Project description:T-bet and GATA3 induce differentiation of CD4+ T-cells into Th1 or Th2 effectors. These exhibit a range of different properties but understanding of T-bet and GATA3 function is mostly limited to the murine Ifng and Il4/Il5/Il13 loci. We hypothesised that extending such analyses across the human genome would allow further insight into T-bet and GATA3 function. We have discovered that T-bet and GATA3 bind to multiple distal sites at a set of key immune regulatory genes. These sites display markers of functional elements, act as enhancers in reporter assays and are associated with lineage-specific expression regulated by T-bet and GATA3. Our approach also reveals that GATA3 is distributed at T-bet binding sites in Th1 cells and that T-bet directly activates its own expression. We propose that these aspects of T-bet and GATA3 function are critical for Th1/ Th2 differentiation and provide a model for the relationship between other lineage-specific regulators. ChIP was performed using antibody against T-bet in Th1 cells and against GATA3 in Th1 cells as well as Th2 cells. A sample of whole cell extract (WCE) from Th1 cells and Th2 cells was sequenced. Th1 WCE was used as the background to determine enrichment.
Project description:Transcriptional analysis of human T cells differentiated in 4 T Helper context ( Th0, Th1, Th2 and Th17) in the presence or not of Interferon alpha We analyzed the transcriptomic profiles of 4 human naives T cells diferentiated in Th0, Th1, Th2 and Th17 in the presence or not of Interferon Alpha. Microarray analyses were performed in 2 time points : 1/ after Day 5 of polarization (= Day5); 2/ after Day 5+ four hours of re-stimulation (=Day 5+ 4H restim) in 3 different donors.
Project description:Microarray analyses were performed to compare gene expression in cultured mouse Th9, Th2 and Treg cells and resting versus activated Th9 cells. Three replicates were analyzed for each culture condition; Th9 unstim, Th2 unstim, Treg unstim, Th9 stim
Project description:Naive CD4+ CD62L+ CD25- T cells were differentiated under TH1 and TH2 conditions for 7 days, restimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 for 24h and sorted for IFN-gamma (TH1) and IL-4 (TH2) production using cytokine secretion assays.
Project description:To improve our understanding of lncRNA expression in T cells, we used whole genome sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify lncRNAs expressed in human T cells and those selectively expressed in T cells differentiated under TH1, TH2, or TH17 polarizing conditions. The majority of these lineage-specific lncRNAs are co-expressed with lineage-specific protein-coding genes. These lncRNAs are predominantly intragenic with co-expressed protein-coding genes and are transcribed in sense and antisense orientations with approximately equal frequencies. Further, genes encoding TH lineage specific mRNAs are not randomly distributed across the genome but are highly enriched in the genome in genomic regions also containing genes encoding TH lineage-specific lncRNAs. Our analyses also identify a cluster of antisense lncRNAs transcribed from the RAD50 locus that are selectively expressed under TH2 polarizing conditions and co-expressed with IL4, IL5 and IL13 genes. Depletion of these lncRNAs via selective siRNA treatment demonstrates the critical requirement of these lncRNAs for expression of the TH2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Collectively, our analyses identify new lncRNAs expressed in a TH lineage specific manner and identify a critical role for a cluster of lncRNAs for expression of genes encoding TH2 cytokines. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured under TH1, TH2, and TH17 polarizing conditions. TH1, TH2, and TH17 primary and effector cultures were isolated and poly(A)+ and total RNA sequencing performed.
Project description:Following antigen encounter by CD4 T cells, polarizing cytokines induce the expression of master regulators that control differentiation. Inactivation of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 was found to specifically enhance T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell differentiation and plasticity. Ezh2 directly bound and facilitated correct expression of Tbx21 and Gata3 in differentiating Th1 and Th2 cells, accompanied by substantial tri-methylation at lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27-Me3). In addition, Ezh2 deficiency resulted in spontaneous generation of discrete IFN-γ and Th2 cytokine-producing populations in non-polarizing cultures, and under these conditions IFN-γ expression was largely dependent on enhanced expression of the transcription factor Eomesodermin. In vivo, Loss of Ezh2 caused increased pathology in a model of allergic asthma and resulted in progressive accumulation of memory phenotype Th2 cells. This study establishes a functional link between Ezh2 and transcriptional regulation of lineage-specifying genes in terminally differentiated CD4 T cells. Wild type and Ezh2 knock out unpolarized Th cells, Th1 cells and Th2 cells are profiled for mRNA expression
Project description:Following antigen encounter by CD4 T cells, polarizing cytokines induce the expression of master regulators that control differentiation. Inactivation of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 was found to specifically enhance T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell differentiation and plasticity. Ezh2 directly bound and facilitated correct expression of Tbx21 and Gata3 in differentiating Th1 and Th2 cells, accompanied by substantial tri-methylation at lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27-Me3). In addition, Ezh2 deficiency resulted in spontaneous generation of discrete IFN-γ and Th2 cytokine-producing populations in non-polarizing cultures, and under these conditions IFN-γ expression was largely dependent on enhanced expression of the transcription factor Eomesodermin. In vivo, Loss of Ezh2 caused increased pathology in a model of allergic asthma and resulted in progressive accumulation of memory phenotype Th2 cells. This study establishes a functional link between Ezh2 and transcriptional regulation of lineage-specifying genes in terminally differentiated CD4 T cells. Examination of Ezh2 binding in Th1 and Th2 cells.
