Individual letters of the RNA polymerase II CTD code govern distinct gene expression programs in fission yeast
ABSTRACT: The primary structure and phosphorylation pattern of the tandem YSPTSPS repeats of the RNA polymerase II CTD comprise an informational code that coordinates transcription, chromatin modification, and RNA processing. To gauge the contributions of individual CTD coding “letters” to gene expression, we analyzed the poly(A)+ transcriptomes of fission yeast mutants that lack each of the four inessential CTD phosphoacceptors: Tyr1, Ser2, Thr4, and Ser7. There was a hierarchy of CTD mutational effects with respect to the number of dysregulated protein-coding RNAs, with S2A (n=227) >> Y1F (n=71) > S7A (n=58) >> T4A (n=7). The majority of the protein-coding RNAs affected in Y1F cells were coordinately affected by S2A, suggesting that Tyr1-Ser2 constitutes a two-letter code “word”. Y1F and S2A elicited increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in iron uptake (Frp1, Fip1, Fio1, Str3, Str1, Sib1), without affecting the expression of the genes that repress the iron regulon, implying that Tyr1-Ser2 transduces a repressive signal. Y1F and S2A cells had increased levels of ferric reductase activity and were hypersensitive to phleomycin, indicative of elevated intracellular iron. The T4A and S7A mutations had opposing effects on the phosphate response pathway. T4A reduced the expression of two genes encoding proteins involved in phosphate acquisition (the Pho1 acid phosphatase and the phosphate transporter SPBC8E4.01c), without affecting the expression of known genes that regulate the phosphate response pathway, while S7A increased pho1+ expression. Meiotic genes were enriched among those up-regulated in S7A cells. These results highlight specific cellular gene expression programs that are responsive to distinct CTD cues. Interrogation of the S. pombe transcriptome using polyA+ strand specific RNA sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 2000) in cultures. A total of 16 samples were analysed: two biological repeates of each WT, Y1F, S2A, T4A, S7A,Y1F-S7A, S2A-S7A and T4A-S7A strains
Project description:ChIP-chip was performed to identify the genomic binding locations for the termination factors Nrd1, and Rtt103, and for RNA polymerase (Pol) II phosphorylated at the tyrosine 1 and threonine 4 position of its C-terminal domain (CTD). In different phases of the transcription cycle, Pol II recruits different factors via its CTD, which consists of heptapeptide repeats with the sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Here we show that the CTD of transcribing yeast Pol II is phosphorylated at Tyr1, and that this impairs recruitment of termination factors. Tyr1 phosphorylation levels rise downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), and decrease before the polyadenylation (pA) site. Tyr1-phosphorylated gene bodies are depleted of CTD-binding termination factors Nrd1, Pcf11, and Rtt103. Tyr1 phosphorylation blocks CTD binding by these termination factors, but stimulates binding of elongation factor Spt6. These results show that CTD modifications can not only stimulate but also block factor recruitment, and lead to an extended CTD code for transcription cycle coordination.
Project description:Inorganic phosphate is an essential nutrient required by organisms for growth. During phosphate starvation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the phosphate signal transduction (PHO) pathway leading to the expression of the secreted acid phosphatase, PHO5. The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, regulates expression of the ScPHO5 homolog (pho1+) via a non-orthologous PHO pathway. The genes induced by phosphate limitation and the molecular mechanism by which the genetically identified positive (pho7+) and negative (csk1+) regulators function are not known. Here we use a combination of molecular biology, expression microarrays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to characterize the role of pho7+ and csk1+ in the PHO response. We define the set of genes that comprise the initial response to phosphate starvation in S. pombe. We identify a conserved PHO response for the ScPHO5 (pho1+), ScPHO84 (spbc8e4.01c+), and ScGIT1 (spbc1271.09+) orthologs. We use ChIP-Seq to identify members of the Pho7 regulon and characterize Pho7 binding in response to phosphate-limitation and