Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes
ABSTRACT: To identify the molecular impact of SPIO nanoparticle inhalation exposure on lung tissue. Transcriptional responses were measured by global microarray analysis of mouse lung. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to aerosolized SPIO nanoparticles using a nano-aerosol generation and inhalation system . Exposure was performed using two groups of 30 male Balb/c mices (60 total). One group of 30 was exposed to aerosolized SPIO nanopartic
Project description:To identify the molecular impact of SPIO nanoparticle inhalation exposure on lung tissue. Transcriptional responses were measured by global microarray analysis of mouse lung. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to aerosolized SPIO nanoparticles using a nano-aerosol generation and inhalation system . Exposure was performed using two groups of 30 male Balb/c mices (60 total). One group of 30 was exposed to aerosolized SPIO nanopartic
Project description:Particle engineering strategies remain at the forefront of aerosol research for localized treatment of lung diseases and represent an alternative for systemic drug therapy. With the hastily growing popularity and complexity of inhalation therapy, there is a rising demand for tailor-made inhalable drug particles capable of affording the most proficient delivery to the lungs and the most advantageous therapeutic outcomes. To address this formulation demand, nanoparticle agglomeration was used to develop aerosols of the asthma therapeutics, fluticasone or albuterol. In addition, a combination aerosol was formed by drying agglomerates of fluticasone nanoparticles in the presence of albuterol in solution. Powders of the single drug nanoparticle agglomerates or of the combined therapeutics possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. Powders were efficiently aerosolized (?75% deposition determined by cascade impaction) with high fine particle fraction and rapid dissolution. Nanoparticle agglomeration offers a unique approach to obtain high performance aerosols from combinations of asthma therapeutics.
Project description:To develop an aerosol system for efficient local lung delivery of chemotherapeutics where nanotechnology holds tremendous potential for developing more valuable cancer therapies. Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound.Nanoparticles of the potent anticancer drug, paclitaxel, were controllably assembled to form low density microparticles directly after preparation of the nanoparticle suspension. The amino acid, L-leucine, was used as a colloid destabilizer to drive the assembly of paclitaxel nanoparticles. A combination chemotherapy aerosol was formed by assembling the paclitaxel nanoparticles in the presence of cisplatin in solution.Freeze-dried powders of the combination chemotherapy possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. In addition, the dissolution rates of dried nanoparticle agglomerate formulations (approximately 60% to 66% after 8 h) were significantly faster than that of micronized paclitaxel powder as received (approximately 18% after 8 h). Interestingly, the presence of the water soluble cisplatin accelerated the dissolution of paclitaxel.Nanoparticle agglomerates of paclitaxel alone or in combination with cisplatin may serve as effective chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols to enable regional treatment of certain lung cancers.
Project description:Although classified as metal oxides, cobalt monoxide (CoO) and lanthanum oxide (La2O3) nanoparticles, as representative transition and rare earth oxides, exhibit distinct material properties that may result in different hazardous potential in the lung. The current study was undertaken to compare the pulmonary effects of aerosolized whole body inhalation of these nanoparticles in mice.Mice were exposed to filtered air (control) and 10 or 30 mg/m(3) of each particle type for 4 days and then examined at 1 h, 1, 7 and 56 days post-exposure. The whole lung burden 1 h after the 4 day inhalation of CoO nanoparticles was 25 % of that for La2O3 nanoparticles. At 56 days post exposure, < 1 % of CoO nanoparticles remained in the lungs; however, 22-50 % of the La2O3 nanoparticles lung burden 1 h post exposure was retained at 56 days post exposure for low and high exposures. Significant accumulation of La2O3 nanoparticles in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes was noted at 56 days post exposure. When exposed to phagolysosomal simulated fluid, La nanoparticles formed urchin-shaped LaPO4 structures, suggesting that retention of this rare earth oxide nanoparticle may be due to complexation of cellular phosphates within lysosomes. CoO nanoparticles caused greater lactate dehydrogenase release in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) compared to La2O3 nanoparticles at 1 day post exposure, while BAL cell differentials indicate that La2O3 nanoparticles generated more inflammatory cell infiltration at all doses and exposure points. Histopathological analysis showed acute inflammatory changes at 1 day after inhalation of either CoO or La2O3 nanoparticles. Only the 30 mg/m(3) La2O3 nanoparticles exposure caused chronic inflammatory changes and minimal fibrosis at day 56 post exposure. This is in agreement with activation of the NRLP3 inflammasome after in vitro exposure of differentiated THP-1 macrophages to La2O3 but not after CoO nanoparticles exposure.Taken together, the inhalation studies confirmed the trend of our previous sub-acute aspiration study, which reported that CoO nanoparticles induced more acute pulmonary toxicity, while La2O3 nanoparticles caused chronic inflammatory changes and minimal fibrosis.
