Expression data from rhesus macaque tongue epithelium
ABSTRACT: A majority of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy and ultimately develop debilitating oral infections that often correlate with disease progression. Our study evaluates the potential of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaques to serve as a non-human primate model for oral manifestations of HIV disease. Microarrays were used to characterize changes in gene expression in the dorsal tongue epithelium that occur during chronic SIV infection. Epithelial cells were laser microdissected from dorsal tongue tissue sections from healthy uninfected macaques and macaques with chronic stage SIV infection and used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:A majority of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy and ultimately develop debilitating oral infections that often correlate with disease progression. Our study evaluates the potential of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaques to serve as a non-human primate model for oral manifestations of HIV disease. Microarrays were used to characterize changes in gene expression in the tongue mucosa that occur during chronic SIV infection. Dorsal tongue tissues from healthy uninfected macaques and macaques with chronic stage SIV infection were used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are rarely acquired via an oral route in adults. Previous studies have shown that human whole saliva inhibits HIV infection in vitro, and multiple factors present in human saliva have been shown to contribute to this antiviral activity. Despite the widespread use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques as models for HIV pathogenesis and transmission, few studies have monitored SIV in the oral cavity of infected rhesus macaques and evaluated the viral inhibitory capacity of macaque saliva. Utilizing a cohort of rhesus macaques infected with SIV(Mac251), we monitored virus levels and genotypic diversity in the saliva throughout the course of the disease; findings were similar to previous observations in HIV-infected humans. An in vitro infectivity assay was utilized to measure inhibition of HIV/SIV infection by normal human and rhesus macaque whole saliva. Both human and macaque saliva were capable of inhibiting HIV and SIV infection. The inhibitory capacity of saliva samples collected from a cohort of animals postinfection with SIV increased over the course of disease, coincident with the development of SIV-specific antibodies in the saliva. These findings suggest that both innate and adaptive factors contribute to inhibition of SIV by whole macaque saliva. This work also demonstrates that SIV-infected rhesus macaques provide a relevant model to examine the innate and adaptive immune responses that inhibit HIV/SIV in the oral cavity.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP) models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.
Project description:Mucosal tissues are the primary route of transmission for most respiratory and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There is epidemiological evidence that genital mucosal inflammation leads to enhanced HIV type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of periodontal inflammation on oral HIV transmission using a nonhuman primate model of teeth ligature-induced periodontitis. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was nontraumatically applied to the gingiva after moderate gingivitis was identified through clinical and immunologic analyses (presence of inflammatory cytokines). Overall oral SIV infection rates were similar in the gingivitis-induced and control groups (5 infections following 12 SIV administrations for each), although more macaques were infected with multiple viral variants in the gingivitis group. SIV infection also affected the levels of antiviral and inflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid, and a synergistic effect was observed, with alpha interferon and interferon-inducible protein 10 undergoing significant elevations following SIV infection in macaques with gingivitis compared to controls. These increases in antiviral and inflammatory immune modulators in the SIV-infected gingivitis macaques could also be observed in blood plasma, although the effects at both compartments were generally restricted to the acute phase of the infection. In conclusion, while moderate gingivitis was not associated with increased susceptibility to oral SIV infection, it resulted in elevated levels of cytokines in the oral mucosa and plasma of the SIV-infected macaques. These findings suggest a synergy between mucosal inflammation and SIV infection, creating an immune milieu that impacts the early stages of the SIV infection with potential implications for long-term pathogenesis.
Project description:Immunization of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus with deletions in nef (SIVΔnef) has been shown to elicit protective immunity to infection by pathogenic SIV, yet our understanding of the mechanisms that orchestrate protection and prevent pathogenesis remains limited. In the study, we utilize whole-genome transcriptional profiling to reveal molecular signatures of protective immunity in circulating CD8+ T cells of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVmac239Δnef and challenged with pathogenic SIVmac251. Microarrays were used to characterize changes in gene expression in blood CD8+ T cells that occur following vaccination of rhesus macaques with attenuated SIV∆nef and subsequent challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251, in comparison to corresponding changes in healthy controls and unvaccinated animals infected with pathogenic SIVmac251 CD8+ T cells were isolated by magnetic beads from the blood of healthy uninfected macaques, macaques vaccinated with SIV∆nef, and unvaccinated controls infected with SIVmac251, and used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Blood samples from vaccinated animals were collected prior to vaccination, at 3, 20, and 40 weeks following vaccination. After the 40 week vaccination period, macaques were challenged with SIVmac251, and blood was again collected at 3 weeks following challenge. Blood was collected from the unvaccinated controls at 3 weeks following infection with SIVmac251
