ABSTRACT: Response of pancreas cancer cells to treatment with recombinant MMP3 Cells were treated with 100U/ml MMP3 for 4 days, then isolated for RNA. The submitted experiments represent two different experiments performed at different times
Project description:Effect of induction of MMP3 expression in CCSP-rtTA/tet-MMP3 transgenic mice, fed doxycycline for 14 weeks We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression following MMP3 expression Transgenic mice (CCSPrt-TA/tet-MMP3 or CCSPrtTA control mice) were fed doxycycline from week 6 to week 20, then lungs were removed, formalin fixed, and embedded in paraffin. Sections were sliced from the paraffin blocks for RNA extraction.
Project description:Response of mouse mammary epithelial cells to treatment with MMP3 Cells were untreated (d1 control) or treated with MMP3 for 1-4 days (d1-4 MMP3), or washed and then allowed to recover for three additional days (d5-7 recover) then isolated for RNA.
Project description:FK506 binding protein 51kDa (FKBP51/FKBP5) is part of a mature heat shock protein 90kDa (Hsp90) chaperone complex that preserves tau. Microarray analysis of human brains reveal that FKBP51 gene expression selectively increased with age and Alzheimer's disease, which correlated with demethylation of the regulatory regions in the FKBP5 gene. Moreover, FKBP51 levels significantly correlated with Braak pathological staging. In addition, we show that in brains devoid of FKBP51, tau levels are reduced. Recombinant FKBP51 and Hsp90 synergize to block tau clearance through the proteasome and produce T22-positive tau oligomers. Overexpression of FKBP51 in a tau transgenic mouse model revealed that FKBP51 preserved tau species, including phosphorylated and oligomeric tau that have been linked to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. FKBP51 blocked amyloid formation and decreased tangle load in the brain. These alterations in tau turnover and aggregate structure culminated in enhanced neurotoxicity. We propose a model where age-associated increases in FKBP51 levels can out-compete the association of other pro-degradation Hsp90 co-chaperones, resulting in neurotoxic tau accumulation. Thus, strategies aimed at attenuating FKBP51 levels or its interaction with Hsp90 could be therapeutically relevant for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. These AD cases were processed simultaneously with the control cases (young and aged) included in GSE11882 Postmortem brain tissue was collected from ADRC brain banks. Cases were preferentially selected where 3 or more brain regions were available
Project description:The benefits of estrogens on bone health are well established; how estrogens signal to regulate bone formation and resorption is less well understood. We show here that 17?-estradiol (E2)-induced apoptosis of bone-resorbing osteoclasts is mediated by cleavage and solubilization of osteoblast-expressed Fas ligand (FasL). U2OS-ER? osteoblast-like cells expressing an EGFP-tagged FasL at the C-terminus showed decreased fluorescence after E2 treatment, indicative of a cleavage event. Treatment of U2OS-ER? cultures with a specific MMP3 inhibitor in the presence of E2 blocked FasL cleavage and showed an increase in the number of EGFP-FasL+ cells. siRNA experiments successfully knocked down MMP3 expression and restored full-length FasL to basal levels. E2 treatment of both human and murine primary osteoblasts showed upregulation of MMP3 mRNA expression, and calvarial organ cultures showed increased expression of MMP3 protein and colocalization with the osteoblast-specific RUNX2 after E2 treatment. In addition, osteoblast cell cultures derived from ER?KO mice showed decreased expression of MMP3 but not MMP7 and ADAM10, two known FasL proteases, demonstrating that ER? signaling regulates MMP3. Also, conditioned media of E2-treated calvarial osteoblasts showed an approximate sixfold increase in the concentration of soluble FasL, indicating extensive cleavage, and soluble FasL concentrations were reduced in the presence of a specific MMP3 inhibitor. Finally, to show the role of soluble FasL in osteoclast apoptosis, human osteoclasts were cocultured with MC3T3 osteoblasts. Both a specific MMP3 inhibitor and an MMP inhibitor cocktail preserved osteoclast differentiation and survival in the presence of E2 and demonstrate the necessity of MMP3 for E2-induced osteoclast apoptosis. These experiments further define the molecular mechanism of estrogen's bone-protective effects by inducing osteoclast apoptosis through upregulation of MMP3 and FasL cleavage.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Previous studies suggested that MMP3 expression is influenced by a polymorphism (known as the 5A/6A polymorphism) in the promoter of the MMP3 gene and that this polymorphism is located within a cis-element that interacts with the transcription factor NFkappaB. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether MMP3 and NFkappaB were co-localized in atherosclerotic lesions and whether NFkappaB had differential effects on the two alleles of the MMP3 5A/6A polymorphism.Immunohistochemical examination showed that MMP3 and both the NFkappaB p50 and p65 subunits were expressed abundantly in macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions and that MMP3 expression was co-localized with p50 and p65. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed interaction of p50 and p65 with the MMP3 promoter in macrophages, with greater binding to the 5A allele than to the 6A allele. Reporter gene assays in transiently transfected macrophages showed that the 5A allele had greater transcriptional activity than the 6A allele, and that this allele-specific effect was augmented when the cells were treated with the NFkappaB activator lipopolysaccharides or co-transfected with p50 and/or p65 expressing plasmids, but was reduced when the cells were treated with the NFkappaB inhibitor 6-Amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenylethylamino)-quinazoline or transfected with a dominant negative mutant of IkB kinase-beta.These results corroborate an effect of the 5A/6A polymorphism on MMP3 transcription and indicate that NFkappaB has differential effects on the 5A and 6A alleles.
