Centromeric H2B monoubiquitination promotes noncoding transcription and chromatin integrity
ABSTRACT: Functional centromeres are essential for proper cell division. Centromeres are established largely by epigenetic processes resulting in incorporation of the histone H3 variant CENP-A. Here, we demonstrate the direct involvement of H2B monoubiquitination, mediated by RNF20 in humans or Brl1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in centromeric chromatin maintenance. Monoubiquinated H2B (H2Bub1) is needed for this maintenance, promoting noncoding transcription, centromere integrity and accurate chromosomal segregation. A transient pulse of centromeric H2Bub1 leads to RNA polymerase II–mediated transcription of the centromere’s central domain, coupled to decreased H3 stability. H2Bub1-deficient cells have centromere cores that, despite their intact centromeric heterochromatin barriers, exhibit characteristics of heterochromatin, such as silencing histone modifications, reduced nucleosome turnover and reduced levels of transcription. In the H2Bub1-deficient cells, centromere functionality is hampered, thus resulting in unequal chromosome segregation. Therefore, centromeric H2Bub1 is essential for maintaining active centromeric chromatin. ChIP: In total 17 samples; 15 ChIP DNA files (7 different conditions) 2 Input files. Cnp1_WT_input.bar (antibody against Cnp1 in strains Hu303, Hu29 (WT) (Cnp1_Hu303.CEL, AS_10.CEL) vs input (JW_1.CEL, JW_2_2.CEL)); Cnp1_Hu2640_WT.bar (antibody against Cnp1 in strain Hu2640 (htb1K119R) (Cnp1_Hu2640_A.CEL, Cnp1_Hu2640_B.CEL) vs strains Hu303, Hu29 (WT) (Cnp1_Hu303.CEL, AS_10.CEL)); Cnp1_Hu2640_input.bar (antibody against Cnp1 in strain Hu2640 (htb1K119R) (Cnp1_Hu2640_A.CEL, Cnp1_Hu2640_B.CEL) vs input (JW_1.CEL, JW_2_2.CEL)); H2Bub1_Hu303_input.bar (antibody against H2Bub1 in strain Hu303 (WT) (H2Bub1_Hu303_A.CEL, H2Bub1_Hu303_B.CEL) vs input (JW_1.CEL, JW_2_2.CEL)); H3_WT_input.bar (antibody against H3 in strains Hu303, Hu29 (WT) (H3_Hu303.CEL, As_12.CEL) vs input (JW_1.CEL, JW_2_2.CEL); H3_Hu2640_WT.bar (antibody against H3 in strain Hu2640 (htb1K119R) (H3_Hu2640_A.CEL, H3_Hu2640_B.CEL, H3_Hu2640_C.CEL) vs strains Hu303, Hu29 (WT) (H3_Hu303.CEL, AS_12.CEL)); H3_Hu2640_input.bar (antibody against H3 in strain Hu2640 (htb1K119R) (H3_Hu2640_A.CEL, H3_Hu2640_B.CEL, H3_Hu2640_C.CEL) vs input (JW_1.CEL, JW_2_2.CEL)); H3K9me2_Hu303_input.bar (antibody against H3K9me2 in strains Hu303, Hu29 (WT) (H3K9me2_Hu303.CEL, AS_6.CEL) vs input (JW_1.CEL, JW_2_2.CEL)); H3k9me2_Hu2640_Hu303.bar (antibody against H3K9me2 in strain Hu2640 (htb1K119R) (H3K9me2_Hu2640_A.CEL, H3K9me2_Hu2640_B.CEL) vs strain Hu303, Hu29 (WT) (H3K9me2_Hu303.CEL, AS_6.CEL)); H3K9me2_Hu2640_input.bar (antibody against H3K9me2 in strain Hu2640 (htb1K119R) (H3K9me2_Hu2640_A.CEL, H3K9me2_Hu2640_B.CEL) vs input (JW_1.CEL, JW_2_2.CEL)). RNA: 4 RNA samples: 2 replicates of WT RNA (RNA_Hu303_A.CEL, RNA_Hu303_B.CEL) and 2 replicates of htb1-K119R RNA (RNA_Hu2640_A.CEL, RNA_Hu2640_B.CEL).