Csk1 activity. We demonstrate that activation of pho1+ requires Pho7 binding to a UAS in the pho1+ promoter and that Csk1 repression does not regulate Pho7 enrichment. Further, we find that Pho7-dependent activation is not limited to phosphate-starvation, as additional environmental stress response pathways require pho7+ for maximal induction. We provide a global analysis of the PHO pathway in S. pombe. Our results elucidate the conserved core regulon required for responding to phosphate starvation between distantly related ascomycetes and a better understanding of flexibility in environmental stress response networks. ChIP Sequencing of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972h- transcription factor Pho7-TAP in high-Pi, no-Pi, and csk1Δ conditions
Project description:In mammals, the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase (Pol) II consists of 52 conserved heptapeptide repeats containing the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Post-translational modifications of the CTD coordinate the transcription cycle and various steps of mRNA maturation. Here we describe Tyr1 phosphorylation (Tyr1P) as a hallmark of initiating Pol II in mammalian cells, in contrast to what was described in yeast. Tyr1P is predominantly found in antisense orientation at promoters but is also specifically enriched at active enhancers. Mutation of Tyr1 to phenylalanine (Y1F) prevents the formation of the hyper-phosphorylated Pol IIO form, induces degradation of Pol II to the Pol IIB form and results in a lethal phenotype. Our results suggest that Tyr1P has evolved specialized and essential functions in higher eukaryotes associated with antisense promoter and enhancer transcription, and Pol II stability. This study was performed in a human Raji cell line. It contains ChIP-seq data for H3K36me3 (two replicates), H3K4me1 (two replicates), H3K4me3 (two replicates), Pol II (three replicates), Ser2P (two replicates), Ser5P (two replicates), Ser7P (two replicates), Tyr1P 3D12 (two replicates) and Tyr1P 8G5 (one replicate). MNase-experiment for nucleosomes was performed in paired-end sequencing on one replicate, 4 replicates for the input genomic DNA was used and one replicate was generated for the short strand specific RNA experiment.
Project description:Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Spt6 has a tandem SH2 (tSH2) domain within its C-terminus that recognizes Pol II CTD peptides phosphorylated on Ser2, Ser5 or Try1 in vitro. Deleting the tSH2 domain, however, only has a partial effect on Spt6 occupancy in vivo, suggesting that more complex mechanisms are involved in the Spt6 recruitment. Our results show that the Ser2 kinases Bur1 and Ctk1, but not the Ser5 kinase Kin28, cooperate in recruiting Spt6, genome-wide. Interestingly, the Ser2 kinases promote the association of Spt6 in early transcribed regions and not toward the 3' end of genes, where phosphorylated Ser2 reaches its maximum level. Additionally, our results uncover an unexpected role for histone deacetylases (Rpd3 and Hos2) in promoting Spt6 interaction with elongating Pol II. Finally, our data suggest that phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD on Tyr1 promotes the association of Spt6 with the 3' end of transcribed genes, independently of Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results show that a complex network of interactions, involving the Spt6 tSH2 domain, CTD phosphorylation and histone deacetylases, coordinate the recruitment of Spt6 to transcribed genes in vivo. We examined the genome-wide distribution (using ChIP-chip) of Spt6. Spt6 occupancy was also assayed in mutants for CTD Serine 2 and Serine 5 kinases and in mutants for histone deacetylases. ChIPs were performed with a Myc-tagged version of Spt6. Most ChIPs (in Cy5) were hybridyzed against a control ChIP sample from an isogenic non-tagged strain (in Cy3). In the ChIP experiments with the spt6-202del mutant, non immunoprecipitated DNA (input) was used as the control. In addition to Spt6 ChIPs, the project includes RNAPII (Rpb3) ChIP-chip datasets, where an anti-Rpb3 antibody was used to ChIP RNAPII and non immunoprecipitated DNA (input) was used as the control. All ChIP-chip experiments were done in duplicates. Each microarray was normalized using the Lima Loess and replicates were combined using a weighted average method as previously described (Pokholok et al., 2005).
