ABSTRACT: SnowShoes-FTD, a fusion transcript discovery tool, was used to identify fusions in breast cancer cell lines using the RNA-Seq data Total RNA extracted from cell lines. The total RNA was used for construction of RNA-Seq library for RNA-Sequencing.
Project description:Conventioal cytogenetic on 2 sinonasal sarcoma (SNS) cases showed t(2;4)(q37.1;q31.3) translocation previously. The aim of this whole transcriptome analysis is to determine potential candidate genes involved in this translocation. Total RNA extracted from frozen cultured primary tumor cells from a SNS characterized at the cytogenetics level was subjected to Illumina whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing anslysis.
Project description:MLL-fusions represent a large group of leukemia drivers, whose diversity originates from the vast molecular heterogeneity of C-terminal fusion partners of MLL protein. While studies of selected MLL-fusions have revealed critical molecular pathways, unifying mechanisms across all MLL-fusions remain poorly understood. We present the first comprehensive survey of protein-protein interactions of seven distantly related MLL-fusion proteins: MLL-AF1p, MLL-AF4, MLL-AF9, MLL-CBP, MLL-EEN, MLL-ENL and MLL-GAS7.
Project description:Gene fusions and chimeric transcripts occur frequently in cancers and in some cases drive the development of the disease. An accurate detection of these events is crucial for cancer research and in a long-term perspective could be applied for personalized therapy. RNA-seq technology has been established as an efficient approach to investigate transcriptomes and search for gene fusions and chimeric transcripts on a genome-wide scale. A number of computational methods for the detection of gene fusions from RNA-seq data have been developed. However, recent studies demonstrate differences between commonly used approaches in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Moreover their ability to detect gene fusions on the isoform level has not been studied carefully so far. Here we propose a novel computational approach called InFusion for fusion gene detection from deep RNA sequencing data. Validation of InFusion on simulated and on several public RNA-seq datasets demonstrated better detection accuracy compared to other tools. We also performed deep RNA sequencing of two well-established prostate cancer cell lines. Using these data we showed that InFusion is capable of discovering alternatively spliced gene fusion isoforms as well as chimeric transcripts that include non-exonic regions. In addition our method can detect anti-sense transcription in the fusions by incorporating strand specificity of the sequencing library. Overall design: Detection of fusion genes and chimeric transcripts from deep RNA-seq data
Project description:Discarded live tumor tissue from a metastatic focus in the patient’s lung was collected under institutional review board approval through the NUT midline carcinoma registry (www.NMCRegistry.org). From this tissue the first known NUT-variant cell line, 1221, was established. To determine the putative partner gene to NUT, we performed comprehensive RNA-sequencing on RNA purified from 1221. We identified an in-frame transcript fusing the 5’ coding sequence of NSD3 (exons 1-7) to exons 2-7 of NUT. Expression of the NSD3-NUT fusion oncoprotein was verified by immunobloting with an antibody to NUT, revealing an approximately 200kDa band that is similar in size to BRD3-NUT, but smaller than BRD4-NUT Identification of a NUT fusion partner using RNA extracted from live cultured 1221 cell line derived from a lung metastasis from the index case of a 13 year old female with NUT-positive NMC.
