IDH2 mutation induced histone and DNA hypermethylation is progressively reversed by small molecule inhibition
ABSTRACT: Mutations of IDH1 (R132) and IDH2 (R172 and R140), which produce an oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), have been identified in several tumors including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent studies have shown that expression of the IDH mutant enzymes results in high levels of 2HG and a block in cellular differentiation that can be reversed with IDH-mutant specific small molecule inhibitors. To further understand the role of IDH mutations in cancer, we conducted mechanistic studies in the TF-1/IDH2 R140Q erythroleukemia model system and found that IDH2 mutant expression caused both histone and genomic DNA methylation changes that can be reversed when IDH2 mutant activity is inhibited. Specifically, histone hypermethylation is rapidly reversed within days whereas reversal of DNA hypermethylation proceeds in a progressive manner over the course of weeks. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed several pathways involved in tumorigenesis of leukemia and lymphoma, indicating a selective modulation of relevant cancer genes by IDH mutations. As methylation of DNA and histones is closely linked to mRNA expression and differentiation, these results indicate that IDH2 mutant inhibition may function as a cancer therapy via short-term histone demethylation and long-term DNA demethylation at genes involved in differentiation and tumorigenesis. TF-1 cells with and without IDH2/R140Q expression were treated with DMSO or AGI-6780, an inhibitor of IDH2/R140Q for 7 to 28 days. Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed by the Illumina 450k Methylation array.
Project description:Mutations of IDH1 and IDH2, which produce the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), have been identified in several tumors, including acute myeloid leukemia. Recent studies have shown that expression of the IDH mutant enzymes results in high levels of 2HG and a block in cellular differentiation that can be reversed with IDH mutant-specific small-molecule inhibitors. To further understand the role of IDH mutations in cancer, we conducted mechanistic studies in the TF-1 IDH2 R140Q erythroleukemia model system and found that IDH2 mutant expression caused both histone and genomic DNA methylation changes that can be reversed when IDH2 mutant activity is inhibited. Specifically, histone hypermethylation is rapidly reversed within days, whereas reversal of DNA hypermethylation proceeds in a progressive manner over the course of weeks. We identified several gene signatures implicated in tumorigenesis of leukemia and lymphoma, indicating a selective modulation of relevant cancer genes by IDH mutations. As methylation of DNA and histones is closely linked to mRNA expression and differentiation, these results indicate that IDH2 mutant inhibition may function as a cancer therapy via histone and DNA demethylation at genes involved in differentiation and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Oncogenic IDH1/2 mutations produce 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), resulting in competitive inhibition of DNA and protein demethylation. IDH-mutant cancer cells show an inability to differentiate but whether 2HG accumulation is sufficient to perturb differentiation directed by lineage-specifying transcription factors is unknown. A MyoD-driven model was used to study the role of IDH mutations in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells. The presence of 2HG produced by oncogenic IDH2 blocks the ability of MyoD to drive differentiation into myotubes. DNA 5mC hypermethylation is dispensable while H3K9 hypermethylation is required for this differentiation block. IDH2-R172K mutation results in H3K9 hypermethylation and impaired accessibility at myogenic chromatin regions but does not result in genome-wide decrease in accessibility. The results demonstrate the ability of the oncometabolite 2HG to block transcription factor-mediated differentiation in a molecularly defined system.
Project description:Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from ?-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.
Project description:Somatic mutations in cytosolic or mitochondrial isoforms of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1 or IDH2, respectively) contribute to oncogenesis via production of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Isoform-selective IDH inhibitors suppress 2HG production and induce clinical responses in patients with IDH1- and IDH2-mutant malignancies. Despite the promising activity of IDH inhibitors, the mechanisms that mediate resistance to IDH inhibition are poorly understood. Here, we describe four clinical cases that identify mutant IDH isoform switching, either from mutant IDH1 to mutant IDH2 or vice versa, as a mechanism of acquired clinical resistance to IDH inhibition in solid and liquid tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: IDH-mutant cancers can develop resistance to isoform-selective IDH inhibition by "isoform switching" from mutant IDH1 to mutant IDH2 or vice versa, thereby restoring 2HG production by the tumor. These findings underscore a role for continued 2HG production in tumor progression and suggest therapeutic strategies to prevent or overcome resistance.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1494.
Project description:More than 50% of patients with chondrosarcomas exhibit gain-of-function mutations in either isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or IDH2. In this study, we performed genome-wide CpG methylation sequencing of chondrosarcoma biopsies and found that IDH mutations were associated with DNA hypermethylation at CpG islands but not other genomic regions. Regions of CpG island hypermethylation were enriched for genes implicated in stem cell maintenance/differentiation and lineage specification. In murine 10T1/2 mesenchymal progenitor cells, expression of mutant IDH2 led to DNA hypermethylation and an impairment in differentiation that could be reversed by treatment with DNA-hypomethylating agents. Introduction of mutant IDH2 also induced loss of contact inhibition and generated undifferentiated sarcomas in vivo. The oncogenic potential of mutant IDH2 correlated with the ability to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate. Together, these data demonstrate that neomorphic IDH2 mutations can be oncogenic in mesenchymal cells.
