Reliable single cell array CGH for clinical samples
ABSTRACT: Establishment and subsequent validation of a aCGH protocol for WGA (whole genome amplification) products originating from single cell or low amount of starting material (i.e. microdissected FFPE tissue samples). The establishment of the protocol involved testing of three DNA labeling protocols. Two labeling protocols were designed specifically for Ampli1(TM) WGA products. Additionally random primed isothermal (Klenow-based) labeling approach was tested (Möhlendick et al., PLoS One. 2013 Jun 25;8(6):e67031.). In addition two different types of reference samples were tested and reference based on single-cell WGA products was chosen as most suitable in the end. The validation of the protocol assessed the following aspects: (1) performance of the protocol on primary and reamplified WGA products, (2) accuracy of the protocol in term of sensitivity of the CNA detection, (3) accuracy in terms of recapitulation of complex patterns of CNAs, (4) accuracy in terms of quantitative assessment of the CNAs, (5) ability to detect genomic heterogeneity of single cells (obtained either from in vitro cultures or from clinical patient material), (6) ability to detect minimal regions of aberration within a panel of disseminated cancer cells and corresponding tumor tissues. Establishment and validation of the single-cell aCGH protocol: two condition experiment (i.e. PCR-based labeling technique 1 vs. PCR-based labeling technique 2; PCR-based labeling technique 2 vs. random-primed isothermal (Klenow) labeling approach; reference DNA from cell pool WGA product vs. reference DNA from single-cell WGA products). Validation of the protocol: comparison of the CNA profiles between single-cell WGA products and corresponding bulk DNA. Analysis of the DCC and corresponding FFPE tumor tissue samples: single-condition experiment performed on samples collected at different stages of the disease (DCCs from bone marrow) and/or from different sites (primary tumor-breast; metastasis-lymph nodes; DCCs-bone marrow). Microarray data is corresponding data depicted in the paper manuscript titled: Reliable single cell array CGH for clinical samples
SUBMITTER: Martin Hoffmann Zbigniew T CzyzZbigniew Tadeusz CzyzChristoph A KleinBernhard PolzerGünter Schlimok
Project description:Bone is the most frequent site of metastasis in prostate cancer (PCa) and patients with bone metastases are deemed incurable. Targeting prostate cancer cells that disseminated to the bone marrow (BM) prior to surgery and before metastatic outgrowth may therefore prevent lethal metastasis. This prompted us to directly analyse the transcriptome of disseminated cancer cells (DCC) isolated from non-metastatic (UICC stage M0) prostate cancer patients. We screened 105 BM samples of M0-stage prostate cancer patients and 18 BM samples of patients without malignancy for the presence of EpCAM+ single cells. In total we isolated 270 cells from both groups by micromanipulation and globally amplified their mRNA. We used targeted transcriptional profiling to unambiguously identify DCCs for subsequent in-depth analysis. Transcriptomes of all cells were examined for the expression of EPCAM, KRT8, KRT18, KRT19, KRT14, KRT6a, KRT5, KLK3 (PSA), MAGEA2, MAGEA4, PTPRC (CD45), CD33, CD34, CD19, GYPC, SCL4A1 (band 3), and HBA2. Using these transcripts we found it impossible to reliably identify true DCCs. We then applied combined genome and transcriptome analysis of single cells and found that EpCAM+ cells from controls expressed transcripts thought to be epithelial-specific, while true DCCs may express haematopoietic transcripts. These results point to an unexpected plasticity of epithelial cancer cells in bone marrow and question common transcriptional criteria to identify DCCs. Array-CGH was used to analyze EpCAM-positive single cells isolated from bone marrow of M0-stage prostate cancer patients, and individuals without cancer. The purpose was to demonstrate that cells with genomic aberrations are true tumour cells.