Project description:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurological disease, in which about 30% of patients cannot be treated adequately with anti-epileptic drugs. Brain inflammation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) seem to play a major role in TLE. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes largely responsible for the remodeling of the ECM. The inhibition of MMPs has been suggested as a novel therapy for epilepsy; however, available MMP inhibitors lack specificity and cause serious side effects. We studied whether MMPs could be modulated via microRNAs (miRNAs). Several miRNAs mediate inflammatory responses in the brain, which are known to control MMP expression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased expression of MMPs after interleukin-1? (IL-1?) stimulation can be attenuated by inhibition of the inflammation-associated miR-155.We investigated the expression of MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, and MMP14 in cultured human fetal astrocytes after stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?. The cells were transfected with miR-155 antagomiR, and the effect on MMP3 expression was investigated using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Furthermore, we characterized MMP3 and miR-155 expression in brain tissue of TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) and during epileptogenesis in a rat TLE model.Inhibition of miR-155 by the antagomiR attenuated MMP3 overexpression after IL-1? stimulation in astrocytes. Increased expression of MMP3 and miR-155 was also evident in the hippocampus of TLE-HS patients and throughout epileptogenesis in the rat TLE model.Our experiments showed that MMP3 is dynamically regulated by seizures as shown by increased expression in TLE tissue and during different phases of epileptogenesis in the rat TLE model. MMP3 can be induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? and is regulated by miR-155, suggesting a possible strategy to prevent epilepsy via reduction of inflammation.
Project description:A prespecified pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials evaluated whether the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for their discontinuation affected the treatment response to onabotulinumtoxinA 100U in overactive bladder (OAB) patients with urinary incontinence (UI).Patients with symptoms of OAB received intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA 100U or placebo, sparing the trigone. Change from baseline at week 12 in UI episodes/day, proportion of patients reporting a positive response ('greatly improved' or 'improved') on the treatment benefit scale (TBS), micturition and urgency were evaluated by number of prior anticholinergics (1, 2 or ? 3) and reason for their discontinuation (insufficient efficacy or side effects). Adverse events (AE) were assessed.Patients had taken an average of 2.4 anticholinergics before study enrolment. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced UI episodes/day from baseline vs. placebo, regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics (-2.82 vs. -1.52 for one prior anticholinergic; -2.58 vs. -0.58 for two prior anticholinergics; and -2.92 vs. -0.73 for three or more prior anticholinergics; all p < 0.001). The proportion of TBS responders was higher with onabotulinumtoxinA vs. placebo (69.0% vs. 37.2% for one prior anticholinergic; 58.8% vs. 24.8% for two prior anticholinergics and 56.4% vs. 22.5% for three or more prior anticholinergics; all p < 0.001). Similar results were observed regardless of the reason for discontinuation. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced the episodes of urgency and frequency of micturition vs. placebo in all groups. AEs were well tolerated, with a comparable incidence in all groups.In patients with symptoms of OAB who were inadequately managed by one or more anticholinergics, onabotulinumtoxinA 100U provided significant and similar treatment benefit and safety profile regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for inadequate management of OAB. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00910845, NCT00910520.
Project description:Bone marrow derived macrophages from C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Sst1S strains of mice were pretreated ± 100U/ml interferon gamma then infected for 0, 1, 2, 4, or 6h with Listeria monocytogenes. C57BL/6-Sst1S mice carry the Sst1 chromosomal locus of C3H mice. The Sst1 locus controls susceptibility to intracellular pathogens - these mice are therefore more susceptible than wild type B6.