Mop, increased with increasing Mo concentrations. In contrast, Fe-nitrogenase, AnfHDGK, and ModABC, the Mo transporter, were expressed only under Mo-limiting conditions. IscN was identified as a novel Mo-repressed protein. Mo control of Mop, AnfHDGK, and ModABC corresponded to transcriptional regulation of their genes by the Mo-responsive regulators MopA and MopB. Mo control of NifHDK and IscN appeared to be more complex, involving different posttranscriptional mechanisms. In line with the simultaneous control of IscN and Fe-nitrogenase by Mo, IscN was found to be important for Fe-nitrogenase-dependent diazotrophic growth. The possible role of IscN as an A-type carrier providing Fe-nitrogenase with Fe-S clusters is discussed.Biological nitrogen fixation is a central process in the global nitrogen cycle by which the abundant but chemically inert dinitrogen (N2) is reduced to ammonia (NH3), a bioavailable form of nitrogen. Nitrogen reduction is catalyzed by nitrogenases found in diazotrophic bacteria and archaea but not in eukaryotes. All diazotrophs synthesize molybdenum-dependent nitrogenases. In addition, some diazotrophs, including Rhodobacter capsulatus, possess catalytically less efficient alternative Mo-free nitrogenases, whose expression is repressed by Mo. Despite the importance of Mo in biological nitrogen fixation, this is the first study analyzing the proteome-wide Mo response in a diazotroph. IscN was recognized as a novel member of the molybdoproteome in R. capsulatus. It was dispensable for Mo-nitrogenase activity but supported diazotrophic growth under Mo-limiting conditions.