Brown Adipogenic Reprogramming Induced by a Small Molecule
ABSTRACT: Transcriptome analysis of early adipogenesis induced by basal adipogenesis medium(AM) and AM+Bex for 2 days in C2C12 cells Global gene expression profiling has shown Bex induced adipogenic genes expression change We analyzed 4 samples from basal adipogenesis medium(AM) and AM+Bex(10uM) treated C2C12 cells using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST platform. Array data was processed by Affymetrix Expression Console and Transcriptome Analysis Console (TAC) software.
Project description:Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small, non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. As such, they are believed to play a role in regulating the step-wise changes in gene expression patterns that occur during cell fate specification of multipotent stem cells. Here, we have studied whether terminal differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts is indeed controlled by lineage-specific changes in miRNA expression. Results: Using a previously generated RNA polymerase II (Pol-II) ChIP-on-chip dataset, we show differential Pol-II occupancy at the promoter regions of six miRNAs during C2C12 myogenic versus BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Overexpression of one of these miRNAs, miR-378, enhances Alp activity, calcium deposition and mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes in the presence of BMP2. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a previously unknown role for miR-378 in promoting BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Stable C2C12 cell lines C2C12-pMirn0 and C2C12-pMirn378 were generated by lentiviral transduction of C2C12 myoblasts with a Mirn378-overexpression construct and its parent vector, respectively. C2C12-pMirn0 and C2C12-pMirn378 cells were plated at 2.5 x 10^4 cells/cm2 (day -1), cultured for 1 day in DMEM 10%NCS, then (d0) treated with or without 300 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) for 6 days. RNA was extracted on d0, d3 and d6 and hybridized to GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 array (Affymetrix).
Project description:We used microarrays to characterize the global changes in gene expression in C2C12 cells due to siRNA knockdown of long non-coding RNA H19 Control siRNA or siRNA specific for mouse H19 were transfected into day1 differentiating C2C12 myoblasts in triplicates. 40 H later total RNAs were isolated and subjected with microarray analysis.
Project description:CUGBP1 and MBNL1 are developmentally regulated RNA-binding proteins that are causally associated with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Using HITS-CLIP anlysis, we found CUGBP1 and MBNL1 preferentially bind to alternatively spliced introns and exons, as well as to the 3' UTRs. To analyze more directly the role of CUGBP1/MBNL1 binding in alternative splicing, we performed exon array analysis in C2C12 cells using expression arrays. We analyzed total RNA of C2C12 cells treated with control-, Cugbp1- or Mbnl1-siRNA. RNA was harvested 48 hrs after transfection.
Project description:Gene expression profiling in differentiating C2C12 cells comparing control cells and MUNC-deprived cells RNA samples were isolated from 4 C2C12 samples: proliferating control (siC) cells, differentiating siC cells, proliferating and differentiating MUNC depleted (siMUNC) cells
Project description:C2C12 mouse myoblasts were transduced with either PAX3-FOXO1 expression vector (P3F-C2C12), a system that is commonly used to study the more aggressive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma subtype, or empty vector (Ctrl-C2C12). Exosomes were isolated from both cell lines by differential centrifugation, and exosomal markers were characterized by western blot. Then, the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 3.0 array was used to identify the miRNA content of the extracted exosomes where the differentially deregulated miRNA (either enriched or depleted) in P3F-C2C12 exosomes were determined relative to Ctrl-C2C12 exosomes. Results showed that PAX3-FOXO1 fusion gene alters the content of exosomes and that the enriched miR-486-5p is a downstream effector of PAX3-FOXO1 in mediating the oncogenic effects of exosome-mediated paracrine signaling in this setting.
