Deterministic direct reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency [ChIP-Seq]
ABSTRACT: Somatic cells can be directly reprogrammed to pluripotency by exogenous expression of transcription factors, classically Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. While distinct types of somatic cells can be reprogramed with varying efficiencies and by different modified reprogramming protocols, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) induction remains inefficient and stochastic where a fraction of the cells converts into iPSCs. The nature of rate limiting barrier(s) preventing majority of cells to convert into iPSCs remains elusive. Here we show that neutralizing Mbd3, a core member of the Mbd3/NURD co-repressor and chromatin-remodeling complex, results in deterministic and synchronized reprogramming of multiple differentiated cell types to pluripotency. 100% of Mbd3 depleted mouse and human somatic cells convert into iPSCs after seven days of reprogramming factor induction. Our findings delineate a critical pathway blocking the reestablishment of pluripotency, and offer a novel platform for future dissection of epigenetic dynamics leading to iPSC formation at high resolution. Samples include Mbd3+/+, Mbd3flox/- and Mbd3-/- cells from mouse ES cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) before and after DOX induction (initiating reprogramming by OSKM factors). Two histone modifications are given: H3K4me3, H3K27me3. In addition binding data of Mbd3 and Mi2B in various stages.
Project description:Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and can be preserved in vitro in a naive inner-cell-mass-like configuration by providing exogenous stimulation with leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and small molecule inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 and GSK3b signalling (termed 2i/LIF conditions). Hallmarks of naive pluripotency include driving Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) transcription by its distal enhancer, retaining a pre-inactivation X chromosome state, global reduction in DNA methylation and in H3K27me3 repressive chromatin mark deposition on developmental regulatory gene promoters.Upon withdrawal of 2i/LIF, naïve mouse ES cells can drift towards a primed pluripotent state resembling that of the post-implantation epiblast. Although human ES cells share several molecular features with naive mouse ES cells, they also share a variety of epigenetic properties with primed murine epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). These include use of the proximal enhancer element to maintain OCT4 expression, pronounced tendency for X chromosome inactivation in most female human ES cells, increase in DNA methylation and prominent deposition of H3K27me3 and bivalency acquisition on lineage regulatory genes. The feasibility for establishing human ground state naive pluripotency in vitro with equivalent molecular and functional features to those characterized in rodent ES cells remains to be defined. Here we establish defined conditions that facilitate the derivation of genetically unmodified human naive pluripotent stem cells from already established primed human ES cells, from somatic cells through induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming or directly from blastocysts. The novel naive pluripotent cells validated herein retain molecular characteristics and functional properties that are highly similar to mouse naive ES cells, and distinct from conventional primed human pluripotent cells. This includes competence in the generation of cross-species chimaeric embryos that underwent organogenesis following microinjection of human naive iPS cells into mouse morulas. Collectively, our findings establish new avenues for regenerative medicine, patient-specific iPS cell disease modelling and the study of early human development in vitro and in vivo. Four chromatin marks H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K27ac and H3K27me3 were measured from 3 cell lines: C1 and WIBR3 (naïve and conventional/primed stem cells), and BGO1 (only naïve stem cells).
Project description:Pluripotency can be induced in somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcription factors, however the identity of epigenetic regulators driving the progression of cellular reprogramming requires further investigation. Here we uncover a non-redundant role for the JmjC-domain-containing protein histone H3 methylated Lys 27 (H3K27) demethylase Utx, as a critical regulator for the induction, but not for the maintenance, of primed and naïve pluripotency in mice and in humans. Utx depletion results in aberrant H3K27me3 repressive chromatin demethylation dynamics, which subsequently hampers the reactivation of pluripotency promoting genes during reprogramming. Remarkably, Utx deficient primordial germ cells (PGCs) display a cell autonomous aberrant epigenetic reprogramming in vivo during their embryonic maturation, resulting in the lack of functional contribution to the germ-line lineage. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 were measured genome-wide in the following cell types: Utx+/Y (WT) and Utx-/Y (KO) mouse ES cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) before and after DOX induction (initiating reprogramming by OSKM factors).
Project description:Chromatin remodeling proteins are frequently dysregulated in human cancer, yet little is known about how they control tumorigenesis. Here, we uncover an epigenetic program mediated by the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) that is critical for suppression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most lethal malignancies. SIRT6 inactivation accelerates PDAC progression and metastasis via upregulation of Lin28b, a negative regulator of the let-7 microRNA. SIRT6 loss results in histone hyperacetylation at the Lin28b promoter, Myc recruitment, and pronounced induction of Lin28b and downstream let-7 target genes, HMGA2, IGF2BP1 and IGF2BP3. This epigenetic program defines a distinct subset representing 30-40% of human PDAC, characterized by poor prognosis and an exquisite dependence on Lin28b for tumor growth. Thus, we identify SIRT6 as an important PDAC tumor suppressor, and uncover the Lin28b pathway as a potential therapeutic target in a molecularlydefined PDAC subset. ChIP-Seq experiments to examine H3K56ac histone modifications in murine PDAC cells that are Sirt6 wild type (WT), Sirt6 knock-out (KO), and Sirt6 KO cells engineered to express Sirt6 WT (Sirt6 KO + Sirt6 WT Restored).