Project description:Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 gene (IDH2) contribute to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) through the production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG)1-8. Enasidenib (AG-221) is an allosteric inhibitor that binds to the IDH2 dimer interface and blocks the production of 2HG by IDH2 mutants9,10. In a phase I/II clinical trial, enasidenib inhibited the production of 2HG and induced clinical responses in relapsed or refractory IDH2-mutant AML11. Here we describe two patients with IDH2-mutant AML who had a clinical response to enasidenib followed by clinical resistance, disease progression, and a recurrent increase in circulating levels of 2HG. We show that therapeutic resistance is associated with the emergence of second-site IDH2 mutations in trans, such that the resistance mutations occurred in the IDH2 allele without the neomorphic R140Q mutation. The in trans mutations occurred at glutamine 316 (Q316E) and isoleucine 319 (I319M), which are at the interface where enasidenib binds to the IDH2 dimer. The expression of either of these mutant disease alleles alone did not induce the production of 2HG; however, the expression of the Q316E or I319M mutation together with the R140Q mutation in trans allowed 2HG production that was resistant to inhibition by enasidenib. Biochemical studies predicted that resistance to allosteric IDH inhibitors could also occur via IDH dimer-interface mutations in cis, which was confirmed in a patient with acquired resistance to the IDH1 inhibitor ivosidenib (AG-120). Our observations uncover a mechanism of acquired resistance to a targeted therapy and underscore the importance of 2HG production in the pathogenesis of IDH-mutant malignancies.
Project description:2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) exists as two enantiomers, (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG, and both are implicated in tumor progression via their inhibitory effects on ?-ketoglutarate (?KG)-dependent dioxygenases. The former is an oncometabolite that is induced by the neomorphic activity conferred by isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutations, whereas the latter is produced under pathologic processes such as hypoxia. We report that IDH1/2 mutations induce a homologous recombination (HR) defect that renders tumor cells exquisitely sensitive to poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This "BRCAness" phenotype of IDH mutant cells can be completely reversed by treatment with small-molecule inhibitors of the mutant IDH1 enzyme, and conversely, it can be entirely recapitulated by treatment with either of the 2HG enantiomers in cells with intact IDH1/2 proteins. We demonstrate mutant IDH1-dependent PARP inhibitor sensitivity in a range of clinically relevant models, including primary patient-derived glioma cells in culture and genetically matched tumor xenografts in vivo. These findings provide the basis for a possible therapeutic strategy exploiting the biological consequences of mutant IDH, rather than attempting to block 2HG production, by targeting the 2HG-dependent HR deficiency with PARP inhibition. Furthermore, our results uncover an unexpected link between oncometabolites, altered DNA repair, and genetic instability.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH) occur in the majority of World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas. IDH1/2 active site mutations confer a neomorphic enzyme activity producing the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), which generates the glioma CpG island methylation phenotype (G-CIMP). While IDH1/2 mutations and G-CIMP are commonly retained during tumor recurrence, recent work has uncovered losses of the IDH1 mutation in a subset of secondary glioblastomas. Cooccurrence of the loss of the mutant allele with extensive methylation changes suggests a possible link between the two phenomena. Here, we utilize patient-derived IDH1R132H/WT glioma cell lines and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knockout to model the genetic loss of IDH1 R132H, and characterize the effects of this deletion on DNA methylation. After D-2HG production has been abolished by deletions within the IDH1 alleles, these models show persistent DNA hypermethylation at seven CpG sites previously used to define G-CIMP-positivity in patient tumor samples. Despite these defining G-CIMP sites showing persistent hypermethylation, we observed a genome-wide pattern of DNA demethylation, enriched for CpG sites located within open sea regions of the genome, as well as in CpG-island shores of transcription start sites, after loss of D-2HG production. These results suggest that inhibition of D-2HG from genetic deletion of IDH alleles is not sufficient to reverse hypermethylation of all G-CIMP-defining CpG sites, but does result in more demethylation globally and may contribute to the formation of a G-CIMP-low-like phenotype. IMPLICATIONS: These findings show that loss of the IDH1 mutation in malignant glioma cells leads to a pattern of DNA methylation alterations, and shows plausibility of IDH1 mutation loss being causally related to the gain of a G-CIMP-low-like phenotype.
Project description:Cancer-associated IDH mutations are characterized by neomorphic enzyme activity and resultant 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. Mutational and epigenetic profiling of a large acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient cohort revealed that IDH1/2-mutant AMLs display global DNA hypermethylation and a specific hypermethylation signature. Furthermore, expression of 2HG-producing IDH alleles in cells induced global DNA hypermethylation. In the AML cohort, IDH1/2 mutations were mutually exclusive with mutations in the ?-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme TET2, and TET2 loss-of-function mutations were associated with similar epigenetic defects as IDH1/2 mutants. Consistent with these genetic and epigenetic data, expression of IDH mutants impaired TET2 catalytic function in cells. Finally, either expression of mutant IDH1/2 or Tet2 depletion impaired hematopoietic differentiation and increased stem/progenitor cell marker expression, suggesting a shared proleukemogenic effect.
Project description:Gain-of-function mutations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 frequently arise in human leukemias and other cancers and produce high levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). We expressed the R195H mutant of Drosophila Idh (CG7176), which is equivalent to the human cancer-associated IDH1-R132H mutant, in fly tissues using the UAS-Gal4 binary expression system. Idh-R195H caused a >25-fold elevation of D-2HG when expressed ubiquitously in flies. Expression of mutant Idh in larval blood cells (hemocytes) resulted in higher numbers of circulating blood cells. Mutant Idh expression in fly neurons resulted in neurologic and wing-expansion defects, and these phenotypes were rescued by genetic modulation of superoxide dismutase 2, p53, and apoptotic caspase cascade mediators. Idh-R163Q, which is homologous to the common leukemia-associated IDH2-R140Q mutant, resulted in moderately elevated D-2HG and milder phenotypes. We identified the fly homolog of D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid dehydrogenase (CG3835), which metabolizes D-2HG, and showed that coexpression of this enzyme with mutant Idh abolishes mutant Idh-associated phenotypes. These results provide a flexible model system to interrogate a cancer-related genetic and metabolic pathway and offer insights into the impact of IDH mutation and D-2HG on metazoan tissues.