Project description:Most murine models of fungal exposure are based on the delivery of uncharacterized extracts or liquid conidia suspensions using aspiration or intranasal approaches. Studies that model exposure to dry fungal aerosols using whole body inhalation have only recently been described. In this study, we aimed to characterize pulmonary immune responses following repeated inhalation of conidia utilizing an acoustical generator to deliver dry fungal aerosols to mice housed in a nose only exposure chamber. Immunocompetent female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to conidia derived from Aspergillus fumigatus wild-type (WT) or a melanin-deficient (?alb1) strain. Conidia were aerosolized and delivered to mice at an estimated deposition dose of 1×105 twice a week for 4 weeks (8 total). Histopathological and immunological endpoints were assessed 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the final exposure. Histopathological analysis showed that conidia derived from both strains induced lung inflammation, especially at 24 and 48 hour time points. Immunological endpoints evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the mediastinal lymph nodes showed that exposure to WT conidia led to elevated numbers of macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. Importantly, CD8+ IL17+ (Tc17) cells were significantly higher in BALF and positively correlated with germination of A. fumigatus WT spores. Germination was associated with specific IgG to intracellular proteins while ?alb1 spores elicited antibodies to cell wall hydrophobin. These data suggest that inhalation exposures may provide a more representative analysis of immune responses following exposures to environmentally and occupationally prevalent fungal contaminants.
Project description:Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, which is transmitted to humans most commonly by contact with infected animals, tick bites, or inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. F. tularensis is highly infectious via the aerosol route; inhalation of as few as 10-50 organisms can cause pneumonic tularemia. Left untreated, the pneumonic form has more than >30% case-fatality rate but with early antibiotic intervention can be reduced to 3%. This study compared tularemia disease progression across three species of nonhuman primates [African green monkey (AGM), cynomolgus macaque (CM), and rhesus macaque (RM)] following aerosolized F. tularensis Schu S4 exposure. Groups of the animals exposed to various challenge doses were observed for clinical signs of infection and blood samples were analyzed to characterize the disease pathogenesis. Whereas the AGMs and CMs succumbed to disease following challenge doses of 40 and 32 colony forming units (CFU), respectively, the RM lethal dose was 276,667 CFU. Following all challenge doses that caused disease, the NHPs experienced weight loss, bacteremia, fever as early as 4 days post exposure, and tissue burden. Necrotizing-to-pyogranulomatous lesions were observed most commonly in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Overall, the CM model consistently manifested pathological responses similar to those resulting from inhalation of F. tularensis in humans and thereby most closely emulates human tularemia disease. The RM model displayed a higher tolerance to infection and survived exposures of up to 15,593 CFU of aerosolized F. tularensis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological surveys indicate that occupants of mold contaminated environments are at increased risk of respiratory symptoms. The immunological mechanisms associated with these responses require further characterization. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to characterize the immunotoxicological outcomes following repeated inhalation of dry Aspergillus fumigatus spores aerosolized at concentrations potentially encountered in contaminated indoor environments. METHODS:Aspergillus fumigatus spores were delivered to the lungs of naïve BALB/cJ mice housed in a multi-animal nose-only chamber twice a week for a period of 13 weeks. Mice were evaluated at 24 and 48 h post-exposure for histopathological changes in lung architecture, recruitment of specific immune cells to the airways, and serum antibody responses. RESULT:Germinating A. fumigatus spores were observed in lungs along with persistent fungal debris in the perivascular regions of the lungs. Repeated exposures promoted pleocellular infiltration with concomitant epithelial mucus hypersecretion, goblet cell metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis and enhanced airway hyperreactivity. Cellular infiltration in airways was predominated by CD4(+) T cells expressing the pro-allergic cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, our studies show that antifungal T cell responses (IFN-?(+) or IL-17A(+) ) co-expressed IL-13, revealing a novel mechanism for the dysregulated immune response to inhaled fungi. Total IgE production was augmented in animals repeatedly exposed to A. fumigatus. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Repeated inhalation of fungal aerosols resulted in significant pulmonary pathology mediated by dynamic shifts in specific immune populations and their cytokines. These studies provide novel insights into the immunological mechanisms and targets that govern the health outcomes that result from repeated inhalation of fungal bioaerosols in contaminated environments.