Project description:The interaction between RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and RNA processing and packaging factors is strongly influenced by the C-terminal domain (CTD), which consists of multiple heptad repeats that can be differentially phosphorylated at five positions. Here we report strand-specific, high-resolution profiling of the five types of RNAPII CTD phosphorylation in yeast using crosslinking and analysis of modified polymerase (CLAMP). The 5’ regions of protein coding genes showed enrichment of Ser5P, and depletion of Tyr1P, Ser2P, Thr4P and Ser7P. CTD phosphorylation pattern boundaries were associated with known sites of RNAPII pausing, splicing, and nucleosome positioning. To integrate the distribution of the RNAPII modifications across all transcription units, we developed an eight-state, strand-specific Hidden Markov Model. This identified distinct modification states associated with initiating, early elongating and later elongating RNAPII. The initiation state was enriched near the Transcription Start Site (TSS) of mRNAs and ncRNAs, and persisted throughout the 1st exon of intron-containing genes. Notably, unstable ncRNAs failed to transition into the elongation states seen on protein coding genes, and their early termination and rapid degradation probably reflect this failure. Overall design: 19 samples were analyzed in total: 12 samples (1 to 12) from a strain carrying HTP-tagged Rpb1. Duplicate experiments were carried out using antibodies against the different phosphorylation states of S. cerevisiae Rpb1 carboxy-terminal domain. Ser5-P, Ser7-P, Ser2-P, Tyr1-P, Thr4-P as well as a no antibody control. 7 samples (13 to 19) from strains carrying HTP-tagged protein of interest, either Air2, Trf4, Rrp44 or Rrp6 (no antibody were used for these 9 samples).
Project description:Inorganic phosphate is an essential nutrient required by organisms for growth. During phosphate starvation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the phosphate signal transduction (PHO) pathway leading to the expression of the secreted acid phosphatase, PHO5. The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, regulates expression of the ScPHO5 homolog (pho1+) via a non-orthologous PHO pathway. The genes induced by phosphate limitation and the molecular mechanism by which the genetically identified positive (pho7+) and negative (csk1+) regulators function are not known. Here we use a combination of molecular biology, expression microarrays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to characterize the role of pho7+ and csk1+ in the PHO response. We define the set of genes that comprise the initial response to phosphate starvation in S. pombe. We identify a conserved PHO response for the ScPHO5 (pho1+), ScPHO84 (spbc8e4.01c+), and ScGIT1 (spbc1271.09+) orthologs. We use ChIP-Seq to identify members of the Pho7 regulon and characterize Pho7 binding in response to phosphate-limitation and Csk1 activity. We demonstrate that activation of pho1+ requires Pho7 binding to a UAS in the pho1+ promoter and that Csk1 repression does not regulate Pho7 enrichment. Further, we find that Pho7-dependent activation is not limited to phosphate-starvation, as additional environmental stress response pathways require pho7+ for maximal induction. We provide a global analysis of the PHO pathway in S. pombe. Our results elucidate the conserved core regulon required for responding to phosphate starvation between distantly related ascomycetes and a better understanding of flexibility in environmental stress response networks. Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972 h- cells were starved for inorganic phosphate for 0, 30, 60, 120, or 240 minutes pior to microarray preparation to determine the extent and temporal resolution of the phosphate starvation response. At 120 minutes post-starvation we define a set of genes that are directly and specifically induced by phosphate starvation, providing a time-point at which all other experiments were performed. We characterize the pho7+- and csk1+- dependency of this PHO response at 120 minutes post-starvation in pho7+csk1+, pho7Δ, csk1Δ, and pho7Δcsk1Δ cells. In a seperate set of experiments we characterized the S. pombe stress response to copper limitation, iron limitation, and carbon switching at 120 minutes post-stress and osmotic shift at 20 minutes post-stress in both pho7+ and pho7Δ cells.
