ABSTRACT: In general, RNA-binding proteins act to modulate gene expression at transcript level through degradation or at protein level through translation. To elucidate the effect of Whi3, a yeast RNA binding protein, on gene expression, we performed ribosome profiling experiment on whi3 mutant and wildtype cells. Comparison ribosome profiling and RNA-seq data between whi3 mutant and wildtype cells
Project description:Identification of the coding elements in the genome is a fundamental step to understanding the building blocks of living systems. Short peptides (< 100 aa) have emerged as important regulators of development and physiology, but their identification has been limited by their size. We have leveraged the periodicity of ribosome movement on the mRNA to define actively translated ORFs by ribosome footprinting. This approach identifies several hundred translated small ORFs in zebrafish and human. Computational prediction of small ORFs from codon conservation patterns corroborates and extends these findings and identifies conserved sequences in zebrafish and human, suggesting functional peptide products (micropeptides). These results identify micropeptide‐encoding genes in vertebrates, providing an entry point to define their function in vivo. Ribosome profiling experiments at five timepoints across zebrafish development in WT embryos
Project description:Upon fertilization, maternal factors direct development in a transcriptionally silent embryo. At the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), a universal step in animal development, unknown maternal factors trigger zygotic genome activation (ZGA). In zebrafish, ZGA is required for gastrulation and clearance of maternal mRNAs, which is achieved in part by the conserved microRNA miR-430. However, the precise factors that activate the zygotic program remain largely unknown. Here we show that Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 are required for genome activation in zebrafish. We identified several hundred genes directly activated by maternal factors, thus constituting the first wave of zygotic transcription in zebrafish. Ribosome profiling in the pre-MZT embryo revealed that nanog, sox19b and pou5f1 are the most highly translated transcription factor mRNAs. Combined loss of function for Nanog, SoxB1 and Pou5f1 resulted in developmental arrest prior to gastrulation, and a failure to activate >75% of zygotic genes. Furthermore, we found that Nanog binds the miR-430 locus and together with Pou5f1 and SoxB1 initiate miR-430 expression and activity. Our results demonstrate that maternal Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 are required to initiate the zygotic developmental program and in turn trigger the clearance of the maternal program by activating miR-430 expression. Wild type and loss-of-function total mRNA sequencing of embryonic transcriptomes pre- and post-MZT; ribosome profiling pre-MZT
Project description:Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA by the RNA binding protein HuR is required in B cells for the germinal centre reaction and for the production of class-switched antibodies in response to T-independent antigens. Transcriptome-wide examination of RNA isoforms, abundance and translation in HuR-deficient B cells, together with direct measurements of HuR-RNA interaction, revealed that HuR-dependent mRNA splicing affects hundreds of transcripts including the dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (Dlst), a subunit of the aketoglutaratedehydrogenase (aKGDH) enzyme. In the absence of HuR, defective mitochondrial metabolism results in high levels of reactive oxygen species and B cell death. Our study shows how post-transcriptional processes control the balance of energy metabolism required for B cell proliferation and differentiation. Sequencing analysis of ribosome protected RNA fragments in ex vivo or LPS-activated splenic B cells was performed using ARTseq™ Ribosome Profiling Kit - Mammalian (Epicentre, RPHMR12126) and Illumina platform. Splenic B cells come from HuRf/f control or HuR cKO mice. 4-5 biological replicates per genotype and condition.
Project description:In many mouse models of skin cancer, only a few tumors typically form although many cells competent for tumorigenesis receive the same oncogenic mutations. These observations suggest a selection process for defining tumor initiating cells. Here we use quantitative mRNA- and miR-Seq to determine the impact of HRasG12V on the transcriptome of keratinocytes. We discover that microRNA-203 is downregulated by HRasG12V. Using a knockout mouse model, we demonstrate that loss of microRNA-203 promotes selection and expansion of tumor-initiating cells. Conversely, restoration of microRNA-203 with an inducible model potently inhibits proliferation of these cells. We comprehensively identify microRNA-203 targets required for HRas-initiated tumorigenesis. These targets include important effectors of the Ras pathway and essential genes required for cell division. Together, this study establishes a role for the loss of microRNA-203 in promoting selection and expansion of HRas mutated cells and identifies a mechanism through which microRNA-203 antagonizes HRas-mediated tumorigenesis. Identifying mRNA and microRNA networks regulated by oncogenic HRasG12V in primary keratinocytes through the use of 3Seq and small-RNA-Sequencing. Additionally we utilize ribosome-profiling, 3Seq, Microarray and Ago2-HITS-CLIP approaches to identify novel miR-203 target genes.
