Changes in translational state from 1 day to 8 day after inoculation in Arabidopsis thaliana T87 cells
ABSTRACT: We investigated genome-wide changes in mRNA translation in Arabidopsis thaliana T87 suspension cell cultures which thought to be one of the host materials for bioreactor. Global translational repression was observed in cells of 8 day after inoculation that is thought to be stressful condition by the nutrient deficiency and hypoxia. This suggested the negative effect of the global translational repression on transgene expression. On the other hand, previous study using heat stress showed that some mRNAs were actively translated under such stressful condition, suggesting the existence of mRNA that were actively translated in cells of 8 day after inoculations. To identify mRNAs that escape global translational repression on 8 day and its cis-elements would be the 1st step to make the system for higher transgene expression by the escaping global translational repression. To this end, we subjected polysomal RNA and non-polysomal RNA from sucrose gradient fractionated cell lysates to the co-hybridization on Agilent Arabidopsis 4 Oligo Microarrays. The ratio of signal intensities (polysomal RNA: total RNA) was used as an indicator of the translation state for each transcript. Experiment using two-fractionated mRNA, Polysomal mRNA vs. total mRNA. Biological replicates: 1
Project description:Translational control is a key regulatory step in the expression of genes as proteins. In plant cells, translational efficiency of mRNAs differs on different mRNA species, and the efficiency dynamically changes in various conditions. To gain a global view of translational control throughout growth and development, we performed genome-wide analysis of polysome association of mRNA over growth and leaf development in Arabidopsis thaliana by applying the mRNAs in polysome to DNA microarray. This analysis revealed that the degree of polysome association of mRNA had different levels depending on mRNA species, and the polysome association changed greatly throughout growth and development for each. In the growth stage, transcripts showed varying changes in polysome association from strongly depressed to unchanged degree, with the majority of transcripts showing dissociation from ribosomes. On the other hand, during leaf development, the polysome association of transcripts showed a normal distribution from repressed to activated mRNAs when comparing between expanding and expanded leaves. In addition, functional category analysis of the microarray data suggested that translational control has a physiological significance in plant growth and development process, especially in category of signaling and protein synthesis. Besides this, we compared changes in polysome association of mRNAs between various conditions and characterized translational controls in each. This result suggested that mRNAs translation might be controlled by complicated mechanisms for response to each condition. Our results highlight the importance of dynamic changes in mRNA translation in plant development and growth. Experiment using two-flactionated mRNA in 4 developmental stages, Polysomal mRNA vs. total mRNA. Biological replicates: 2. Compared 2DAG and 21DAG, or Young leaves and Mature leaves.
Project description:We investigated genome-wide changes in mRNA translation in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures exposed to brief perids of two types of stress: elevated temperature (37 degree_C) and high salinity (200 mM NaCl). To this end, we subjected polysomal RNA and non-polysomal RNA from sucrose gradient fractionated cell lysates to the co-hybridization on Agilent Arabidopsis 3 Oligo Microarrays. The ratio of signal intensities (polysomal RNA: non-polysomal RNA) was used as an indicator of the translation state for each transcript. To inspect coordination of changes in translational profiles with transcriptional profiles, we also isolated total RNAs from the same cells used for translational profiling experiments and investigated changes in accumulated transcript levels in response to each stress using the microarray. Two biological replicates were analyzed.
Project description:We treated Jurkat cells for 48 hr with a sublethal dose of FK866 (5 nM) and DMSO (Mock, control treatment). RNA samples for microarrays derived from fractionated samples by sucrose gradient (sub-polysomes, polysomes), giving us the chance to perform an analysis among polysomal/subpolysomal distribution in treated or untreated cells and the possibility to identify the multi-level gene expression regulation effects of FK866. We are interested to find differentially expressed genes, in the early phase of cell response to FK866, and genes that account for a specific post-transcriptional regulation exerted by the cell in response to the drug. Keywords: polysomal profiling, translatome profiling, polysomal RNA, subpolysomal RNA, translational profiling, polysome profiling, post-transcriptional regulation, FK866, translational efficiency. Gene expression signals derived from the polysomal and subpolysomal RNA populations were compared by microarrays analysis to those obtained from total RNAs (derived from the sum of all the fractions in the polysomal gradient). Polysomal RNA, subpolysomal RNA and total RNA were isolated from Jurkat cells treated with FK866 5 nM or DMSO (mock, control treatment) for 48 hr. Cells lysates were collected from control cells (mock) and from treated cells (FK866). All experiments were run in biological quadruplicates.