Project description:Both canonical and alternative splicing of RNAs is governed by intronic sequence elements and produces transient lariat structures fastened by branch-points within introns. To map precisely the location of branch-points on a genomic scale, we developed LaSSO (Lariat Sequence Site Origin), a data-driven algorithm which utilizes RNA-seq data. Using fission yeast cells lacking the debranching enzyme Dbr1, LaSSO not only accurately identified canonical splicing events, but also pinpointed novel, but rare, exon-skipping events, which may reflect aberrantly spliced transcripts. Compromised intron turnover perturbed gene regulation at multiple levels, including splicing and protein translation. Notably, Dbr1 function was also critical for the expression of mitochondrial genes, and for the processing of self-spliced mitochondrial introns. LaSSO showed better sensitivity and accuracy than algorithms used for computational branch-point prediction or for empirical branch-point determination. Even when applied to a human data set acquired in the presence of debranching activity, LaSSO identified both canonical and exon skipping branch-points. LaSSO thus provides an effective, accurate and unbiased approach for defining high-resolution maps of branch-site sequences and intronic elements on a genomic scale. LaSSO should be useful to validate introns and uncover branch-point sequences in any eukaryote, and it could be integrated to RNA-seq pipelines. Interrogation of the S. pombe transcriptome using rRNA depleted strand specific RNA sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 2000) in wild type and dbr1.Δ cultures. A total of 4 samples were analyzed: two biological repeates of wild-type strain and two biological repeats of dbr1.Δ
Project description:Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has evolved an array of heptad repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 at the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit (Rpb1). Differential phosphorylation of Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 in the 5’ and 3’ regions of genes coordinates the binding of transcription and RNA processing factors to the initiating and elongating polymerase complexes. Here, we report phosphorylation of Thr4 by Polo-like-kinase-3 in mammalian cells. ChIPseq analyses indicate an increase of Thr4-P levels in the 3’ region of genes occurring subsequently to an increase of Ser2-P levels. A Thr4/Ala mutant of Pol II displays a lethal phenotype. This mutant reveals a global defect in RNA elongation, while initiation is largely unaffected. Since Thr4 replacement mutants are viable in yeast we conclude that this amino acid has evolved an essential function(s) in the CTD of Pol II for gene transcription in mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the function and ChIPseq genome-wide profiling of Thr4P residue (using the 6D7 antibody) of the Pol II CTD in Raji human B cells in comparison with either total Pol II profiling (N20 antibody, santa-cruz sc-899x), Ser5P CTD (3E8) or Ser2P (3E10) profiling in WT Raji cells. In another set of experiments, we also analysed total Pol II profiling (using an HA tag at the N-terminus of RPB1 and HA antibody Abcam ab9110) when endogenous enzyme is shut down by alpha-amanitin and replaced by either a recominant Pol II with 48 consensus repeats of the CTD (con48) or a mutated version where Thr4 residues were replaced by Ala (Thr4-Ala).In total 6 experimental sets (Pol IIt, Ser5P, Ser2P, Thr4P, con48, Thr4-Ala) were generated for our analysis and for each a biological replicate was performed. Biological replicates were merged when the data showed comparable signal noise ratio. Otherwise a unique replicate, showing the best noise ratio, was chosen for further analysis although the second replicate (for Ser2P and Thr4-Ala experiments). An input control (genomic DNA extracted after reverse crosslinking of the nuclear chip extracts) was performred and used for substraction to the ChIP experiments. One specific input material was used for wt cells, one for con48 and one for Thr4-Ala. Our data were processed to generate final wig files using our in house analysis pipeline essentially as described in Koch et al, (2011) NSMB 18 (8) p956.In brief, after alignment, sequence tags are: (i) artefact removed, (ii) elongated to an in silico optimized actual size of the initial fragments , (iii) input substracted, (iv) merged if applicable, (v) scaled for all experiments to correct for variation of tag number in between experiments. Several of the raw data files were no longer available.
Project description:Using pol II mutants in human cells we found that slow transcription repositioned specific co-transcriptionally deposited chromatin modifications; H3K36me3 shifted within genes toward 5’ ends and H3K4me2 extended further upstream of start sites. Slow transcription also evoked a hyperphosphorylation of CTD Ser2 residues at 5’ ends of genes that is conserved in yeast. We propose a “dwell-time in the target zone” model to explain the effects of transcriptional dynamics on establishment of co-transcriptionally deposited protein modifications. Promoter-proximal Ser2 phosphorylation is associated with longer pol II dwell time at start sites and reduced transcriptional polarity due to strongly enhanced divergent antisense transcription at promoters. Overall design: The effect of transcription elongation rate on histone H3K36me3, H3K4me2 and pol II CTD phosphorylation was analyzed by ChIP-seq in isogenic human HEK293 cell lines that inducibly express a-amanitin resistant mutants of the RNA polymerase II large subunit with slow elongation rates. Anti-pol II total nascent RNA sequencing (tNET-seq) was developed to assay transcription by WT and slow pol II. Slow pol II mutants in S. cerevisiae were also assayed for pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation.
Project description:The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) orchestrates dynamic recruitment of specific cellular machines during different stages of transcription. Signature phosphorylation patterns of Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 heptapeptide repeats of the CTD engage specific “readers.” While phospho-Ser5 and phospho-Ser2 marks are ubiquitous, phospho-Thr4 is reported to only impact specific genes. Here, we investigate the RNA expression profile in WT and CTD-mutant strains of S. cerevisiae. Overall design: RNA expression analysis in RNA Pol II CTD mutants