Project description:Specialized chromatin containing CENP-A nucleosomes instead of H3 nucleosomes is found at all centromeres. However, the mechanisms that specify the locations at which CENP-A chromatin is assembled remain elusive in organisms with regional, epigenetically regulated centromeres. It is known that normal centromeric DNA is transcribed in several systems including the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we show that factors which preserve stable histone H3 chromatin during transcription also play a role in preventing promiscuous CENP-A(Cnp1) deposition in fission yeast. Mutations in the histone chaperone FACT impair the maintenance of H3 chromatin on transcribed regions and promote widespread CENP-A(Cnp1) incorporation at non-centromeric sites. FACT has little or no effect on CENP-A(Cnp1) assembly at endogenous centromeres where CENP-A(Cnp1) is normally assembled. In contrast, Clr6 complex II (Clr6-CII; equivalent to Rpd3S) histone deacetylase function has a more subtle impact on the stability of transcribed H3 chromatin and acts to prevent the ectopic accumulation of CENP-A(Cnp1) at specific loci, including subtelomeric regions, where CENP-A(Cnp1) is preferentially assembled. Moreover, defective Clr6-CII function allows the de novo assembly of CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin on centromeric DNA, bypassing the normal requirement for heterochromatin. Thus, our analyses show that alterations in the process of chromatin assembly during transcription can destabilize H3 nucleosomes and thereby allow CENP-A(Cnp1) to assemble in its place. We propose that normal centromeres provide a specific chromatin context that limits reassembly of H3 chromatin during transcription and thereby promotes the establishment of CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin and associated kinetochores. These findings have important implications for genetic and epigenetic processes involved in centromere specification. In total, 24 samples: 22 ChIP DNA files (10 different conditions), 2 Input files.
Project description:Centromeres are specialized chromatin regions marked by the presence of nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes is intimately linked to DNA topology and DNA topoisomerases have previously been implicated in the dynamics of canonical H3 nucleosomes. Here we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Top3 and its partner Rqh1 are involved in controlling the levels of CENP-ACnp1 at centromeres. Both top3 and rqh1 mutants display defects in chromosome segregation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarrays we show that Top3 unlike Top1 and Top2 is highly enriched at centromeric central domains, demonstrating that Top3 is the major topoisomerase in this region. Moreover, centromeric Top3 occupancy positively correlates with CENP-ACnp1 occupancy. Intriguingly, both top3 and rqh1 mutants display increased relative enrichment of CENP-ACnp1 at centromeric central domains. Thus, Top3 and Rqh1 normally limit the levels of CENP-ACnp1 in this region. This new role is independent of the established function of Top3 and Rqh1 in homologous recombination downstream of Rad51. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Top3-Rqh1 complex has an important role in controlling centromere DNA topology which in turn affects the dynamics of CENP-ACnp1 nucleosomes. For transcription: Total RNA from top3-105 mutant and WT control cells after 8 hours at 36C in biological duplicates. For Top3-myc chromatin immunoprecipitation: DNA immunoprecipitated with mouse anti-Myc using chromatin extracts from cells expressing Top3-Myc from the endogenous locus at 30C in biological duplicates normalized to input DNA from wild type cells at 30C in biological duplicates. For CENP-A/Cnp1 chromatin immunoprecipitation: DNA immunoprecipitated with anti-Cnp1 serum using chromatin extracts from top3-105 mutant and wild type control cells after 8 hours at 36C in in biological duplicates normalized to input DNA from each strain.
Project description:The histone H3 variant, CENP-ACnp1, is normally assembled upon canonical centromeric sequences, but there is no apparent obligate coupling of sequence and assembly, suggesting that centromere location can be epigenetically determined. To explore the tolerances and constraints on CENP-ACnp1 deposition we investigated whether certain locations are favoured when additional CENP-ACnp1 is present in fission yeast cells. Our analyses show that additional CENP-ACnp1 accumulates within and close to heterochromatic centromeric outer repeats, and over regions adjacent to rDNA and telomeres. The use of minichromosome derivatives with unique DNA sequences internal to chromosome ends shows that telomeres are sufficient to direct CENP-ACnp1 deposition. However, chromosome ends are not required as CENP-ACnp1 deposition also occurs at telomere repeats inserted at an internal locus and correlates with the presence of H3K9 methylation near these repeats. The Ccq1 protein, which is known to bind telomere repeats and recruit telomerase, was found to be required to induce H3K9 methylation and thus promote the incorporation of CENP-A near telomere repeats. These analyses demonstrate that at non-centromeric chromosomal locations the presence of heterochromatin influences the sites at which CENP-A is incorporated into chromatin and thus, potentially the location of centromeres. For CENP-A/Cnp1 chromatin immunoprecipitation: DNA immunoprecipitated with anti-Cnp1 serum using chromatin extracts from mutants and wild type control cells in biological duplicates normalized to input DNA from each strain.