Project description:In obesity, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of existing adipocytes (hypertrophy), increasing the number of small adipocytes (hyperplasia) or both. Much is known about transcriptional control during adipogenesis, including early events. However, translational control plays a pivotal role in many dynamic processes and we presume that it is also important for the control of adipogenesis, especially in the first hours after hormonal induction. By use of ribosome profiling we identified 43 genes that are up-regulated and 2 genes that are down-regulated during the first six hours of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Interestingly, we found Ghrelin to be down-regulated. Up-regulated genes comprise factors that are nucleic acid binding (Cdkn1c, eIF4b, Hsf1, Irf6, Myc, Plekhn1, Polr2a, Rpl18, Rpl27a, Rpl6, Rpl7a, Rps18, Rpsa, Sema3g, Tbc1d22a, Tsc22d3), form part of ribosomes (L6, L7a, L18, L27a, Sa, S18, S15a pseudogene), act on the regulation of translation (eIF4b) or transcription (Hsf1, Irf6, Myc, Tsc22d3). Others act as chaperones (Bag3, Hspa8/Hsc70, Hsp90ab1) or in other metabolic or signals transducing processes. We conclude that a moderate reorganisation of the functionality of the ribosomal machinery is a very important step for the growth and expression control at the beginning of adipogenesis. 12 samples: 4 (0h, non-polysomal fraction; 0h, polysomal fraction; 6h, non-polysomal fraction; 6h, polysomal fraction) x3 replicates
Project description:Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted via the bites of infected Anopheline mosquitoes. Midgut invasion is a major bottleneck for Plasmodium development inside the mosquito vectors as a rapidly responding immune system recognizes ookinetes and recruits killing factors from the midgut and surrounding tissues, dramatically reducing the population of invading ookinetes before they can successfully traverse the midgut epithelium. Understanding molecular details of the parasite-vector interactions requires precise measurement of nascent protein synthesis in the mosquito during Plasmodium infection. Current expression profiling primarily monitors alterations in steady-state levels of mRNA, but does not address the equally critical issue of whether the proteins encoded by the mRNAs are actually synthesized. In this study, we used sucrose density gradient centrifugation to isolate actively translating Anopheles gambiae mRNAs based upon their association with polyribosomes (polysomes). The proportion of individual gene transcripts associated with polysomes, which is determined by RNA deep sequencing, reflects mRNA translational status. This approach led to identification of 1017 mosquito transcripts that were primarily regulated at the translational level after ingestion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood. Caspar, a negative regulator of the NF-kappaB transcription factor Rel2, appears to be substantially activated at the translational levels during Plasmodium infection. In addition, transcripts of Dcr1, Dcr2 and Drosha, which are involved in small RNA biosynthesis, exhibited enhanced associations with polysomes after P. falciparum challenge. This observation suggests that mosquito microRNAs may play an important role in reactions against Plasmodium invasion. We analyzed both total cellular mRNAs and mRNAs that are associated with polysomes to simultaneously monitor transcriptomes and nascent protein synthesis in the mosquito. This approach provides more accurate information regarding the rate of protein synthesis, and identifies some mosquito factors that might have gone unrecognized because expression of these proteins is regulated mainly at the translational level rather than at the transcriptional level after mosquitoes ingest a Plasmodium-infected blood meal. Midguts from female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were dissected at around 24 h after ingestion of P. falciparum-infected blood. Mosquitoes fed on uninfected blood were used as control. A portion of the midguts were used for isolation of total cellular RNA. Extracts of the remaining midguts were fractionated over sucrose density gradients, and fifteen fractions were collected from the top of each gradient. Non-polysomal fractions, as well as polysomal fractions were combined, respectively, to obtain two RNA pools per gradient for three independent experiments. The first, last and the sample between non-polysomal and polysomal, were all discarded to ensure pure pools from each set. A fourth experiment was conducted where the polysomal and non-polysomal samples were not pooled, to be used later for qRT-PCR. The mRNA levels of individual mosquito genes in polysome (PS) fractions, nonpolysome (NP) fractions and unfractionated steady-state (total) RNA were determined using high throughput RNA deep sequencing. Each RNA pool generated 2.1-9.8 million raw read . Signal intensities of transcripts from each PS pool were compared to those of transcripts from a matching NP pool. To quantify the translational status of individual mRNA species, we define the relative PS loading [PL=P/(P+NP)] as the extent of mRNA association with polysomes. PL values were compared between the mosquitoes fed on P. falciparum-infected or -uninfected blood.
Project description:Genome-wide analysis of translation has the potential to provide major contributions in understanding the pathophysiology of infection processes, given the complex interplay between pathogens and host cells. Informations about the translational state of mRNAs or the activity of RNA binding proteins and ncRNAs after treatment with sublytic doses of pore forming toxins are completely missing. This study uncovers the reshaping undergoing in the translational control system of the host in response to sublytic doses of staphylococcal α-hemolysin (AHL). Keywords: translatome profiling, polysomal profiling, polysomal RNA, translational control, translational profiling, polysome profiling, post-transcriptional regulation, staphylococcal α-hemolysin, pore forming toxins, PTF. The comparison between translatome and transcriptome profiling was used to discover mRNA-specific changes of the SH-SY5Y cells transcriptome and translatome in response to sublytic doses of staphylococcal α-hemolysin (AHL). To identify translationally regulated mRNAs, gene expression signals derived from the polysomal mRNA populations were compared by microarrays analysis to those obtained from total RNAs. Polysomal mRNA and total mRNA were isolated from SH-SY5Y cells treated with sublytic doses (3nM) of AHL for 2 hours. Cells lysates were collected from untreated cells (control) and from treated cells. All experiments were run in biological triplicates.