Project description:PPARγ promotes adipogenesis while Wnt proteins inhibit adipogenesis. However, the mechanisms that control expression of these positive and negative master regulators of adipogenesis remain incompletely understood. By genome-wide histone methylation profiling in preadipocytes, we find that among gene loci encoding adipogenesis regulators, histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a-mediated repressive epigenetic mark H3K9me2 is enriched on the entire PPARγ locus. H3K9me2 and G9a levels decrease during adipogenesis, which correlates inversely with induction of PPARγ. Removal of H3K9me2 by G9a deletion enhances chromatin opening and binding of adipogenic transcription factor C/EBP-beta to PPARγ promoter, which promotes PPARγ expression. Interestingly, G9a represses PPARγ expression in an HMT activity-dependent manner but facilitates Wnt10a expression independent of its enzymatic activity. Consistently, deletion of G9a or inhibiting G9a HMT activity promotes adipogenesis. Finally, deletion of G9a in mouse adipose tissues increases adipogenic gene expression and tissue weight. Thus, by inhibiting PPARγ expression and facilitating Wnt10a expression, G9a represses adipogenesis. Examination of 3 different histone modification changes in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes
Project description:CUGBP1 and MBNL1 are developmentally regulated RNA-binding proteins that are causally associated with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Using HITS-CLIP anlysis, we found CUGBP1 and MBNL1 preferentially bind to alternatively spliced introns and exons, as well as to the 3' UTRs. To analyze more directly the role of CUGBP1/MBNL1 binding to the 3’ UTR, we performed global analysis of mRNA stability in C2C12 cells using expression arrays, and found that CUGBP1 and MBNL1 regulate decay of endogenous mRNAs. We analyzed total RNA of C2C12 cells treated with control-, Cugbp1- or Mbnl1-siRNA. We analyzed 3 time points after addition of actionmycin D (0, 2.5, 5 hours).
Project description:We newly identified skeletal muscle differentiation-associated miRNAs by comparing miRNA expression profile between C2C12 cell and Wnt4-overexpressing C2C12 cell. miR-487b, miR-3963 and miR-6412 are significantly down-regulated in differentiating C2C12 cells, and transfection of their mimics resulted in reduced expression of myogenic differentiation markers including Troponin T, myosin heavy chain fast and slow type. Single analysis for each condition (proliferating C2C12 cells, differentiating C2C12 cells, proliferating Wnt4-overexpressing C2C12 subline cells
Project description:Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in various aspects of skeletal muscle development and regeneration. In addition, Wnt3a and β-catenin are required for muscle-specific gene transcription in embryonic carcinoma cells and satellite-cell proliferation during adult skeletal muscle regeneration. Downstream targets of canonical Wnt signaling are cyclin D1 and c-myc. However, both target genes are suppressed during differentiation of mouse myoblast cells, C2C12. Underlying molecular mechanisms of β-catenin signaling during myogenic differentiation remain unknown. Using C2C12 cells, we examined intracellular signaling and gene transcription during myoblast proliferation and differentiation. We confirmed that several Wnt signaling components, including Wnt9a, Sfrp2 and porcupine, were consistently upregulated in differentiating C2C12 cells. Troponin T-positive myotubes were decreased by Wnt3a overexpression, but not Wnt4. TOP/FOP reporter assays revealed that co-expression with Wnt4 reduced Wnt3a-induced luciferase activity, suggesting that Wnt4 signaling counteracted Wnt3a signaling in myoblasts. FH535, a small-molecule inhibitor of β-catenin/Tcf complex formation, reduced basal β-catenin in cytoplasm and decreased myoblast proliferation. K252a, a protein kinase inhibitor, increased membrane-bound β-catenin and enhanced myoblast fusion. Treatments with K252a or Wnt4 resulted in increased cytoplasmic vesicles containing phosphorylated β-catenin (Tyr654) during myogenic differentiation. These results suggest that various Wnt ligands control subcellular β-catenin localization, which regulate myoblast proliferation and myotube formation. Wnt signaling via β-catenin likely acts as a molecular switch that regulates the transition from cell proliferation to myogenic differentiation. Control cells (day 0) prior to differentiation induction with n=4; differentiated for two days with n=3; differentiated for four days with n=3.
Project description:Human livers biopsies from HCV+ patients and healthy donors were collected . RNA and Protein were extract and The Human Adipogenesis RT² Profiler™ PCR Array was used to compare the gene expression in the two group. At the same time PBMCs were collected and the same array were used to compare the adipogenesis expression in the two system. qPCR gene expression profiling. Fresh Livers from 40 HBV+ and 20 HD patients were used . Equal amount total RNA from each samples were used.