Whole transcriptome analysis of laser capture microdissected tissues reveals site-specific programming of the host epithelial transcriptome by the gut microbiota [short period of bacteria colonization]
ABSTRACT: The mammalian gut harbors a diverse microbial community (gut microbiota) that mainly consists of bacteria. Their combined genomes (the microbiome) provide biochemical and metabolic functions that complement host physiology. Maintaining symbiosis seems to be a key requirement for health as dysbiosis is associated with the development of common diseases. Previous studies indicated that the microbiota and the host’s epithelium signal bidirectional inducing transcriptional responses to fine-tune and maintain symbiosis. However, little is known about the host’s responses to the microbiota along the length of the gut as earlier studies of gut microbial ecology mostly used either colonic or fecal samples. This is of importance as not only function and architecture of the gut varies along its length but also microbial distribution and diversity. Few recent studies have begun to investigate microbiota-induced host responses along the length of the gut. However, these reports used whole tissue samples and therefore do not allow drawing conclusions about specificity of the observed responses. Which cells in the intestinal tissue are responsible for the microbially induced response: epithelial, mesenchymal or immune cells? Where are the responding cells located? Furthermore, the gut microbiota has been implicated in epigenetic regulation of the host’s transcriptional profile. We used using extensive microarray analysis of laser capture microdissection (LCM) harvested ileal and colonic tip and crypt fractions from germ-free mice before and during the time course of colonization with a normal microbiota (on days 1, 3, 5 and 7) to investigate the microbiota-induced transcriptional responses and their kinetics in specific and well-defined cell populations of the host’s epithelium. Ileum and colon segments were dissected from germ-free 10-12 weeks old female C57Bl/6 mice and on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 after colonization, washed and frozen as OCT blocks. Cryosections were prepared from these OCT blocks and tip/crypt fractions isolated using laser capture microdissection. To investigate the microbiota-induced transcriptional responses specific for specific subpopulations of intestinal epithelial cells and their kinetics, tip and crypt fractions of ileal and colonic epithelium of germ-free 10-12 weeks old female C57Bl/6 mice before and during the time course of colonization with a normal microbiota (on days 1, 3, 5 and 7) were harvested using laser capture microdissection and probed in an extensive microarray analysis.
Project description:The mammalian gut harbors a diverse microbial community (gut microbiota) that mainly consists of bacteria. Their combined genomes (the microbiome) provide biochemical and metabolic functions that complement host physiology. Maintaining symbiosis seems to be a key requirement for health as dysbiosis is associated with the development of common diseases. Previous studies indicated that the microbiota and the host’s epithelium signal bidirectional inducing transcriptional responses to fine-tune and maintain symbiosis. However, little is known about the host’s responses to the microbiota along the length of the gut as earlier studies of gut microbial ecology mostly used either colonic or fecal samples. This is of importance as not only function and architecture of the gut varies along its length but also microbial distribution and diversity. Few recent studies have begun to investigate microbiota-induced host responses along the length of the gut. However, these reports used whole tissue samples and therefore do not allow drawing conclusions about specificity of the observed responses. Which cells in the intestinal tissue are responsible for the microbially induced response: epithelial, mesenchymal or immune cells? Where are the responding cells located? We used using extensive microarray analysis of laser capture microdissection (LCM) harvested ileal and colonic tip and crypt fractions from germ-free and conventionally-raised mice to investigate the microbiota-induced transcriptional responses in specific and well-defined cell populations of the host’s epithelium. Ileum and colon segments were dissected from germ-free and conventionally-raised 10-12 weeks old female C57Bl/6 mice, washed and frozen as OCT blocks. Cryosections were prepared from these OCT blocks and tip/crypt fractions isolated using laser capture microdissection. To investigate the microbiota-induced transcriptional responses specific for specific subpopulations of intestinal epithelial cells, tip and crypt fractions of ileal and colonic epithelium of germ-free and conventionally-raised 10-12 weeks old female C57Bl/6 mice were harvested using laser capture microdissection and probed in an extensive microarray analysis.
Project description:Leber2015 - Mucosal immunity and gut
microbiome interaction during C. difficile infection
This model is described in the article:
Systems Modeling of
Interactions between Mucosal Immunity and the Gut Microbiome
during Clostridium difficile Infection.