Project description:Translatome analysis by sucrose gradient centrifugation of cell lysates followed by microarray profiling of the polysomal and subpolysomal RNA fractions represents a way of both studying translational control networks and better approximating the proteomic representation of cells. It is an established notion that translational control takes place essentially at the translation initiation level, therefore the variation in abundance of a given mRNA species on polysomes can be directly related to the variation in abundance of the corresponding protein. Comparison of translatome profile changes with corresponding transcriptome profile changes can provide a measure of the degree of concordance between cellular controls affecting mRNA abundance and cellular controls affecting mRNA availability to translation. To provide a direct experimental evaluation of the phenomenon, we decided to study a classical example of transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression: Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) treatment. This stimulus triggers a well known chain of intracellular transduction events, ultimately resulting in a multifaceted phenotypic spectrum of changes with prevalent induction of cell growth and proliferation. We subjected HeLa cells to serum starvation for 12h and then we added EGF at final concentration of 1 μg/ml, profiling before and after 40 minutes of treatment the transcriptome, the translatome, coming from the polysomal pool of mRNAs after sucrose gradient separation, and also the mRNA content of the subpolysomal pool, expected not to be actively translated. Keywords: translatome profiling, polysomal profiling, polysomal RNA, translational control, translational profiling, polysome profiling, post-transcriptional regulation, EGF starvation release. The comparison between transcriptional and polysomal profiling was used for the discovery of general and mRNA-specific changes in the translation state of the serum starved HeLa cells transcriptome in response to EGF stimulus. To identify translationally regulated mRNA molecules, gene expression signals derived from the polysomal and subpolysomal RNA populations were compared by microarrays analysis to those obtained from unfractionated total RNAs. Polysomal RNA, subpolysomal RNA and total RNA were isolated from HeLa cells serum starved and treated with EGF. Cells lysates were collected before (t = 0 min) and after (t = 40 min) EGF treatment. All experiments were run in triplicates.
Project description:Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a transcriptional and translational control network designed to restore protein homeostasis. Central to the UPR is PERK phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2 (eIF2~P), which represses global translation coincident with preferential translation of mRNAs, such as ATF4 and CHOP, that serve to implement the UPR transcriptional regulation. In this study, we used sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and a genome-wide microarray approach to measure changes in mRNA translation during ER stress. Our analysis suggests that translational efficiencies vary across a broad range during ER stress, with the majority of transcripts being either repressed or resistant to eIF2~P, while a notable cohort of key regulators are subject to preferential translation. From this latter group, we identify IBTKa as being subject to both translation and transcriptional induction during eIF2~P in both cell lines and a mouse model of ER stress. Translational regulation of IBTKalpha mRNA involves the stress-induced relief of two inhibitory uORFs in the 5'-leader of the transcript. Depletion of IBTKalpha by shRNA reduced viability of cultured cells coincident with increased caspase 3/7 cleavage, suggesting that IBTKalpha is a key regulator in determining cell fate during the UPR. We used a genome-wide microarray approach to determine how individual mRNAs were differentially translated during endoplasmic reticulum stress. A microarray analysis from our laboratory identified gene transcripts suggested to be under translation control in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells following a 6 hour treatment with thapsigargin, a potent inducer of ER stress, or no stress. The mRNAs were separated by sucrose gradient analyses to yield three fractions, those transcripts associated with large polysomes (≥4 ribosomes per mRNA), those associated with monosome, disomes, or trisomes, and those fractionated at the top of the gradient with free ribosomes. RNA was extracted from sucrose gradients corresponding to these fractions and hybridized on Affymetrix microarrays. In parallel, we also measured total levels for each gene transcript in the presence or absence of thapsigargin treatment to address transcription regulation coincident with translational control. Please note that the treatment plus fractionation based on association with different numbers of ribosomes did yield different populations of mRNAs, which resulted in considerable variation in normalized data across the samples.
Project description:The initial translational response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to acetic acid-induced apoptosis was investigated by microarray profiling of mRNAs contained in polysomal fractions obtained upon 0 (used as control), 15 and 30 minutes of acetic acid treatment. The mRNA fraction thus investigated corresponds to the mRNAs capable of overcoming the inhibition of cap-mediated translation initiation.
Project description:Polysomal profiling results showed that global translation was enhanced in roots after 8 h and in shoots after 24 h of GSH treatment. By performing transcriptomic analyses of steady-state and polysome-bound mRNAs in GSH-treated plants, we reveal that GSH has more a greatersubstantial impact on translational change. GSH-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis roots and shoots was measured seperately at 8 and 24 hours after exposure to 100 μM GSH. Two independent experiments were performed at each time (8 or 24 hours).