ABSTRACT: The newly sinthesized compound RZ2 induces cell death to human cancer cells. To obtain insights into its mechanism of action, the effects on autophagy and apoptosis were examined. Global perturbations in genome-wide RNA expression of HeLa cells treated with RZ2 were measured by gene expression microarray. Confluent cultures of HeLa cells were treated with 5 μM RZ2 or the vehicle (DMSO) for 24 hours, followed by RNA preparation and hybridization to a GeneChip PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array (Affymetrix)
Project description:Human mucosa was collected from two different individuals undergoing colectomy. After treatment with EDTA, colonic crypts were isolated and further dis-aggregated using Dispase. Next, cells were stained using antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of EpCAM, PTK7, CD11, CD31, and CD45. Cells were analyzed and sorted via flow cytometry (BD Aria). After excluding non-epithelial cells (Epcam. CD11, CD31, and CD45 negative), the EpCAM positive fraction was divided into fractions expressing either high, medium, low, or negative levels of PTK7. Sorted cells were transferred to Trizol for RNA extraction and RNA was purified using the Qiagen RNA Mini Kit. Colonic crypts were isolated from normal human mucosa derived from individuals undergoing colectomy. Single cell fractions from these crypts were sorted and isolated RNA processed and hybridized to Affymetrix PrimeView Arrays
Project description:Nfil3 has multiple functions during conventional NK cell and thymic NK cell development. Nfil3 controls NK cell development from the earliest committed NK cell progenitor stage. Nfil3-/- prepro NK cells retained T-cell potential due to the failure to repress T cell specific genes. At later stages of NK cell development, Nfil3 regulates the formation of mature NK cells by promoting directly or indirectly the expression of transcription factor Eomes. We also demonstrate that Nfil3 is important for thymic NK cell development whereas Trail+ immature NK cells generated in the bone marrow of neonates and in the adult liver develop independent of Nfil3 function. We used microarrays to analyse the changes in gene expression due to the presence or absence of Nfil3, both in prepro NK cells and ALP cells (all lymphoid progenitors) Samples were obtained on two experimentation dates. Replicate 1 was processed in April 2012, replicate 2 was processed in May 2012.
Project description:Wine produced at low temperature is often considered to improve sensory qualities. However, there are certain drawbacks to low temperature fermentations: e.g. low growth rate, long lag phase, and sluggish or stuck fermentations. Selection and development of new Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains well adapted at low temperature is interesting for future biotechnological applications. This study aimed to select and develop wine yeast strains that well adapt to ferment at low temperature through evolutionary engineering, and to decipher the process underlying the obtained phenotypes. To this end, we used a pool of 27 commercial yeast strains and set up batch serial dilution experiments to mimic wine fermentation conditions at 12 ºC. Evolutionary engineering was accomplished by using the natural yeast mutation rate and mutagenesis procedures. One strain (P5) outcompeted the others under both experimental conditions and was able to impose after 200 generations. The evolved strains showed improved growth and low-temperature fermentation performance compared to the ancestral strain. This improvement was acquired only under inositol limitation. The transcriptomic comparison between the evolved and parental strains showed the greatest up-regulation in four mannoprotein coding genes, which belong to the DAN/TIR family (DAN1, TIR1, TIR4 and TIR3). Genome sequencing of the evolved strain revealed the presence of a SNP in the GAA1 gene and the construction of a site-directed mutant (GAA1Thr108) in a derivative haploid of the ancestral strain resulted in improved fermentation performance. GAA1 encodes a GPI transamidase complex subunit that adds GPI, which is required for inositol synthesis, to newly synthesized proteins, including mannoproteins. Thus we demonstrate the importance of inositol and mannoproteins in yeast adaptation at low temperature and the central role of the GAA1 gene by linking both metabolisms. The first aim of this study was to assess the most competitive strains that grow under wine fermentation conditions at low temperature. To this end, we performed a growth competition assay with 27 commercial wine strains inoculated at equal population size in synthetic grape must. In spite of the economical and industrial importance of these strains, their phenotypic variation in the main enological traits, particularly those related to optimum growth temperature, and their ability to adapt to low temperature fermentation have been poorly investigated. The second goal was to obtain an improved strain to grow and ferment at low temperature by evolutionary engineering. For this purpose, we maintained growth competition in synthetic grape must during 200 generations to select for the mutations that produce phenotypes with improved growth in this medium. One of these evolved cultures was previously treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to increase the mutation rate. Finally, we aimed to decipher the molecular basis underlying this improvement by analyzing the genomic and transcriptional differences between the parental strain and the strain evolved at low temperature.