Leber A, Viladomiu M, Hontecillas R,
Abedi V, Philipson C, Hoops S, Howard B, Bassaganya-Riera
PLoS ONE 2015; 10(7): e0134849
Clostridium difficile infections are associated with the use
of broad-spectrum antibiotics and result in an exuberant
inflammatory response, leading to nosocomial diarrhea, colitis
and even death. To better understand the dynamics of mucosal
immunity during C. difficile infection from initiation through
expansion to resolution, we built a computational model of the
mucosal immune response to the bacterium. The model was
calibrated using data from a mouse model of C. difficile
infection. The model demonstrates a crucial role of T helper 17
(Th17) effector responses in the colonic lamina propria and
luminal commensal bacteria populations in the clearance of C.
difficile and colonic pathology, whereas regulatory T (Treg)
cells responses are associated with the recovery phase. In
addition, the production of anti-microbial peptides by inflamed
epithelial cells and activated neutrophils in response to C.
difficile infection inhibit the re-growth of beneficial
commensal bacterial species. Computational simulations suggest
that the removal of neutrophil and epithelial cell derived
anti-microbial inhibitions, separately and together, on
commensal bacterial regrowth promote recovery and minimize
colonic inflammatory pathology. Simulation results predict a
decrease in colonic inflammatory markers, such as neutrophilic
influx and Th17 cells in the colonic lamina propria, and length
of infection with accelerated commensal bacteria re-growth
through altered anti-microbial inhibition. Computational
modeling provides novel insights on the therapeutic value of
repopulating the colonic microbiome and inducing regulatory
mucosal immune responses during C. difficile infection. Thus,
modeling mucosal immunity-gut microbiota interactions has the
potential to guide the development of targeted fecal
transplantation therapies in the context of precision medicine
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Project description:Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths in Western countries and is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the iron-porphyrin pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of gut contents which injures surface cells leading to compensatory hyperproliferation of crypt cells. This hyperproliferation results in epithelial hyperplasia which increases the risk of colon cancer. In humans, a high red-meat diet increases Bacteroides spp in feces. Therefore, we simultaneously investigated the effects of dietary heme on colonic microbiota and on the host mucosa of mice. Whole genome microarrays showed that heme injured the colonic surface epithelium and induced hyperproliferation by changing the surface to crypt signaling. Using 16S rRNA phylogenetic microarrays, we investigated whether bacteria play a role in this changed signaling. Heme increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes in colonic contents. This shift was most likely caused by a selective susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria to heme cytotoxic fecal water, which is not observed for Gram-negative bacteria, allowing expansion of the Gram-negative community. The increased amount of Gram-negative bacteria most probably increased LPS exposure to colonocytes, however, there is no appreciable immune response detected in the heme-fed mice. There was no functional change in the sensing of the bacteria by the mucosa, as changes in inflammation pathways and Toll- like receptor signaling were not detected. This unaltered host-microbe cross-talk indicates that the changes in microbiota did not play a causal role in the observed hyperproliferation and hyperplasia. Keywords: Expression profiling by array Mice were fed a Westernized high fat control diet, or the same diet supplemented with 0.5 µmol heme/g diet. After 14 days of intervention, mice were killed and gene expression was profiled in colon.
Project description:Systemic infection induces conserved physiological responses that include both resistance and ‘tolerance of infection’ mechanisms. Among these responses, temporary anorexia associated with an infection is often beneficial. It poses, however, a problem for the trillions of microbes residing in the gastrointestinal tract, as they also experience reduced substrate availability. We hypothesized that under anorectic conditions caused by infection, the host might activate protective mechanisms to support the gut microbiota during the acute phase of the disease. Here, we report that systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands causes rapid α1,2-fucosylation of the small intestine epithelial cells (IEC). The process requires sensing of TLR agonists and production of IL-23 by dendritic cells, activation of innate lymphoid cells and expression of α1,2-Fucosyltransferase-2 (Fut2) by IL-22-stimulated IECs. Fucosylated proteins are shed into the lumen and fucose is utilized by microbiota, as shown using reporter bacteria and by transcriptional profiling of the gut microbiome. Fucosylation also reduces the expression of bacterial virulence genes within the commensal gut microbiome and improves host tolerance of the mild pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Thus, rapid IEC fucosylation appears to be a protective mechanism that utilizes the host’s resources to maintain host-microbial interactions during pathogen-induced stress. RNA-Seq analysis of the murine gut microbiome following LPS exposure. Fut2-/- (B6.129X1-Fut2tm1Sdo/J) mice were backcrossed greater than 7 generations to BALB/c. Fut2-/- (KO) and Fut2+/- (Het) animals were analyzed.
Project description:Among the diverse forms of symbioses, facultative nutritional mutualism forged by the host and its resident gut microbiota permits the symbiont to adapt to the changing nutritional environment during the host’s life time. The horizontally acquired gut bacteria in Drosophila are a perfect example of nutritional mutualists. Here, we study the Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp WJL) infection effect in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) collection in context of larvae raised in chronic undernutrtion.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis plays a primary role in disease manifestation or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. Here, we established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with two types of IBD - Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In order to explore the functional impact of dysbiotic microbiota in IBD patients on host immune responses, we analyzed gene expression profiles in colonic mucosa of hGB mice colonized with healty (HC), CD, and UC microbiota. Overall design: WT-GF and GB mice (HC, CD, UC) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from human microbiota reconstitution and collected colon tissue for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. WT-GF: n=2, HC-Mb GB mice: n=4, CD-Mb GB mice: n=5, UC-Mb GB mice: n=5.