Project description:Fusion genes can be oncogenic drivers in a variety of cancer types and represent potential targets for targeted therapy. The BRAF gene is frequently involved in oncogenic fusions, with fusion frequencies of 0.2-3% throughout different cancers. However, BRAF fusions rarely occur in the same gene configuration, potentially challenging personalized therapy design. In particular, the influence that is imposed by the wide variety of fusion partners on the oncogenic role of BRAF during tumor growth and drug response is unknown. Here, we used patient-derived colorectal cancer organoids to functionally characterize and cross-compare previously identified BRAF fusions containing various partner genes (AGAP3, DLG1 and TRIM24) with respect to cellular behaviour, downstream signaling activation and response to targeted therapies. We demonstrate that 5’ partner choice of BRAF fusions affects their subcellular localization and intracellular signaling capacity. In particular the DLG1-BRAF fusion protein showed distinct localization to the plasma membrane and exhibited increased activation of downstream MAPK signaling under unperturbed conditions. Moreover, phosphoproteomics and RNA sequencing identified distinct subsets of affected signaling pathways and altered gene expression of BRAF fusions. The different BRAF fusions exhibited varying sensitivities to simultaneous targeted inhibition of MEK and the EGF receptor family. However, all BRAF fusions conveyed resistance to targeted monotherapy against the EGF receptor family, suggesting that BRAF fusions should be screened alongside other MAPK pathway alterations to identify mCRC patients to exclude from cetuximab treatment
Project description:We report the design and implementation of a "breakpoint analysis" pipeline to discover novel gene fusions by tell-tale transcript level or genomic DNA copy number transitions occurring within genes. We use this method to prioritize candidate rearrangements from high density array CGH datasets as well as exon-resolution expression microarrays. We mine both publicly available data as well as datasets generated in our laboratory. Several gene fusion candidates were chosen for further characterization, and corresponding samples were profiled using paired end RNA sequencing to discover the identity of the gene fusion. Using this approach, we report the discovery and characterization of novel gene fusions spanning multiple cancer subtypes including angiosarcoma, pancreatic cancer, anaplastic astrocytoma, melanoma, breast cancer, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Taken together, this study provides a robust approach for gene fusion discovery, and our results highlight a more widespread role of fusion genes in cancer pathogenesis. Breakpoint analysis for the discovery of novel gene fusions across human cancers
Project description:We used NGS on a cohort of complex genetics sarcomas to study their transcriptomes (RNA-seq technology), looking for recurrent and specific gene fusions. We identified multiple TRIO fusions with different partners in our cohort. No TRIO fusions were reported in negative-control cells (normal tissues) and in simple genetics sarcomas. Overall design: We performed RNA-seq on 117 various sarcomas. Samples include ERCC Spike-ins. 6 samples contains TRIO fusions.
Project description:We detected fusion genes in 274 fresh surgical samples of gliomas using whole transcriptome sequencing. Using this approach we screened a panel of glioma samples and identified a number of activating novel fusion transcripts. Fusion detection in 274 glioma patients
Project description:Recent large-scale studies have defined genomewide, cell type-specific patterns of DNA methylation, a modification known to be important for regulating gene expression in both normal development and disease states. However, determining the functional significance of specific methylation events remains a challenging problem due to the current lack of targeted methodologies for removing these modifications. Here we describe an approach for efficient targeted demethylation of specific CpGs in human cells using fusions of engineered transcription activator-like effector (TALE) repeat arrays and the TET1 hydroxylase catalytic domain. Using these TALE-TET1 fusions, we demonstrate that modification of certain critical methylated promoter CpG positions can be associated with substantial increases in endogenous human gene expression. Our results delineate a general strategy for defining the functional significance of specific CpG methylation marks in the context of endogenous gene loci and validate new programmable DNA demethylation reagents with broad utility for research and potential therapeutic applications. Bisulfite sequencing of three different loci in three different cell lines (Klf4 in K562s, HBB in K562s and RHOXF2 in 293s and HeLas. Biological triplicates of all samples and controls (off-target and GFP controls).
Project description:Studies of fusion genes have mainly focused on the formation of fusions that result in the production of hybrid proteins or, alternatively, on promoter-switching events that put a gene under the control of aberrant signals. However, gene fusions may also disrupt the transcriptional control of genes that are encoded in introns downstream of the breakpoint. By ignoring structural constraints of the transcribed fusions, we highlight the importance of a largely unexplored function of fusion genes. Using breast cancer as an example, we show that miRNA host genes are specifically enriched in fusion genes and that many different, low-frequency, 5' partners may deregulate the same miRNA irrespective of the coding potential of the fusion transcript. These results indicate that the concept of recurrence, defined by the rate of functionally important aberrations, needs to be revised to encompass convergent fusions that affect a miRNA independently of transcript structure and protein-coding potential. Overall design: Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing was performed on 1600 sequencing libraries (49 technical replicates, 1552 tumour samples) for fusion gene detection analysis. miRNA sequencing was performed on a subset of the fusion detection samples, 191 sequence libraries (5 technical replicates, 186 tumour samples), for miRNA transcript expression estimation. ------------------------------------ This represents the miRNA sequencing component of 191 libraries only. -------------------------------------- The authors state "due to Swedish law, the patient consent, and the risk that the sequencing data contains personally-identifiable information andhereditary mutations, we cannot deposit the short sequencing read data in a repository". Thus, this submission is incomplete.