Project description:The survival of isolated metastatic cells and expansion into macroscopic tumour has been recognized as a limiting step for metastasis formation in several cancer types yet the determinants of this process remain largely uncharacterized. In colorectal cancer (CRC), we identify a transcriptional programme in tumour-associated stromal cells, which is intimately linked to a high risk of developing recurrent disease after therapy. A large proportion of CRCs display mutational inactivation of the TGF-beta pathway but paradoxically they are characterized by high TGF-beta production. In these tumours, TGF-beta instructs a transcriptional programme in stromal cells, which confers a high risk of developing metastatic disease. We purified by FACS CD31(+), CD45(+), FAP(+) and Epcam(+) populations from fresh CRC samples and assessed their gene expression profiles Freshly obtained tumours from 6 CRC patients treated at Hospital del Mar or Hospital Clinic (Barcelona, Spain) were minced and incubated with Collagenase IV (100 U mL-1). Enzymatic reaction was stopped by adding 10% FBS, single cells were collected by sequential filtering and resuspended in ammonium chloride (0.15M) to lyse erythrocytes. Cells were stained with FAP unconjugated rabbit antibody. After two washes with HBSS, cells were stained with an APC conjugated anti-rabbit antibody; anti-hEPCAM/TROP1-FITC, anti-CD31-PE and anti-CD45-PE-Cy7 conjugated antibody. Dead cells were labelled with Propidium Iodide. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) was used to separate 2000 cells from each population; [CD45(+), EPCAM(-), CD31(-), FAP(-)], [CD45(-) EPCAM(+), CD31(-), FAP(-)], [CD45(-), EPCAM(-), CD31(+),FAP(-)] and [CD45(-), EPCAM(-), CD31(-), FAP(+)].
Project description:Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), are at the apex of its cellular hierarchy and contribute to glioblastoma progression and tumor recurrence. Gene expression profiling is useful in determining the genome-wide gene expression changes based on the experimental purpose. In order to interrogate the downstream targets of PTPRZ1, we applied gene expression profiling approach to screen the altered genes that are responsible for the functional phenotype changes. The results will provide a cue for mechanical analysis with potential translational values. PTPRZ1-knocking down glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and control GSCs were used in this study. RNA were isolated using Primescript RT Master Mix (Takara). Profiling was established by applying PrimeView Affymetrix Human Gene Expression Array.
Project description:Cardiac development arises from two sources of mesoderm progenitors, the first (FHF) and the second heart field (SHF). Mesp1 has been proposed to mark the most primitive multipotent cardiac progenitors common for both heart fields. Here, using clonal analysis of the earliest prospective cardiovascular progenitors in a temporally controlled manner during the early gastrulation, we found that Mesp1 progenitors consist of two temporally distinct pools of progenitors restricted to either the FHF or the SHF. FHF progenitors were unipotent, while SHF progenitors, were either uni- or bipotent. Microarray and single cell RT-PCR analysis of Mesp1 progenitors revealed the existence of molecularly distinct populations of Mesp1 progenitors, consistent with their lineage and regional contribution. Altogether, these results provide evidence that heart development arises from distinct populations of unipotent and bipotent cardiac progenitors that independently express Mesp1 at different time points during their specification, revealing that the regional segregation and lineage restriction of cardiac progenitors occurs very early during gastrulation. We used microarrays to characterize the molecular mechanisms that control Mesp1 progenitor specification and lineage segregation during the early stage of cardiac mesoderm formation, 50 Mesp1 H2B-GFP+ or Mesp1 H2B-GFP- cells at E6.5 or E7.5 from mouse embryos were sorted for RNA extraction, amplification and hybridization on Affimetrix microarrays. Microaarrays were performed on Mouse Genome 430 PM strip Affymetrix array. The overall design was repeated in two different biological samples.