Project description:Lgr5+ stem cells reside at crypt bottoms of the small and large intestine. Small intestinal Paneth cells supply Wnt3, EGF and Notch signals to neighboring Lgr5+ stem cells. While the colon lacks Paneth cells, Deep Crypt Secretory (DCS) cells are intermingled with Lgr5+ stem cells at crypt bottoms. Here, we report Reg4 as a marker of DCS cells. To investigate a niche function, we eliminated DCS cells using the diphtheria-toxin receptor gene knocked into the murine Reg4 locus. Ablation of DCS cells results in loss of stem cells from colonic crypts and disrupts gut homeostasis and colon mini-gut formation. In agreement, sorted Reg4+ DCS cells promote organoid formation of single Lgr5+ colon stem cells. Stem cells are forced to generate DCS cells in vitro by combined Notch inhibition and Wnt activation. We conclude that Reg4+ DCS cells serve as Paneth cell equivalents in the colon crypt niche. Overall design: To define a global gene expression signature of DCS cells, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of sorted Reg4-dsRed+ and Lgr5-GFP+ cells from colonic epithelium. Sorting and RNA-seq library preparation was performed twice, to obtain a biological replicate.
Project description:We used the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium to model gut infections. Following oral inoculation C. rodentium resides in the caecum for the first 3 days, before it infects the colon on the 4th day. Here we show that while the host is unresponsive to the infection on day 3, there is an abrupt reprogramming of the cellular composition of the crypt, involving depletion of goblet and deep crypt secretory cells, as well as metabolism (e.g. simultaneous up-regulation of cholesterol biogenesis, import and efflux), DNA damage repair and proliferation, which correlated with Ki67 staining, on day 4. Reduction in the abundance of proteins involved in the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, leading to oxygenation of the gut, coincided with instant expansion of mucosal-associated Enterobacteriaceae. These results show that sensing a small number of pathogenic bacteria triggers immediate intrinsic changes to the epithelium physiology and the microbiota, which parallel innate gut immune responses.
Project description:Inappropriate cross talk between mammals and their gut microbiota may trigger intestinal inflammation and drive extra-intestinal immune-mediated diseases. Studies with germ-free or gnotobiotic animals represent the gold standard for research on bacterial-host interaction but they are not readily accessible to the wide scientific community. We aimed at refining a protocol that in a robust manner would deplete murine intestinal microbiota and prove to have significant biologic validity. Previously published protocols for depleting mice of their intestinal microbiota by administering broad-spectrum antibiotics in drinking water were difficult to reproduce. We show that twice daily delivery of antibiotics by gavage depleted mice of their cultivable fecal microbiota and reduced the fecal bacterial DNA load by approximately 400 fold while ensuring the animals’ health. Mice subjected to the protocol for 17 days displayed enlarged ceca, reduced Peyer’s patches and small spleens. Antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the expression of antimicrobial factors and altered the expression of 517 genes in total in the colonic epithelium. Genes involved in cell cycle were significantly altered concomitant with reduced epithelial proliferative activity in situ assessed by Ki-67 expression, suggesting that commensal microbiota drives cellular proliferation in colonic epithelium. We present a robust protocol for depleting mice of their cultivatable intestinal microbiota with antibiotics by gavage and show that the biological effect of this depletion is phenotypic characteristics and epithelial gene expression profile similar to those of germ-free mice. Comparison of genome-wide gene expression of colon intestinal epithelial cells from mice subjected to microbiota depletion protocol against to control mice.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Mutations in the innate immune receptor AIM2 are frequently identified in patients with colorectal cancer, but how AIM2 modulates colonic tumorigenesis is unknown. Here, we found that Aim2-deficient mice were hypersusceptible to colonic tumor development. Production of inflammasome-associated cytokines and other inflammatory mediators were largely intact in Aim2-deficient mice, however, intestinal stem cells were prone to uncontrolled proliferation. Aberrant Wnt signaling expanded a population of tumor-initiating stem cells in the absence of AIM2. Susceptibility of Aim2-deficient mice to colorectal tumorigenesis was enhanced by a dysbiotic gut microbiota, which was reduced by reciprocal exchange of gut microbiota with wild-type healthy mice. These findings uncover a synergy between a specific host genetic factor and gut microbiota in determining the susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Therapeutic modulation of AIM2 expression and microbiota has the potential to prevent colorectal cancer. We used microarrays to compare the transcriptome Aim2 deficent mice to wild type mice in colon tumor and colitis samples. Here were 12 mice in total, 3 for each genotype and tissue combination.