Project description:The splicing regulator PTBP2 controls a program of embryonic splicing required for neuronal maturation. The splicing regulatory proteins PTBP1 and PTBP2 show distinct temporal expression profiles in the developing brain. Neuronal progenitor cells predominantly express PTBP1, whereas developing neurons express high levels of PTBP2, which are subsequently reduced late in neuronal maturation. We show here that PTBP2 and the program of splicing it controls are essential to proper neuronal maturation and survival. To investigate its in vivo function, we generated conditional PTBP2 null alleles in mice. Loss of PTBP2 in neuronal progenitor cells leads to neonatal death without gross defects in brain architecture. Mice with specific depletion of PTBP2 in the cortex and forebrain are viable. However over the first three postnatal weeks, when the normal cortex expands and develops mature circuits, the PTBP2 null cortices degenerate. We find that PTBP2-/- neurons cultured from embryonic brain show the same initial viability as wild type cells with proper early marker expression and neurite outgrowth. Strikingly, between 10 and 20 days in culture PTBP2 null neurons undergo a catastrophic failure to mature and die. To assess the target transcripts leading to these phenotypes, we examined the genomewide splicing changes in the PTBP2 null brains. This identified a large number of mis-regulated exons that share a temporal pattern of regulation; in the absence of PTBP2 many isoforms normally found in adults are precociously expressed in the developing brain. Transcripts following this pattern encode essential neuronal proteins affecting neurite growth, pre- and post-synaptic assembly, and synaptic transmission. Our results define a new genetic regulatory program essential for neuronal survival and maturation, where PTBP2 acts to temporarily repress expression of protein isoforms until the final maturation of the neuron. Mice carrying a conditional floxed PTBP2 allele of PTBP2 were crossed to mice carrying Cre recombinase driven by the nestin promoter. The resulting knockout mutant mouse brains were analyzed for changes in gene expression and alternative splicing. Knockout mice were compared to wildtype littermates. Whole mouse brain polyA plus RNA was isolated from three Nestin-cre knockout embryos at embryonic day 18 and compared to three wildtype littermates. RNA was converted to cDNA and used to probe Affymetrix MJAY splicing sensitive microarrays and analysed by Omniviewer to identify changes in splicing.
Project description:We have characterized the MBNL2-dependent changes in expression and alternative splicing by comparing hippocampi from MBNL2 deltaE2/deltaE2 and WT mouse brains. 6 total samples were analyzed: brains from 3 WT and 3 MBNL2 deltaE2/deltaE2 female mice, all 2-3 months of age.
Project description:A long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA , BORG, is almost exclusively expressed in neurons and is induced during the differentiation of human and mouse pluripotent cells and neuronal progenitors into neurons. shRNA knockdown was used to examine the effects of BORG expression
Project description:FRG1 over-expression results in an FSHD-like phenotype in mice. Muscles (vastus lateralis and biceps brachii) from wild type and FRG1 over-expressing mice were compared at 4 and 13 weeks of age by splicing sensitive microarray. Comparisons at 4 different time points/muscles were performed between groups of 3 each FRG1 and WT mice.
Project description:Global analyses of two prototypical SR proteins (SRFS1 and SFRS2 using splicing-sensitive arrays and CLIP-seq on mouse embryo fibroblasts carrying tet-repressible versions of the two genes. 4 biological replicate sets of SFRS1 or SFRS2 tet-repressible MEFs were grown for 5 days -/+ docycline. Total RNA was isolated and labeled targets hybridized to Affymetrix mouse splicing arrays. This is the gene expression component of the study only.
Project description:Human genetic studies have identified the neuronal RNA binding protein, Rbfox1, as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders. While Rbfox1 functions as a splicing regulator in the nucleus, it is also alternatively spliced to produce cytoplasmic isoforms. To investigate cytoplasmic Rbfox1, we knocked down Rbfox proteins in mouse neurons and rescued with cytoplasmic or nuclear Rbfox1. Transcriptome profiling showed that nuclear Rbfox1 rescued splicing changes induced by knockdown, whereas cytoplasmic Rbfox1 rescued changes in mRNA levels. iCLIP-seq of subcellular fractions revealed that in nascent RNA Rbfox1 bound predominantly to introns, while cytoplasmic Rbox1 bound to 3' UTRs. Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 binding increased target mRNA stability and translation, and overlapped significantly with miRNA binding sites. Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 target mRNAs were enriched in genes involved in cortical development and autism. Our results uncover a new Rbfox1 regulatory network and highlight the importance of cytoplasmic RNA metabolism to cortical development and disease. In this data set, we included the data from microarray experiments. We performed microarray analysis to profile gene expression and splicing changes in mouse hippocampal cultures (14 DIV) with Rbfox1 and Rbfox3 double knockdown by siRNAs. Before the treatment of siRNAs, the hippocampal cultures were treated with AraC to eliminate glial cells and co-cultured with cortical cultures to support the growth of neurons. Six samples were analyzed.
Project description:Expression levels of the RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) are low in monocytes of early, human atherosclerotic lesions, but abundant in macrophages of advanced plaques. Specific depletion of QKI protein impaired monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation into macrophages, and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq and microarray analysis of human monocyte and macrophage transcriptomes, including those of a unique QKI haploinsufficient patient, revealed striking changes in QKI-dependent mRNA levels and splicing of RNA transcripts. Microarray analysis of gene expression and splicing in THP-1 cells transfected with shRNAs, with or without PMA treatment to induce differentiation. 12 total samples were analyzed: THP-1 monocytic cell line transfected with QKI or control shRNAs; samples taken at day 0 or day 3 of PMA-induced differentiation into macrophages.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE34992: Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins (splice array) GSE34993: Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins (CLIP-Seq) GSE34995: Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins (RNA-Seq) Refer to individual Series