Project description:About 230 clinical trials currently explore the role of circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis for therapy decisions, but no assays enable comprehensive molecular characterization of CTCs with diagnostic precision. We therefore combined a workflow for CTC enrichment and isolation with 100% purity with a non-random whole genome amplifiation method for single cells and applied it to 510 single CTCs and 189 leukocytes of 66 breast cancer patients. We defined a genome integrity index (GII) to identify cells suited for molecular chracterization by different molecular assay in more than 90% of single cells, such as diagnostic profiling for point mutations, gene amplifications and whole genomes of single cells. The high reliability on clinical samples enabled assessing the molecular heterogeneity of single CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients. We readily identified therapeutically relevant genomic disparity between primary tumors and CTCs. Microheterogeneity analysis among individual CTCs uncovered preexisting cells reistsant to ERBB2 targeted therapies suggesting ongoing microevolution at late stage disease whose exploration may provide essential information for personalized treatment decisions. The analysis aimed to indentify profiles of copy number changes in genomic DNA of single circulating tumor cells (CTCs). For this, CTCs were enrched using the FDA approved CellSearch System and single-cell were isolated using the DEPArray System. Subsequently, single-cell DNA was amplified using the Ampli1 WGA Kits and subjected to single-cell aCGH analysis according to previously published protocol (Czyz ZT et al., PLoS One. 2014 Jan 21;9(1):e85907). The analysis included 38 single CTCs and 10 white blood cells (WBCs) obtained from 16 breast cancer patient. WBCs were used as controls for the analysis. In addition, four CTC cell pools were included in the analysis. This was done to show the discrepancies between the profiles of individual cells and corresponing average genomic profile of CTCs in a patient material (cell pools), thereby demonstrating the importance of the analysis on the cell-by-cell basis. The reference sample used for all aCGH experiments consisted of a pool of four single-cell WGA products generated from WBCs of a healthy female donor.
Project description:In the study of tumor genetics, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors are the most readily available tissue samples. While DNA derived from FFPE tissue has been validated for array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) application, the suitability of such fragmented DNA for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis has not been well examined. Furthermore, whole-genome amplification (WGA) has been used in the study of small precursor lesions to produce sufficient amount of DNA for aCGH analysis. It is unclear whether the same approach can be extended to SNP analysis. In this study, we examined the utility and limitations of genotyping platform performed on whole-genome amplified DNA from FFPE tumor samples for both copy number and SNP analyses. We analyzed the results obtained using DNA derived from matched FFPE and frozen tissue samples on Affymetrix 250K Nsp SNP array. Two widely used WGA methods, Qiagen (isothermal protocol) and Sigma (thermocycling protocol), were used to determine how WGA methods affect the results. We found that the use of DNA derived from FFPE tumors (without or with WGA) for high-resolution SNP array application can produce a significant amount of false positive and false negative findings. While some of these misinterpretations appear to cluster in genomic regions with high or low GC contents, the majority appears to occur randomly. Only large-scale chromosome LOH (>10Mb) can be reliably detected from FFPE tumor DNA samples (without or with WGA) but not smaller LOH or copy number alterations. Our findings here indicate a need for caution in SNP array data interpretation when using FFPE tumor-derived DNA, particularly with WGA. Affymetrix SNP arrays were performed according to the manufacturer's directions on DNA extracted from cryopreserved and FFPE mesenchymal tumor samples without or with WGA, as well as genomic snap-frozen non-neoplastic tissue DNA from 5 adult individuals to serve as reference DNA. WGA was performed using the REPLI-g® FFPE kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) and GenomePlex® Tissue Whole Genome Amplification WGA5 kit (Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA) in parallel in accordance with the manufacturers’ protocols. A two- to eight-hour individualized reaction time was used in the Qiagen platform for each sample. A gradient amount of initial DNA (10ng, 30ng, 60ng, 100ng and 150ng) was tested followed by gel electrophoresis and qualitative multiplex PCR assay to determine the quality of post-WGA products. At least four independent experiments were concurrently performed per template amplification. Four separateWGA reaction products were pooled for each sample for subsequent microarray analysis to minimize the amplification bias and allele dropout. One of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Mapping 500K Array Set (Nsp 250K SNP array) was used for genotyping analysis. Four gastrointestinal stromal tumors with known cytogenetic aberrations were included. Two cases were sucessfullly amplified and passed the quality tests. A total of 12 samples were compared between each other, including frozen tissue DNA (as reference), frozen tissue DNA with WGA (two platforms), FFPE tissue DNA, and FFPE tissue DNA with WGA (two platforms) from each case.