Project description:We employ the well-studied fission yeast centromere to investigate the function of the CENP-A (Cnp1) N-tail. We show that alteration of the N-tail did not affect Cnp1 loading at centromeres, outer kinetochore formation, or spindle checkpoint signaling, but nevertheless elevated chromosome loss. N-Tail mutants exhibited synthetic lethality with an altered centromeric DNA sequence, with rare survivors harboring chromosomal fusions in which the altered centromere was epigenetically inactivated. Elevated centromere inactivation was also observed for N-tail mutants with unaltered centromeric DNA sequences. N-tail mutants specifically reduced localization of the CCAN proteins Cnp20/CENP-T and Mis6/CENP-I, but not Cnp3/CENP-C. Overexpression of Cnp20/CENP-T suppressed defects in an N-tail mutant, suggesting a causal link between reduced CENP-T recruitment and the observed centromere inactivation phenotype. Thus, the Cnp1 N-tail promotes epigenetic stability of centromeres via recruitment of the CENP-T branch of the CCAN. Genome-wide localization of GFP-tagged N-tail Cnp1 variant tailswap versus wt control in cnp1 deletion background
Project description:At Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres, heterochromatin formation is required for de novo incorporation of the histone H3 variant CENP-A/Cnp1, which in turn directs kinetochore assembly and ultimately chromosome segregation during mitosis. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) directs heterochromatin formation via the RNAi machinery, but also through RNAiindependent RNA processing factors. Control of centromeric ncRNA transcription is therefore a key factor for proper centromere function. We here use transcriptional profiling, gene inactivation experiments, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses to demonstrate that the Mediator complex directs ncRNA transcription and regulates centromeric heterochromatin formation in fission yeast. Mediator co-localizes with Pol II at centromeres and loss of the Mediator subunit Med20 causes a dramatic increase in pericentromeric transcription and desilencing of the core centromere. As a consequence, heterochromatin formation is impaired both via the RNAi dependent and independent pathways, resulting in loss of CENP-A/Cnp1 from the core centromere, defect kinetochore function, and a severe chromosome segregation defect. Interestingly, the increased centromeric transcription observed in med20Δ appears to directly block CENP-A/Cnp1 incorporation and inhibition of Pol II transcription can suppress the observed phenotypes. Our data thus identify Mediator as a crucial regulator of ncRNA transcription at fission yeast centromeres and add another crucial layer of regulation to centromere function. 3 samples examined: wild type chromatin incubated with beads as the non antibody control, wild type chromatin incubated with RNA Polymerase II CTD domain antibody and Protein G beads, and TAP-Med7 cells chromatin incubated with IgG beads.
Project description:Heterochromatin plays a key role in gene repression, maintaining genome integrity and chromosome segregation. Fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, utilizes conserved components to direct heterochromatin formation using siRNA generated by RNA interference (RNAi) to guide a histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase to cognate chromatin. To identify compounds that inhibit heterochromatin formation, an in vivo phenotypic screen for loss of silencing was performed. A tester strain harbouring a silent dominant selectable kanMX reporter gene within fission yeast centromeric heterochromatin was used to screen a diverse library of chemicals. HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 were identified as compounds that reproducibly increased G418 resistance due to loss of kanMX silencing, and decreased the level of repressive H3K9 methylation on centromeric repeats. The pattern of changes induced by HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 were consistent with inhibition of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) Clr3 and/or Sir2. Chemical-genetic interactions and expression profiling indicated that both HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 affect the activity of the Clr3-containing Snf2/HDAC repressor complex (SHREC). Exposure to HMS-I1 was also found to alleviate silencing of reporter genes in an Arabidopsis transgenic plant line and a mouse cell line. HMS-I2 also disrupted reporter gene silencing in Arabidopsis. In vitro assays indicate that HMS-I1 impairs the activity of human HDAC6 and HDAC10. As HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 bear no resemblance to known inhibitors of chromatin-based activities they represent potentially novel and valuable reagents for experimental and therapeutic purposes. Our findings highlight the use of in vivo chemical screening conducted in fission yeast to identify compounds that disrupt heterochromatin across plant, fungi and animal kingdoms. 16 RNA samples: 2 replicates of WT untreated (vehicle DMSO) (KE1-A, KE2-A), HMS-I1 treated (KE1-B, KE2-B), HMS-I2 treated (KE1-C, KE2-C), and 2 additional replicates of WT (KE05_wt_1, KE10_wt_2), 4 replicates of clr2∆ (KE01_2118_1, KE06_2118_2, KE03_0080_1, KE08_0080_2) and mit1∆ (KE02_1295_1, KE07_1295_2, KE04_1278_1, KE09_1278_2).
