RNA-associated to Urinary Vesicles as a Suitable Non-invasive Source for Diagnostic Purposes in Bladder Cancer
ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers. Since prognosis ameliorates with early detection, it is a challenge to develop techniques that could replace or complement the current diagnosis protocols. The study of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are present in urine samples has become an attractive alternative. The present study describes the mRNA content of vesicles isolated from voided urine samples within bladder cancer context. To discover a genetic signature of cancer, RNA associated to EVs was analyzed by microarray technique. Total RNA isolated from Extracellular Vesicles obtained from urine of bladder cancer patients was compared with RNA isolated from urinary vesicles of non-cancer patients.
Project description:Background: Urine is a potential source of biomarkers for diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. RNA, including microRNA, is present in the urine enclosed in detached cells or in extracellular vesicles (EVs) or bound and protected by extracellular proteins. Detection of cell- and disease-specific microRNA in urine may aid early diagnosis of organ-specific pathology. In this study, we applied barcoded deep sequencing to profile microRNAs in urine of healthy volunteers, and characterized the effects of sex, urine fraction (cells vs. EVs) and repeated voids by the same individuals. Results: Compared to urine-cell-derived small RNA libraries, urine-EV-derived libraries were relatively enriched with miRNA, and accordingly had lesser content of other small RNA such as rRNA, tRNA and sn/snoRNA. Unsupervised clustering of specimens in relation to miRNA expression levels showed prominent bundling by specimen type (urine cells or EVs) and by sex, as well as a tendency of repeated (first and second void) samples to neighbor closely. Likewise, miRNA profile correlations between void repeats, as well as fraction counterparts (cells and EVs from the same specimen) were distinctly higher than correlations between miRNA profiles overall. Differential miRNA expression by sex was similar in cells and EVs. Conclusions: miRNA profiling of both urine EVs and sediment cells can convey biologically important differences between individuals. However, to be useful as urine biomarkers, careful consideration is needed for biofluid fractionation and sex-specific analysis, while the time of voiding appears to be less important. Overall design: Two urine voids from 20 healthy volunteers (10 men, 10 women). From each void cells and extracellular vesicles were purified and total RNA extracted. Thus 80 samples overall (however only 79 processed because 1 women did not provide sufficient urine in second void for extracellular vesicle purification).
Project description:Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for about 2% of all cancers. Renal biopsy is the gold standard among the diagnostic tools, but it is invasive and not suitable for all patients. Therefore, new reliable and non-invasive biomarkers for ccRCC detection are required. Secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs), containing RNA molecules that can be transferred between cells, seems to be a general characteristic of malignant transformation. Consistently, cancer-derived EVs are enriched in the blood, urine and various malignant effusions of cancer patients. Therefore, urinary samples can be a non-invasive approach for discovering diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: We enrolled 33 clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) patients and 22 healthy subjects (HS), age and sex-matched, for urine collection and extracellular vesicles isolation by differential centrifugation. Transcriptional profiles of urinary EVs from 12 patients with ccRCC and 11 HS were generated using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChip oligonucleotide arrays. Microarray analysis led to the identification of RNA that were then validated using RT-qPCR. Results: We showed for the first time that urinary exosomal shuttle RNA (esRNA) was significantly different in ccRCC patients compared to HS and we identified three EVs esRNA involved in the tumor biology that are potentially suitable as non-invasive biomarkers. GSTA1, CEBPA and PCBD1 RNA levels decreased in urinary EVs of patients compared to HS. After 1 month post-operation, the levels of RNA increased to reach the normal level. Conclusions: This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of the RNA content of urinary EVs to provide a non-invasive first step to diagnose the ccRCC. Total RNA obtained from urinary extracellular vesicles isolated from ccRCC patients and healthy subjects.
Project description:To further investigate the molecular mechanisms by which EVs mediated the abnormal localization of tight junction proteins and adherence junction protein, we performed miRNA microarray analysis of extracellular vesicles isolated from breast cancer cells. miRNA expression in extracellular vesicles was collected from MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-D3H2LN, BMD2a and BMD2b breast cancer cell lines.
Project description:To further investigate the molecular mechanisms by which EVs mediated the abnormal localization of tight junction proteins and adherence junction protein, we performed miRNA microarray analysis of extracellular vesicles isolated from breast cancer cells. Overall design: miRNA expression in extracellular vesicles was collected from MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-D3H2LN, BMD2a and BMD2b breast cancer cell lines.