Project description:Burkholderia mallei are Gram-negative bacteria, responsible for the disease glanders. B. mallei has recently been classified as a Tier 1 agent owing to the fact that this bacterial species can be weaponised for aerosol release, has a high mortality rate and demonstrates multi-drug resistance. Furthermore, there is no licensed vaccine available against this pathogen. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has previously been identified as playing an important role in generating host protection against Burkholderia infection. In this study, we present gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalised with a glycoconjugate vaccine against glanders. AuNPs were covalently coupled with one of three different protein carriers (TetHc, Hcp1 and FliC) followed by conjugation to LPS purified from a non-virulent clonal relative, B. thailandensis. Glycoconjugated LPS generated significantly higher antibody titres compared with LPS alone. Further, they improved protection against a lethal inhalation challenge of B. mallei in the murine model of infection.Burkholderia mallei is associated with multi-drug resistance, high mortality and potentials for weaponization through aerosol inhalation. The authors of this study present gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with a glycoconjugate vaccine against this Gram negative bacterium demonstrating promising results in a murine model even with the aerosolized form of B. Mallei.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Inhaled anticoagulation regimens are increasingly being used to manage smoke inhalation-associated acute lung injury. We systematically reviewed published and unpublished preclinical and clinical trial data to elucidate the effects of these regimens on lung injury severity, airway obstruction, ventilation, oxygenation, pulmonary infections, bleeding complications, and survival. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant published studies. Relevant unpublished studies were identified by searching the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, MINDCULL.com, Current Controlled Trials, and Google. STUDY SELECTION:Inclusion criteria were any preclinical or clinical study in which 1) animals or subjects experienced smoke inhalation exposure, 2) they were treated with nebulized or aerosolized anticoagulation regimens, including heparin, heparinoids, antithrombins, or fibrinolytics (e.g., tissue plasminogen activator), 3) a control and/or sham group was described for preclinical studies, and 4) a concurrent or historical control group described for clinical studies. Exclusion criteria were 1) the absence of a group treated with a nebulized or aerosolized anticoagulation regimen, 2) the absence of a control or sham group, and 3) case reports. DATA EXTRACTION:Ninety-nine potentially relevant references were identified. Twenty-seven references met inclusion criteria including 19 preclinical references reporting 18 studies and eight clinical references reporting five clinical studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:A systematic review of the literature is provided. Both clinical and methodological diversity precluded combining these studies in a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS:The high mortality associated with smoke inhalation-associated acute lung injury results from airway damage, mucosal dysfunction, neutrophil infiltration, airway coagulopathy with cast formation, ventilation-perfusion mismatching with shunt, and barotrauma. Inhaled anticoagulation regimens in both preclinical and clinical studies improve survival and decrease morbidity without altering systemic markers of clotting and anticoagulation. In some preclinical and clinical studies, inhaled anticoagulants were associated with a favorable effect on survival. This approach appears sufficiently promising to merit a well-designed prospective study to validate its use in patients with severe smoke inhalation-associated acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) remains an unsolved problem in intensive care medicine. Recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs, regarded as a key mechanism in progression of ALI, depends on signaling between neutrophils and platelets. Consequently we explored the effect of platelet-targeted aspirin and tirofiban treatment in endotoxin induced acute lung injury.<h4>Methods</h4>C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to aerosolized LPS (500?g/ml) for 30min and treated with Aspirin (100?g/g bodyweight via intraperitoneal injection, 30 min before or 1 hour after LPS inhalation) or Tirofiban (0.5?g/ g bodyweight via tail vein injection 30 min before or 1 hour after LPS inhalation). The count of alveolar, interstitial, and intravascular neutrophils was assessed 4h later by flow cytometry. Lung permeability changes were assessed by FITC-dextran clearance and protein content in the BAL fluid.<h4>Results</h4>Aspirin both before and after LPS inhalation reduced neutrophil influx into the lung and lung permeability indicating the protective role of Aspirin in ALI. Tirofiban, however, did not alter neutrophil recruitment after LPS inhalation. Release of platelet-derived chemokines CCL5 and PF4 and neutrophil extracellular traps was reduced by Aspirin but not by Tirofiban.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Aspirin, but not Tirofiban reduces neutrophil recruitment and displays protective effects during endotoxin induced lung injury.