Project description:Methods for haplotyping and DNA copy number typing of single cells are paramount for studying genomic heterogeneity and enabling genetic diagnosis. Before analyzing the DNA of a single cell by microarray or next-generation sequencing, a whole-genome amplification (WGA) process is required that substantially distorts the frequency and composition of the cell’s alleles. As a consequence, haplotyping methods suffer from error-prone discrete SNP-genotypes (AA, AB, BB), and DNA copy number profiling remains difficult as true DNA copy number aberrations have to be discriminated from WGA-artifacts. Here, we developed a single-cell genome analysis method that reconstructs genome-wide haplotype architectures as well as the copy-number and segregational origin of those haplotypes by deciphering WGA-distorted SNP B-allele fractions, using a process we coin haplarithmisis. We demonstrate clinical precision of the method on single cells biopsied from human embryos to diagnose disease alleles genome wide, we advance and facilitate the detection of numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies in single cells, and can distinguish meiotic from mitotic segregation errors in a single assay. The samples of a reference family were applied for optimisation of single-cell genotyping using Affymetrix SNP-arrays prior to downstream analysis. Specifically, the reference family delivers genomic DNA samples isolated from peripheral blood of two siblings 'S1' and 'S2', the mother and father of these siblings, as well as of the maternal grandmother and grandfather. Of individuals ‘S1’ and ‘S2’, six EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid single cells were isolated of which three were whole-genome amplified using MDA and three using PicoPlex. These WGA-products were hybridized to Affymetrix NspI 250K SNP-arrays following the protocol as recommended by the company. Subsequently, the SNP-probe signals were interpreted by different genotyping algorithms (see data processing). Based on overall performance, it was decided to use the Dynamic Model (DM) for interpreting Affymetrix SNP-probe signals of single cells.
Project description:Advances in biochemical technologies have led to a boost in the field of single cell genomics. Observation of the genome at a single cell resolution is currently achieved by pre-amplification using whole genome amplification (WGA) techniques that differ by their biochemical aspects and as a result by biased amplification of the original molecule. Several comparisons between commercially available single cell dedicated WGA kits (scWGA) were performed, however, these comparisons are costly, were only performed on selected scWGA kit and more notably, are limited by the number of analyzed cells, making them limited for reproducibility analysis. We benchmarked an economical assay to compare all commercially available scWGA kits that is based on targeted sequencing of thousands of genomic regions, including highly mutable genomic regions (microsatellites), from a large cohort of human single cells (125 cells in total). Using this approach, we could analyze the genome coverage, the reproducibility of genome coverage and the error rate of each kit. Our experimental design provides an affordable and reliable comparative assay that simulates a real single cell experiment. Results demonstrate the need for a dedicated kit selection depending on the desired single cell assay.
Project description:To investigate the cytogenetic and large-scale chromosomal changes in involuted or non-involuted microGISTs using post-whole genome amplification (WGA) FFPE DNA materials Sixteen patients, total 19 FFPE tumor samples (block storage time 4 months to 9 years), including 16 microGISTs and 3 GISTs larger than 1 cm from the same patients harboring microGISTs. All FFPE tumor samples underwent DNA extraction and WGA (modified degenerate oligonucleotide PCR (DOP) method, provided by Sigma). For each tumor sample, a post-WGA DNA extract from the normal tissue in the same block (or block from the same patient with a block storage time differences less than 2 years) was obtained for tumor sample DNA co-hybridization. Tumor and normal areas of interest were marked and collected from 5- to 10-micron unstained or hematoxylin-stained sections by manual or laser (PixCell IITM, Arcturus Bioscience, CA, USA) microdissection. DNAs were then extracted. WGA was performed using GenomePlex® Tissue Whole Genome Amplification WGA5 kit (Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA; http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/) in parallel in accordance with the manufacturer's protocols. At least four independent experiments were concurrently performed per template amplification. Four separate WGA reaction products were pooled for each sample.