Project description:Comparison of the RNA expression profiles of CD14+ monocytes from human peripheral blood with derived dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MACs) obtained by exposure with GM-CSF/IL-4 and GM-CSF, respectively, and with mature DCs and MACs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure The expression profiles of RNA of human CD14+ monocytes were compared with derived immature dendritic cells (iDCs) and macrophages (iMACs) following GM-CSF/IL-4 and GM-CSF incubation, and then activation/maturation with lypopolysaccharyde (LPS) using the Affymetrix PrimeView Human Gene Expression array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). This platform allows the interrogation of >36,000 transcrits and variants per sample. The samples were hybridized in the array following the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA isolated by standard procedures from CD14+ cells (total monocytes, MOs) corresponding to three sets of samples of monocytes (MOs), derived immature DCs and MACs (iDCS and iMACS) and activated/mature DCs and MACs following incubation with LPS (mDCS and mMACs)
Project description:Bromodomain inhibition comprises a promising therapeutic strategy in cancer, particularly for hematologic malignancies. To date, however, genomic biomarkers to direct clinical translation have been lacking. We conducted a cell-based screen of genetically-defined cancer cell lines using a prototypical inhibitor of BET bromodomains. Integration of genetic features with chemosensitivity data revealed a robust correlation between MYCN amplification and sensitivity to bromodomain inhibition. We characterized the mechanistic and translational significance of this finding in neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer with frequent amplification of MYCN. Genome-wide expression analysis demonstrated downregulation of the MYCN transcriptional program accompanied by suppression of MYCN transcription. Functionally, bromodomain-mediated inhibition of MYCN impaired growth and induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma. BRD4 knock-down phenocopied these effects, establishing BET bromodomains as transcriptional regulators of MYCN. BET inhibition conferred a significant survival advantage in three in vivo neuroblastoma models, providing a compelling rationale for developing BET bromodomain inhibitors in patients with neuroblastoma. Significance: Biomarkers of response to small-molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomains, a new compound class with promising anti-cancer activity, have been lacking. Here, we reveal MYCN amplification as a strong genetic predictor of sensitivity to BET bromodomain inhibitors, demonstrate a mechanistic rationale for this finding, and provide a translational framework for clinical trial development of BET bromodomain inhibitors for pediatric patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. JQ1 is a novel thieno-triazolo-1,4-diazepine, which displaces BET bromodomains from chromatin by competitively binding to the acetyl lysine recognition pocket. BE(2)-C and Kelly cells were treated in triplicate with 1 µM JQ1 or DMSO for 24 hours. RNA was extracted and a decrease in MYCN transcript was confirmed by real time RT-PCR as described above. The samples were profiled using the Affymetrix PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array (Affymetrix) at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Boston, MA, USA).
Project description:The FITExP profiling approach was used to identify protein hits from cells incubated with RAPTA-T or RAPTA-EA. Validation experiments with paclitaxel and cisplatin underlined the reliability of the method and hit lists for both test compounds (and?) gave physiologically viable anti-cancer mechanisms. The hit proteins for paclitaxel match with those published and the ones obtained for cisplatin were related to DNA repair, which is in line with the principal mechanism of cisplatin cytotoxicity involving the formation of nuclear DNA lesions. RAPTA-T treatment leads to upregulation of multiple hits suggesting a broad mechanism of action involving both metastasis and tumorigenicity. In contrast, hit proteins identified after incubation with RAPTA-EA are linked to regulation of the oxidative stress response and are therefore thought to be conferred by the EA moiety in the drug. From a therapeutic standpoint, RAPTA-EA could be explored in cancers where EA alone has shown potency, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemias,91 or where EA combined with another agent shows synergy, such as the combination of EA with afatinib, an irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for breast cancers.92 On the other hand, due to its broad mechanism of action, RAPTA-T could potentially be more useful if used concomitantly with drugs that target specific cancer pathways and could also play a role in therapies for later stage cancers due to its anti-metastatic properties. Here, application of the FITExP allowed us to gauge the mechanistic pathways involved in the action of two novel ruthenium(II) metallodrugs with very different phenotypic characteristics and from this knowledge infer their role in therapy. Potentially, future application of the FITExP approach in this manner could be useful for identification of cancer chemotherapy drug combinations, where commonly cancer clinical trials fail at phase II where drug combinations are first tried and tested.
Project description:A nonsense mutation in ARID1A was identified by next generation sequencing in non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus [BE] tissue and esophageal adenocarcinoma [EAC] tissue of a patient diagnosed with EAC. Immunohistochemistry performed on an independent archival cohort demonstrated ARID1A protein loss in 0% (0/76), 4.9% (2/40), 14.3% (4/28), 16.0% (8/50), and 12.2% (12/98) of normal squamous epithelium, BE, low-, high-grade dysplasia, and EAC tissues, respectively. Enhanced cell growth, proliferation and invasion were observed upon ARID1A knockdown in EAC cells. ARID1A was knocked down in OE33 cells (Sample MS_1 and MS_3) using on-TARGET smartpool ARID1A siRNA. At the same time, OE33 cells were transfected with a non-targeting siRNA, and these experiments (Samples MS_2 and MS_4) functioned as mock controls. Cells were harvested after 48 hours and total RNA was extracted using the Rneasy kit (Qiagen) Aim Affymetrix Human PrimeView Gene Expression Array : to determine the downstream effectors of ARID1A that are likely to contribute to the oncogenic phenotype caused by ARID1A down-regulation. Two biological replicates of each condition (2x ARID1A knockdown, and 2x Mock) were used for the microarray experiment.