Project description:Several versions of SWI/SNF complexes, BAF and PBAF, have been described based on unique subunit composition. We find that T cell development in the thymus and lymphoid periphery is largely normal in the absence of the PBAF-specific component BAF180. However, BAF180-deficient Th2 cells express high levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. BAF180 binds directly to regulatory elements in the Il-10 locus but is replaced by BAF250 BAF complexes in the absence of BAF180, resulting in increased histone acetylation and CBP recruitment to the IL-10 locus. These results demonstrate that BAF180 is a repressor of IL-10 transcription in Th2 cells and suggest that the differential recruitment of different SWI/SNF subtypes can have direct consequences on chromatin structure and gene transcription. mouse primary T helper lymphocytes, naïve and Th2 cells, resting and stimulated, comparison of wild-type and BAF180/Pbrm1 deficient cells RNA from T helper cells was compared in the presence (WT) and absence (KO) of the Pbrm1/BAF180 gene. Comparison was made in 2 T helper subsets (Naive and Th2), each under 2 condtions (resting and stimulated), in triplicate (A,B,C). Resting naïve CD4+ T cells (N) were purified to 95% purity from the spleens and lymph nodes of 4-6 week old Balb/c mice (WT, or BAF180 cKO) using CD4+CD62L+ T cell Purification Kit II per manufacturer’s instructions (Miltenyi). Stimulated Naive cells (S) were prepared from resting naive cells by stimulation for 24 hours on anti-CD3 (1ug/ml), anti-CD28 (2 ug/ml) coated plates at 1-2 x 106/ml. Resting Th2 cells (2U) were prepared from resting naive cells by plating onto anti-CD3 (1ug/ml), anti-CD28 (2 ug/ml) coated plates at 1-2 x 106/ml in the presence of 10ng/ml IL-4, 10ug/ml anti-IFN-gamma. IL-2 (100U/ml) was added 24 hours later. Cultures were expanded in IL-2 (100U/ml) three days after initial culture. Stimulated Th2 cells (2S) were prepared from resting Th2 cells, stimulated with PMA (50ng/ml) and Ionomycin (500ng/ml) for 1.5 hours. RNA was harvested from 3 replicates of the primary Th cells under each condition. RNA was isolated using RNAeasy Kit (Qiagen), Quality and quantity of the total RNA was checked with the Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer using RNA 6000 Nano chips. RNA was labeled using the standard Illumina protocol and Illumina TotalPrep RNA Amplification Kit (Ambion; Austin, TX, cat # IL1791) Biotin labeled cRNA was hybridized to Illumina’s Sentrix MouseRef-8,v2 Expression BeadChips.
Project description:Differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into type 2 helper (Th2) cells is accompanied by chromatin remodeling and increased expression of a set of Th2-specific genes including those encoding Th2 cytokines. IL-4-mediated STAT6 activation induces high levels of transcription of GATA3, a master regulator of Th2 cell differentiation, and enforced expression of GATA3 induces Th2 cytokine expression. However, it remains unclear whether the expression of other Th2-specific genes is induced directly by GATA3. A genome-wide unbiased ChIP-seq analysis revealed that GATA3 bound to 1,279 genes selectively in Th2 cells, and 101 genes in both Th1 and Th2 cells. Simultaneously, we identified 26 highly Th2-specific STAT6-dependent inducible genes by a DNA microarray analysis-based three-step selection processes, and among them 17 genes showed GATA3 binding. We assessed dependency on GATA3 for the transcription of these 26 Th2-specific genes, and 10 genes showed increased transcription in a GATA3-dependent manner while 16 genes showed no significant responses. The transcription of the 16 GATA3-nonresponding genes was clearly increased by the introduction of an active form of STAT6, STAT6VT. Therefore, although GATA3 has been recognized as a master regulator of Th2 cell differentiation, many Th2-specific genes are not regulated by GATA3 itself but in collaboration with STAT6. Th1 and Th2 subsets are profiled for mRNA expression Examination of GATA3-binding and 3 different histone modifications in Th1 and Th2 cells.