Project description:Carcinomas of unknown primary origin constitute 3-5% of all newly diagnosed metastatic cancers, of which the primary source is difficult to classify with current histological methods. Effective cancer treatment depends on early and accurate identification of the tumor, which is why patients with metastases of unknown origin have poor prognosis and short survival. Because microRNA expression is highly tissue specific, the microRNA profile of a metastasis may be used to identify its origin. As a first step to realize this goal, we evaluated the potential of microRNA profiling for identification of the primary tumor of known metastases. 208 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples representing 15 different histologies were profiled on an LNA-enhanced microarray platform, which allows for highly sensitive and specific detection of microRNA. Based on these data, we developed and cross-validated a novel classification algorithm, LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator), which had an overall accuracy of 85%. When the classifier was applied on an independent test set of 48 metastases, the primary site was correctly identified in 42 cases (88% accuracy). Our findings suggest that microRNA expression profiling on paraffin tissue can efficiently predict the primary origin of a tumor, and may provide pathologists with a molecular diagnostic tool that can improve their capability to correctly identify the origin of hitherto unidentifiable metastatic tumors, and eventually, enable tailored therapy. 94 samples
Project description:Carcinomas of unknown primary origin constitute 3-5% of all newly diagnosed metastatic cancers, of which the primary source is difficult to classify with current histological methods. Effective cancer treatment depends on early and accurate identification 220 samples
Project description:The goal of the study was to identify molecular subgroups that might predict clinical outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. A second objective was to identify potential therapeutic targets for serous EOC based on improved understanding of the molecular diversity of the disease. Ovarian tissues and matched peripheral blood samples were prospectively obtained from sequential patients undergoing planned gynecologic surgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 1989 and 2005. All patients underwent surgery and received adjuvant chemotherapy with a contemporaneous standard-of-care regimen. Ovarian tissue samples (n=172) were compared to a reference pool of 106 ovarian samples. Mixed reference includes normal, benign, borderline, and malignant samples.
Project description:Prolificacy related traits are of great economical interest in the pig industry. microRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression important for reproductive processes. In pigs, the roles of ovarian miRNAs during gestation remain unknown although the ovaries are essential during gestation. It has been hypothesised that ovarian miRNAs could participate during the porcine gestation and, moreover, they could influence the prolificacy levels of sows. The miRNA expression profile was compared in the ovaries of pregnant Iberian x Meishan F2 sows displaying extreme phenotypes regarding prolificacy levels defined as the number of embryos (NE) attached to the uterus at 30-32 days of gestation. miR-146a-5p and miR-142-3p were differentially expressed between high (NE≥13) and low (NE≤11) prolificacy sows. In silico functional analyses of the predicted mRNA targets for these miRNAs revealed that miR-146a-5p targets were mainly involved in the immune system response important for the establishment of the maternal-foetal tolerance, implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. On the other hand, miR-142-3p targets participated in different biological processes that would contribute to the homeostasis maintenance to ensure a correct functional development of the ovaries. miRNAs associated with prolificacy levels could regulate negatively, by a novel post-transcriptional mechanism, their predicted mRNA targets, PPM1K, TLR1 and CPEB2 which have been reported as differentially expressed in the ovaries of pregnant sows regarding the prolificacy levels. Furthermore, among predicted mRNA targets for miRNAs associated with prolificacy, four genes, differentially expressed in the ovaries of pregnant sows regarding prolificacy levels, (LRRK1, BAT1, CPEB2, CCL8) are proposed to be good candidate genes for litter size due to their location within confidence intervals for prolificacy QTL described previously. Overall, it is suggested that the up-regulation of miR-146a-5p and miR-142-3p in the ovaries of pregnant sows could help in the establishment of a uterine environment, which would favor the embryonic development. Total RNA was isolated from uterus of Iberian x Meishan F2 pregnant sows divided into two groups: High prolificacy sows (n=3) and Low prolificacy sows (n=3). RNA was labeled with the Cy3-like Hy3™ dye, mixed with a pool of RNA from the six samples labeled with the Cy5-like Hy5™ dye, and hybridized to two-color miRCURY™ arrays from Exiqon®.