Project description:CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone 3 variant essential for centromere specification. CENP-A partially replaces canonical histone H3 at the centromeres. How the particular CENP-A/H3 ratio at centromeres is precisely maintained is unknown. It also remains unclear how CENP-A is excluded from non-centromeric chromatin. Here we identify Ccp1, an uncharacterized NAP family protein in fission yeast that antagonizes CENP-A loading at both centromeric and non-centromeric regions. Like the CENP-A loading factor HJURP, Ccp1 interacts with CENP-A, and is recruited to centromeres at the end of mitosis in a Mis16-dependent manner. These data indicate that factors with opposing CENP-A loading activities are recruited to centromeres. Furthermore, Ccp1 also cooperates with H2A.Z to evict CENP-A assembled in euchromatin. Structural analyses indicate that Ccp1 forms a homodimer that is required for its anti-CENP-A loading activity. Our study establishes mechanisms for maintenance of CENP-A homeostasis at centromeres and the prevention of ectopic assembly of centromeres. Examination of cnp1 distribution in one wild type (wt) and two ccp1 mutants.
Project description:Transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is accompanied by conserved patterns of histone modification within transcribed regions, but it remains uncertain how these modifications influence, or are influenced by, properties of the elongation complex. Here we establish an intimate link between Cdk9, the kinase component of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), and mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1), in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mutations that impair Cdk9 function reduce H2Bub1 levels in vivo. Conversely, mutations that prevent H2Bub1 decrease phosphorylation of elongation factor subunit Spt5, a sensitive and specific indicator of Cdk9 activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis suggests this is due to impaired Cdk9 recruitment to H2Bub1-deficient chromatin. P-TEFb and H2Bub1 pathways also interact genetically: mutation of the histone H2B ubiquitin-acceptor residue decreases the requirement for Cdk9 activity in vivo, and multiple cdk9 mutations suppress morphological defects of H2Bub1-deficient strains. Moreover, H2Bub1 loss causes redistribution of transcribing RNAPII on chromatin that is corrected by a hypomorphic cdk9 mutation. Therefore, whereas mutual dependence of Spt5 phosphorylation and H2Bub1 suggests positive feedback between P-TEFb and the ubiquitylation machinery, mutual suppression by cdk9 and H2Bub1-pathway mutations indicates an antagonistic relationship, whereby the activities must be balanced to properly regulate elongation. In order to study the genome-wide localization of H2Bub1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, H2Bub1, H2B-Flag as well as RNAPII (along with associated DNA sequences) were immunoprecipitated using repectively anti-H2Bub1, anti-Flag and anti-8WG16 antibodies. The ChIPs were performed in duplicate from WT cells as well as in the H2B-K119R mutant. The extracted DNA was hybridized to a DNA microarray containing an average of 4 probes per kilobase across the whole yeast genome. The combined datasets are available in the supplemental files of the related publication.
Project description:Rnf20 catalyzes lysine 120 mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub1) that has been previously invloved in normal differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) and adult stem cells. However,the mechanims underlying by which Rnf20 is recruited to its target chromosomal loci to generate H2Bub1 is still elusive. Here, we reveal that Fbxl19, a CxxC domain-containing protein, physically interacts with Rnf20, guides it preferentially to CpG island-containing target promoters, and thereby promotes mono-ubiqutination of H2B. We first show that up-regulation of Fbxl19 induces the level of global H2Bub1, while down-regulation of Fbxl19 reduces the level of H2Bub1 in mouse ES cells. Our genome-wide target mapping unveils the preferential occupancy of Fbxl19 on CpG island-containing promoters, and we further show that the binding of Fbxl19 is essential for the recruitment of Rnf20 to its target genes and subsequent H2Bub1. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Fbxl19 plays critical roles in the H2Bub1 pathway by recruiting Rnf20 to CGI target genes specifically and selectively. Overall design: ChIP sequenicngs were performed for Fbxl19 and H2Bub1 in mouse ES cells. To perform Fbxl19 ChIP-seq we generated Fbxl19-overexpressing flag-biotin tagged clones and selected overexpression (OE)-high (more than 5 fold) and OE-low (sub-endogeous level) clones. Using these two OE-high and OE-low clones, we performed ChIP-seq of Fbxl19 using Streptavidin-conjugated beads. We also conducted H2Bub1 ChIP-seq under various conditions: normal, differentiation, Fbxl19-OE, Fbxl19-KD, and Fbxl19-KD under differentaiton conditions. Input was also sequenced and used for control.