Project description:Comparative RNA profiling between tumor cells and their secreted extracellular vesicles. Results revealed enrichment in genes involved in cellular migration and metastasis in extracellular vesicles, in agreement with their role as mediators of tumor progression. Mice were orthotoplically transplanted with MDA-MB-231 Breast Adenocarcinoma cells. Cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the resulting tumors were isolated. EVs were characterized by electron microscopy and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis before total RNA isolation for comparative analysis with cellular RNA. Three biological replicates were analyzed in (technical) duplicate.
Project description:Identification of transcriptional profile of several genes involved in diabetes in islet-derived extracellular vesicles (Evs). Recently, EVs are identified as a new mechanism in cell-to-cell communication by transfer of protein and genic information (mRNA, microRNA). Their role is under investigation in immunology, stem cell and cancer, but not in islets and diabetes. The aim of this experiment is to identify mRNA transcripts (in particular, mRNA transcripts involved in diabetes pathophysiology) present in islet Evs.
Project description:Exosomes and microvesicles (i.e., extracellular vesicles; EVs) have been identified within ovarian follicular fluid, and recent evidence suggests that EVs are able to elicit profound effects on ovarian cell function. While existence of miRNA within EVs has been reported, it remains unknown if EV size and concentration as well as their cargos (i.e., proteins and RNA) change during antral follicle growth. Extracellular vesicles isolated from follicular fluid of small, medium and large bovine follicles were similar in size, while concentration of EVs decreased progressively as follicle size increased. Electron microscopy indicated a highly purified population of the lipid bilayer enclosed vesicles that were enriched in exosome biomarkers including CD81 and Alix. Small RNA sequencing identified a large number of known and novel miRNAs that changed in the EVs of different size follicles. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that miRNA abundant in small follicle EV preparations were associated with cell proliferation pathways, while those miRNA abundant in large follicle preparations were related to inflammatory response pathways. These studies are the first to demonstrate that EVs change in their levels and makeup during antral follicle development and point to the potential for a unique vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell communication network within the ovarian follicle. Examination of small RNA population in bovine follicular fluid extracellular vesicles isolated from antral follicles
Project description:Under physiological conditions, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present simultaneously in the extracellular compartment together with cytokines. Thus, we hypothesized that EVs in combination with cytokines induce different responses of monocyte cells compared to EVs or cytokines alone. Human monocyte U937 cells were incubated with EV-containing or EV-free CCRF human T-cell supernatant, with or without the addition of TNF. U937 cells cultured in EV-free supernatant, supernatant containing CCRF t-cell derived EVs, TNF or both. Each treatment option was measured in 3 replicates.
Project description:In this study, we address mRNA composition of hepatocyte-like derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), using as cellular model the mouse liver derived cell line MLP29, and primary cell culture of rat hepatocyte (RH) obtained by in vivo liver perfusion. The study shows qualitative characterization of RNA, identification of transcripts and its functional characterization through gene expression array technique. To reach a deeper nowledge in the biology of EVs, we perform RNase protection assay, density gradients matching RNA with typical exosomal protein markers, and capture assays to probe that mRNA was internalized. Aim of the project: To identify transcripts present in extracellular vesicles secreted by Rat hepatocytes primary cell culture and to identify extracellular vesicles secreted by mouse hepatocyte cell line MLP29, and in this case, compare the enrichment of transcripts respect to the cell, to know if the composition in the extracellular vesicles is similar to the cell, or if their composition is not directly determined by the abundance of transcripts in the cell.
Project description:Beyond forming bone, osteoblasts play pivotal roles in various biological processes, including hematopoiesis and bone metastasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently been implicated in intercellular communication via transfer of proteins and nucleic acids between cells. Here, we focused on the proteomic characterization of non-mineralizing (NMOBs) and mineralizing (MOBs) human osteoblast (SV-HFOs) EVs and investigated their effect on human prostate cancer (PC3) cells by microscopic, proteomic and gene expression analyses. Proteomic analysis showed that 97% of the proteins were shared among NMOB and MOB EVs, and 30% were novel osteoblast-specific EV proteins. Label-free quantification demonstrated mineralization stage-dependent five-fold enrichment of 59 and 451 EV proteins in NMOBs and MOBs, respectively. Interestingly, bioinformatic analyses of the osteoblast EV proteomes and EV-regulated prostate cancer gene expression profiles showed that they converged on pathways involved in cell survival and growth. This was verified by in vitro proliferation assays where osteoblast EV uptake led to two-fold increase in PC3 cell growth compared to cell-free culture medium-derived vesicle controls. Our findings elucidate the mineralization stage-specific protein content of osteoblast-secreted EVs, show a novel way by which osteoblasts communicate with prostate cancer, and open up innovative avenues for therapeutic intervention. PC3 cells were treated with extracellular vesicles from non-mineralizing and mineralizing SV-HFOs for three different incubation times (4hrs, 24hrs, 48hr)