Project description:Our goal is to develop a pediatric combination vaccine to protect the vulnerable infant population against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and tuberculosis (TB) infections. The vaccine consists of an auxotroph Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain that coexpresses HIV antigens. Utilizing an infant rhesus macaque model, we have previously shown that this attenuated M. tuberculosis (AMtb)-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine is immunogenic, and although the vaccine did not prevent oral SIV infection, a subset of vaccinated animals was able to partially control virus replication. However, unexpectedly, vaccinated infants required fewer SIV exposures to become infected compared to naive controls. Considering that the current TB vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), can induce potent innate immune responses and confer pathogen-unspecific trained immunity, we hypothesized that an imbalance between enhanced myeloid cell function and immune activation might have influenced the outcome of oral SIV challenge in AMtb-SIV-vaccinated infants. To address this question, we used archived samples from unchallenged animals from our previous AMtb-SIV vaccine studies and vaccinated additional infant macaques with BCG or AMtb only. Our results show that vaccinated infants, regardless of vaccine strain or regimen, had enhanced myeloid cell responses. However, CD4+ T cells were concurrently activated, and the persistence of these activated target cells in oral and/or gastrointestinal tissues may have facilitated oral SIV infection. Immune activation was more pronounced in BCG-vaccinated infant macaques than in AMtb-vaccinated infant macaques, indicating a role for vaccine attenuation. These findings underline the importance of understanding the interplay of vaccine-induced immunity and immune activation and its effect on HIV acquisition risk and outcome in infants.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Despite significant progress in reducing peripartum mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART), continued access to ART throughout the breastfeeding period is still a limiting factor, and breast milk exposure to HIV accounts for up to 44% of MTCT. As abstinence from breastfeeding is not recommended, alternative means are needed to prevent MTCT of HIV. We have previously shown that oral vaccination at birth with live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) genes safely induces persistent SIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses both systemically and at the oral and intestinal mucosa. Here, we tested the ability of oral M. tuberculosis vaccine strains expressing SIV Env and Gag proteins, followed by systemic heterologous (MVA-SIV Env/Gag/Pol) boosting, to protect neonatal macaques against oral SIV challenge. While vaccination did not protect infant macaques against oral SIV acquisition, a subset of immunized animals had significantly lower peak viremia which inversely correlated with prechallenge SIV Env-specific salivary and intestinal IgA responses and higher-avidity SIV Env-specific IgG in plasma. These controller animals also maintained CD4(+) T cell populations better and showed reduced tissue pathology compared to noncontroller animals. We show that infants vaccinated at birth can develop vaccine-induced SIV-specific IgA and IgG antibodies and cellular immune responses within weeks of life. Our data further suggest that affinity maturation of vaccine-induced plasma antibodies and induction of mucosal IgA responses at potential SIV entry sites are associated with better control of viral replication, thereby likely reducing SIV morbidity. IMPORTANCE:Despite significant progress in reducing peripartum MTCT of HIV with ART, continued access to ART throughout the breastfeeding period is still a limiting factor. Breast milk exposure to HIV accounts for up to 44% of MTCT. Alternative measures, in addition to ART, are needed to achieve the goal of an AIDS-free generation. Pediatric HIV vaccines constitute a core component of such efforts. The results of our pediatric vaccine study highlight the potential importance of vaccine-elicited mucosal Env-specific IgA responses in combination with high-avidity systemic Env-specific IgG in protection against oral SIV transmission and control of viral replication in infant macaques. The induction of potent mucosal IgA antibodies by our vaccine is remarkable considering the age-dependent development of mucosal IgA responses postbirth. A deeper understanding of postnatal immune development may inform the design of improved vaccine strategies to enhance systemic and mucosal SIV/HIV antibody responses.
Project description:The mucosa that lines the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts is an important portal of entry for pathogens and provides the frontline of immune defense against HIV infection. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) rhesus macaque model, we have performed a comparative analysis of host gene expression in the lung and GI mucosa in response to SIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Microarrays were used to characterize changes in gene expression in the colonic, jejunal, and pulmonary (lung) mucosa that occur during chronic SIV infection in the presence or absence of antiretroviral therapy. Colon, jejunum, and lung tissues from healthy uninfected macaques and macaques with chronic stage SIV infection (+/- therapy) were used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:The experimental infection of rhesus macaques (rh) with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is an important model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of humans. The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits HIV and SIV infection at the stage of host cell entry. However, it is still unclear to what extent the antiviral activity of IFITM3 observed in cell culture translates into inhibition of HIV/SIV spread in the infected host. We have shown previously that although rhIFITM3 inhibits SIV entry into cultured cells, polymorphisms in the rhIFITM3 gene are not strongly associated with viral load or disease progression in SIV infected macaques. Here, we examined whether rhIFITM3(2), which is closely related to rhIFITM3 at the sequence level, exerts antiviral activity and whether polymorphisms in the rhIFITM3(2) gene impact the course of SIV infection. We show that expression of rhIFITM3(2) is interferon-inducible and inhibits SIV entry into cells, although with reduced efficiency as compared to rhIFITM3. We further report the identification of 19 polymorphisms in the rhIFITM3(2) gene. However, analysis of a well characterized cohort of SIV infected macaques revealed that none of the polymorphisms had a significant impact upon the course of SIV infection. These results and our previous work suggest that polymorphisms in the rhIFITM3 and rhIFITM3(2) genes do not strongly modulate the course of SIV infection in macaques.
Project description:Gut mucosal damage, associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) infection, is characterized by depletion in CD4+ T cells and persistent immune activation as a result of early epithelial barrier disruption and systemic translocation of microbial products. Unique approaches in studying both HIV infection in human patients and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques have provided critical evidence for the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV/AIDS. While there is vast resemblance between SIV and HIV infection, the development of gut dysbiosis attributed to HIV infection in chronically infected patients has not been consistently reported in SIV infection in the non-human primate model of AIDS, raising concerns for the translatability of gut microbiome studies in rhesus macaques. This review outlines our current understanding of gut microbial signatures across various stages of HIV versus SIV infection, with an emphasis on the impact of microbiome-based therapies in restoring gut mucosal immunity as well as their translational potential to supplement current HIV cure efforts.