Project description:All established protocols for differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells into specific neural subpopulations generate a considerable cellular heterogeneity that hampers experimental and clinical progress. In order to obtain a homogenous population of neuronal precursor cells and to streamline the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we assessed PSA-NCAM, a surface glycoprotein that is specifically expressed on immature neurons. We developed an optimized strategy for magnetic isolation of PSA-NCAM positive neuronal precursors from differentiated ESC cultures and characterized their neuronal differentiation potential in vitro. PSA-NCAM enrichment at an early step of neural differentiation increased the number of ES cell derived neurons and reduced cellular diversity. Gene expression analysis revealed that mainly genes involved in neuronal activity were over-represented after purification. The in vivo potential of in vitro derived PSA-NCAM+ enriched precursors was functionally characterized by grafting into the forebrain of adult mice. Analysis for several neuronal and glia markers at 10 or 40 days post graft showed a distinct differentiation pattern. While unsorted control cells gave rise to a mixed population composed of immature precursors, early postmitotic neurons or glial cells, the majority of PSA-NCAM+ enriched cells differentiated into NeuN positive neurons. Furthermore, when in contact with the rostral migratory stream, higher numbers of cells integrated into the stream and migrated towards the olfactory bulb when the PSA-NCAM enriched population was grafted. Thus, enrichment of neuronal precursors based on PSA-NCAM expression represents a general and straightforward approach to narrow cellular heterogeneity during neuronal differentiation of pluripotent cells. Two conditions (step 4, step 5), each represented by three biological replicates of control and enriched cells (Cy5); mESC was used as common reference (Cy3)
Project description:Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression strategies that allow safe and persistent target mRNA knockdown are key to the success of many in vitro or in vivo RNAi applications. Here, we propose a novel solution which is expression of a promoterless miRNA-adapted shRNA (shmiRNA) from an engineered genomic miRNA locus. For proof-of-concept, we genetically “vaccinated” liver cells against a human pathogen, by using TALEns or CRISPR to integrate an anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) shmiRNA into the liver-specific miR-122/hcr gene. Reporter assays and qRT-PCR confirmed anti-HCV shmiRNA expression as well as miR-122 integrity and functionality. Specificity and safety of shmiRNA integration were validated via PCR, cDNA and miRNA profiling, and whole genome sequencing. A subgenomic HCV replicon and a full-length reporter virus, but not a Dengue virus control, were significantly impaired in the modified cells. Our original combination of DNA engineering and RNA expression technologies should benefit numerous applications, from basic miRNA research, to human cell and gene therapy Four Huh7 cells lines at 3 different passages were analyzed. The reference cell line was Huh7 wild type cells (WT). The other three cell lines had an integration of an anti-HCV shmiRNA in the hcr locus and miR-122 intact (T2 31.3) or mutated (TS 30.20 and U6 20.16). RNA was extracted from three different passages.
Project description:To understand the transcriptional impact of FOXD3 in melanoma cells, we utilized a microarray approach. We collected RNA from three unrelated mutant B-RAF melanoma cell lines (WM115, WM793, and A375) that were engineered to inducibly express FOXD3 or the control gene, β-galactosidase (LacZ), after 5 days of transgene induction. This time point was chosen based on maximal phenotypic changes previously observed. Comparison of gene signatures between the 3 cell lines produced approximately 2,600 common genes differentially regulated by FOXD3-expressing cells compared to the LacZ controls. Three unrelated mutant B-RAF melanoma cell lines (WM115, WM793, and A375) were induced to express FOXD3 and compared against the same cell lines expressing the control gene, β-galactosidase (LacZ).
Project description:To identify differentially expressed genes regulated by FOXP1 in DLBCL cells via gene expression profiling of GCB-DLBCL (DB, K422) and ABC-DLBCL (OCI-Ly3, HBL-1) cell lines treated with siRNA targeting FOXP1 or non-silencing siRNA control. Two GCB-DLBCL (DB, K422) and two ABC-DLBCL (OCI-Ly3, HBL-1) cell lines were each treated separately with two independent siRNA oligonucleotides targeting FOXP1 (siFOXP1_308, siFOXP1_309) or non-silencing siRNA (siCtrl). Biological replicates derived from three independent experiments were obtained, RNA-extracted and subsequently hybridized into a human microarray platform for gene expression profiling.
Project description:Dissecting the shared etiology of different diseases could benefit from a systematic search for associated molecules and their interactions. We investigated genome-wide disruptions in the co-regulation of genes in two neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's or Huntington's disease (AD or HD), using expression profiles from postmortem prefrontal cortex samples of 624 demented patients and non-demented control individuals with matched genotype and clinical data. A meta-analysis based screen for changes in coordinate expression patterns revealed differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs that either gained or lost correlation in disease cases relative to the control group, with the former being dominant for both AD and HD. Integration of disruptions common to AD and HD with large-scale data on protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions yielded a 242-gene sub-network that was enriched for proteins involved in neuronal differentiation and genetic associations to brain structural changes and dementia in subjects aged over 70 years. Replication of the AD DC network in independent human and mouse cohorts lends confidence to the comprehensive view we offer on dysregulated brain molecular pathways in AD and HD. DLPFC (BA9) brain tissues of AD patients, HD patients and non-demented controls samples were obtained from Harvard Brain tissue resource center (HBTRC). The HBTRC samples were primarily of Caucasian ancestry, as only eight non-Caucasian outliers were identified, and therefore excluded for further analysis. Post-mortem interval (PMI) was 17.8+8.3 hours (mean ± standard deviation), sample pH was 6.4±0.3 and RNA integrity number (RIN) was 6.8±0.8 for the average sample in the overall cohort. Tissues were profiled on a custom-made Agilent 44K array (GPL4372). 624 individual DLPFC samples were profiled against a common DLPFC pool constructed from the same set of samples.