Project description:In this study we identify Mettl3, an m6A RNA modification writer, as a critical regulator for terminating naïve pluripotency and a positive maintainer of primed pluripotency in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, Mettl3 knockout pre-implantation epiblasts and naïve ES cells, entirely lack m6A on coding mRNAs and are viable. Yet, they fail to adequately terminate the naïve pluripotent state, and subsequently undergo aberrant priming and early lineage commitment at the post-implantation stage. A comprehensive functional and genomic analysis involving profiling of m6A, RNA transcription and translation in Mettl3 wild-type and knockout pluripotent and differentiated cells, identified m6A as a critical determinant that destabilizes secondary naïve specific pluripotency genes Esrrb, Klf4 and Nanog, and restrains their transcript stability and translation efficiency. In summary, our findings provide for the first time evidence for a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in early mammalian development in vivo, and identify a mechanism that functionally regulates mouse naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner. 3' polyA RNA-sequencing (equivalent to Digital Gene Expression) measured in mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) and mouse Embriod bodies (EBs) 0,4 & 8 hours after treatment with Actinomycin which halts transcription. Measured in both WT and Mettl3-KO cells.
Project description:Langerhans cells (LCs) populate the mucosal epithelium, a major entry portal for pathogens, yet their ontogeny remains unclear. In contrast to skin LCs originating from self-renewing radioresistant embryonic precursors, we found that oral mucosal LCs derive from circulating radiosensitive precursors. Mucosal LCs can be segregated into CD103+CD11blow (CD103+LCs) and CD11b+CD103- (CD11b+LCs) subsets. We further demonstrated that similar to non-lymphoid dendritic cells (DCs), CD103+LCs originate from pre-DCs, whereas CD11b+LCs differentiate from both pre-DCs and monocytic precursors. Despite this ontogenetic discrepancy between skin and mucosal LCs, transcriptomic signature and immunological function of oral LCs highly resemble those of skin LCs but not DCs. These findings, along with their epithelial position, morphology and expression of LC-associated phenotype strongly suggest that oral mucosal LCs are genuine LCs. Collectively, in a tissue-dependent manner, murine LCs differentiate from at least three distinct precursors (embryonic, pre-DCs and monocytic) in steady state The following cells were isolated from mice (2-4 replicates): Lung DCs, mucosal CD103+ LC, mucosal CD11b+ LC, Skin LC. Transcriptome analysis was performed.
Project description:The HipSci project brings together diverse constituents in genomics, proteomics, cell biology and clinical genetics to create a UK national iPS cell resource and use it to carry out cellular genetic studies. In this sub-study we perform RNAseq on iPS cells generated from skin biopsies from healthy volunteers. This data is part of a pre-publication release. For information on the correct use of pre-publication data shared by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (including details of any publication moratoria), please see http://www.sanger.ac.uk/datasharing/
Project description:The HipSci project brings together diverse constituents in genomics, proteomics, cell biology and clinical genetics to create a UK national iPS cell resource and use it to carry out cellular genetic studies. In this sup-study we perform RNAseq on iPS cells generated from skin biopsies from healthy volunteers.
Project description:SnRK1 (sucrose-non-fermenting-1-related) protein kinases are involved in the regulation of plant metabolism controlling both gene expression and phosphorylation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of SnRK1 in pea seed development. To study the effect of SnRK1 deficiency, transgenic pea plants were generated carrying a gene for VfSnRK1 in antisense orientation under control of seed specific vicilin promoter. Selected transgenic lines were characterized with decreased levels of PsSnRK1 mRNA and reduced up to 71% phosphorylation activity. Antisense inhibition of SnRK1 resulted in reduced seeds fresh weight, defect of pollen development. To dissect the SnRK1-antisense phenotype at the molecular level, a search for genes with differential expression patterns in transgenic plant versus wild type seeds has been performed using cDNA macroarray analysis. Radioactive labeled cDNA probes were prepared from RNA isolated from embryo of developing seeds of wild type (11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 DAP) and transgenic SnRK1-antisense plant (13, 15, 17 and 19 DAP), which correspond to the transition phase of seed development, and hybridized to cDNA macroarrays.