Project description:The role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in adult hearts is unknown; also unclear is how lncRNA modulates nucleosome remodelling. An estimated 70% of mouse genes undergo antisense transcription1, including myosin heavy chain 7 (Myh7), which encodes molecular motor proteins for heart contraction2. Here we identify a cluster of lncRNA transcripts from Myh7 loci and demonstrate a new lncRNA–chromatin mechanism for heart failure. In mice, these transcripts, which we named myosin heavy-chain-associated RNA transcripts (Mhrt), are cardiac-specific and abundant in adult hearts. Pathological stress activates the Brg1–Hdac–Parp chromatin repressor complex3 to inhibit Mhrt transcription in the heart. Such stress-induced Mhrt repression is essential for cardiomyopathy to develop: restoring Mhrt to the pre-stress level protects the heart from hypertrophy and failure. Mhrt antagonizes the function of Brg1, a chromatin-remodelling factor that is activated by stress to trigger aberrant gene expression and cardiac myopathy3. Mhrt prevents Brg1 from recognizing its genomic DNA targets, thus inhibiting chromatin targeting and gene regulation by Brg1. It does so by binding to the helicase domain of Brg1, a domain that is crucial for tethering Brg1 to chromatinized DNA targets. Brg1 helicase has dual nucleic-acid-binding specificities: it is capable of binding lncRNA (Mhrt) and chromatinized—but not naked—DNA. This dual-binding feature of helicase enables a competitive inhibition mechanism by which Mhrt sequesters Brg1 from its genomic DNA targets to prevent chromatin remodelling. A Mhrt–Brg1 feedback circuit is thus crucial for heart function. Human MHRT also originates from MYH7 loci and is repressed in various types of myopathic hearts, suggesting a conserved lncRNA mechanism in human cardiomyopathy. Our studies identify a cardioprotective lncRNA, define a new targeting mechanism for ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling factors, and establish a new paradigm for lncRNA–chromatin interaction. Overexpression of murine non-coding RNAs in human cell line, comparison of RNA-sequencing with Ribosome Profiling
Project description:Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterised by the loss of articular cartilage in synovial joints through a process of extracellular matrix destruction that is strongly associated with inflammatory stimuli. Chondrocytes undergo changes to their protein translation capacity during osteoarthritis, but a study of how disease-relevant signals effect chondrocyte protein translation at the transcriptomic level has not previously been performed. In this study we describe how the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) rapidly affects protein translation in the chondrocytic cell line SW1353. Using ribosome profiling we demonstrate that IL-1β induced altered translation of inflammatory-associated transcripts such as NFKB1, TNFAIP2, MMP13, CCL2 and CCL7, as well as a number of ribosome-associated transcripts, through differential translation and the use of multiple open reading frames. Proteomic analysis of the cellular layer and the conditioned media of these cells identified that proteins which were differentially translated were most readily detected in the secretome. These translationally regulated secreted proteins included a number of chemokines and cytokines, underlining the rapid, translationally-mediated inflammatory cascade that is initiated by IL-1 β.
Project description:DEAD-box RNA helicases eIF4A and Ded1 are believed to promote translation initiation by resolving mRNA secondary structures that impede ribosome attachment at the mRNA 5’ end or subsequent scanning of the 5’UTR, but whether they perform distinct functions or act redundantly in vivo is poorly understood. We compared the effects of mutations in Ded1 or eIF4A on global translational efficiencies (TEs) in yeast by ribosome footprint profiling. Despite similar reductions in bulk translation, inactivation of a cold-sensitive Ded1 mutant substantially reduced the TEs of >600 mRNAs, whereas inactivation of a temperature-sensitive eIF4A mutant yielded <40 similarly impaired mRNAs. The broader requirement for Ded1 did not reflect more pervasive secondary structures at low temperature, as inactivation of temperature-sensitive and cold-sensitive ded1 mutants gave highly correlated results. Interestingly, Ded1-dependent mRNAs exhibit greater than average 5’UTR length and propensity for secondary structure, implicating Ded1 in scanning though structured 5' UTRs. Reporter assays confirmed that cap- distal stem-loop insertions increase dependence on Ded1 but not eIF4A for efficient translation. While only a small fraction of mRNAs is strongly dependent on eIF4A, this dependence is significantly correlated with requirements for Ded1 and 5’UTR features characteristic of Ded1- dependent mRNAs. Our findings suggest that Ded1 is critically required to promote scanning through secondary structures within 5’UTRs; and while eIF4A cooperates with Ded1 in this function, it also promotes a step of initiation common to virtually all yeast mRNAs. We compared the effects of mutations in Ded1 or eIF4A on global translational efficiencies (TEs) in yeast by ribosome footprint profiling.The study includes 32 samples, comprised of 16 mRNA-Seq samples and 16 ribosome footprint profiling samples, derived from biological replicates of 3 mutant strains, ded1-cs, ded1-ts and tif1-ts, and the corresponding wild-type strains. The tif1-ts mutant and its wild-type counterpart were analyzed at 30°C and 37°C.
Project description:Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a human developmental disorder caused by mutations in the cohesin acetyltransferase ESCO2. We previously reported that mTORC1 was inhibited and overall translation was reduced in RBS cells. Treatment of RBS cells with L-leucine partially rescued mTOR function and protein synthesis, correlating with increased cell division. In this study, we use RBS as a model for mTOR inhibition and analyze transcription and translation with ribosome profiling to determine genome-wide effects of L-leucine. The translational efficiency of many genes is increased with Lleucine in RBS cells including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, translation, and mitochondrial function. snoRNAs are strongly upregulated in RBS cells, but decreased with L-leucine. Imprinted genes, including H19 and GTL2, are differentially expressed in RBS cells consistent with contribution to mTORC1 control. This study reveals dramatic effects of L-leucine stimulation of mTORC1 and supports that ESCO2 function is required for normal gene expression and translation. 42 samples of human fibroblast cell lines with various genotypes (wt, corrected, and esco2 mutants) are treated with l-leucine or d-leucine (control) for 3 or 24 hours. Biological replicates are present.
Project description:Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. We present a protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing. This ribosome profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, we describe an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes. The protocol we describe requires 5 - 7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Ribosome profiling in cultured mammalian cells under three different footprinting conditions