Project description:Sequencing analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) enables "liquid biopsy" to guide precision oncology strategies. However, this requires low-template whole genome amplification (WGA) that is prone to errors and biases from uneven amplifications. Currently, quality control (QC) methods for WGA products, as well as the number of CTCs needed for reliable downstream sequencing, remain poorly defined. We sought to define strategies for selecting and generating optimal WGA products from low-template input as it relates to their potential applications in precision oncology strategies.Single pancreatic cancer cells (HPAF-II) were isolated using laser microdissection. WGA was performed using multiple displacement amplification (MDA), multiple annealing and looping based amplification (MALBAC) and PicoPLEX. Quality of amplified DNA products were assessed using a multiplex/RT-qPCR based method that evaluates for 8-cancer related genes and QC-scores were assigned. We utilized this scoring system to assess the impact of de novo modifications to the WGA protocol. WGA products were subjected to Sanger sequencing, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next generation sequencing (NGS) to evaluate their performances in respective downstream analyses providing validation of the QC-score.Single-cell WGA products exhibited a significant sample-to-sample variability in amplified DNA quality as assessed by our 8-gene QC assay. Single-cell WGA products that passed the pre-analysis QC had lower amplification bias and improved aCGH/NGS performance metrics when compared to single-cell WGA products that failed the QC. Increasing the number of cellular input resulted in improved QC-scores overall, but a resultant WGA product that consistently passed the QC step required a starting cellular input of at least 20-cells. Our modified-WGA protocol effectively reduced this number, achieving reproducible high-quality WGA products from ?5-cells as a starting template. A starting cellular input of 5 to 10-cells amplified using the modified-WGA achieved aCGH and NGS results that closely matched that of unamplified, batch genomic DNA.The modified-WGA protocol coupled with the 8-gene QC serve as an effective strategy to enhance the quality of low-template WGA reactions. Furthermore, a threshold number of 5-10 cells are likely needed for a reliable WGA reaction and product with high fidelity to the original starting template.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing of Cryptosporidium spp. is hampered by difficulties in obtaining sufficient, highly pure genomic DNA from clinical specimens. In this study, we developed procedures for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium genomic DNA from fecal specimens and verification of DNA purity for whole-genome sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of genomic DNA were achieved by a combination of three oocyst purification steps and whole-genome amplification (WGA) of DNA from purified oocysts. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of WGA products was used as an initial quality assessment of amplified genomic DNA. The purity of WGA products was assessed by Sanger sequencing of cloned products. Next-generation sequencing tools were used in final evaluations of genome coverage and of the extent of contamination. Altogether, 24 fecal specimens of Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. ubiquitum, C. tyzzeri, and Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I were processed with the procedures. As expected, WGA products with low (<16.0) threshold cycle (CT) values yielded mostly Cryptosporidium sequences in Sanger sequencing. The cloning-sequencing analysis, however, showed significant contamination in 5 WGA products (proportion of positive colonies derived from Cryptosporidium genomic DNA, ?25%). Following this strategy, 20 WGA products from six Cryptosporidium species or genotypes with low (mostly <14.0) CT values were submitted to whole-genome sequencing, generating sequence data covering 94.5% to 99.7% of Cryptosporidium genomes, with mostly minor contamination from bacterial, fungal, and host DNA. These results suggest that the described strategy can be used effectively for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium DNA from fecal specimens for whole-genome sequencing.
Project description:The majority of therapeutic strategies for mycosis require the protracted administration of antifungals, which can result in significant toxicities and have unacceptable failure rates. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of improved therapeutic approaches, and monoclonal antibody-based drugs are potentially a powerful alternative to standard antifungals. To develop a broad antibody-like reagent against mycosis, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was linked to the effector Fc region of murine IgG2a. The resultant WGA-Fc displayed high affinity to purified chitin and bound efficiently to fungal cell walls, co-localizing with chitin, in patterns ranging from circular (Histoplasma capsulatum) to punctate (Cryptococcus neoformans) to labeling at the bud sites (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). WGA-Fc directly inhibited fungal growth in standard cultures. WGA-Fc opsonization increased fungal phagocytosis, as well augmented the antifungal functions by macrophages. Prophylactic administration of WGA-Fc fully protected mice against H. capsulatum, correlating with a reduction in lung, spleen and liver fungal burdens. Administration of WGA-Fc also dramatically diminished pulmonary inflammation. Hence, the opsonic activity of WGA-Fc effectively modulates fungal cell recognition and promotes the elimination of fungal pathogens. Therefore, we propose WGA-Fc as a potential "pan-fungal" therapeutic that should be further developed for use against invasive mycoses.
Project description:Current microarray technology allows researchers to genotype a large number of SNPs with relatively small amounts of DNA. Nevertheless, researchers and clinicians still frequently face the problem of acquiring enough high-quality DNA for analysis. Whole-genome amplification (WGA) methods offer a solution for this problem, and earlier studies have shown that WGA samples perform reasonably well in small-scale genetic analyses (e.g. Affymetrix 10K array). To determine the performance of WGA products on a large-scale genotyping array, we compared the Affymetrix 250K array genotyping results of genomic DNA and their WGA products from four individuals. Our results indicate that WGA product performs well on the 250K array compared to genomic DNA, especially when using the BRLMM calling algorithm. WGA samples have high call rates (97.5% on average, compared to 99.4% for genomic DNA) and excellent concordance rates with their corresponding genomic DNA samples (98.7% on average). In addition, no apparent systematic genomic amplification bias can be detected. This study demonstrates that, although there is a slight decrease in the total call rates, WGA methods provide a reliable approach for increasing the amount of DNA samples for use with a common SNP genotyping array.