Human mesenchymal stromal cell expansion in a 3D scaffold-based system under direct perfusion
ABSTRACT: Development of systems allowing the maintenance of native properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is a critical challenge for studying physiological functions of skeletal progenitors, as well as towards cellular therapy and regenerative medicine applications. Conventional stem cell culture in monolayer on plastic dishes (2D) is associated with progressive loss of functionality, likely due to the absence of a biomimetic microenvironment and the selection of adherent populations. Here we demonstrate that 2D MSC expansion can be entirely bypassed by culturing freshly isolated bone marrow cells within the pores of 3D scaffolds in a perfusion-based bioreactor system, followed by enzymatic digestion for cell retrieval. The 3D-perfusion system supported MSC growth while maintaining cells of the hematopoietic lineage, and thus generated a cellular environment mimicking some features of the bone marrow stroma. As compared to 2D-expansion, sorted CD45- cells derived from 3D-perfusion culture after the same time (3 weeks) or a similar extent of proliferation (7-8 doublings) maintained a 4.3-fold higher clonogenicity and exhibited a superior differentiation capacity towards all typical mesenchymal lineages, with similar immunomodulatory function in vitro. Transcriptomic analysis performed on MSC from 5 donors validated the robustness of the process and indicated a reduced inter-donor variability as well as a significant upregulation of multipotency-related gene clusters following 3D-perfusion as compared to 2D expansion. The described system offers a model to study how factors of a 3D engineered niche may regulate MSC function and, by streamlining conventional labor-intensive processes, is prone to automation and scalability within closed bioreactor systems. Nucleated cells were isolated from 5 fresh human bone marrow aspirates by means of red blood cells lyses buffer and then were seeded into a 3D perfusion bioreactor system using a pure hydroxyapatite 3D scaffold and in conventional Petri dishes (2D). After culture for 19 days, cells from both systems were enzymatically retrieved and sorted using anti-CD45-coated magnetic beads. Total RNA was extracted from CD45- cells, QCed and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:The development of more complex but reliable systems for compound testing in a pharmaceutical context is a challenging task to date. Three dimensional (3D), organ mimetic cell culture is aiming to become an alternative to common two dimensional (2D) cell culture or animal testing in that field. We developed a biocompatible 3D cell culture environment for a 3D hepatocyte cell culture that enables cellular maintenance in a polycarbonate scaffold structure. Our data indicate that an actively perfused three dimensional cell culture displays a more pronounced metabolic genotype than statically cultivated hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes of three donors were cultivated for five days under 2D and 3D statical and perfused conditions. Cultivation was started with 0.25 x106 in 2D and with 1x 106 vital cells for the 3D experiments. The day of seeding was defined as d0. The groups were classified as follows: 2D i.e.monolayer cultures, 3D i.e. statical 3D culture and BR denotes perfused 3D culture of hepatocytes. The perfusable bioreactor system was operated using a peristaltic pump. It houses the MatriGrid, a polycarbonate based microporous cellular support. For 3Dstatic cultivation, cell- inoculated MatriGrids were placed in wells of a 24 wells plate. Microarray experiments of three 2D (i.e. control), three 3D statically and three actively perfused 3D cultivations, respectively, were performed at SIRS-Lab GmbH (SIRS-Lab GmbH, Jena, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Altogether, 8 RNA samples of hepatocyte cultures and an internal control RNA were hybridized on two HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips.
Project description:The development of more complex but reliable systems for compound testing in a pharmaceutical context is a challenging task to date. Three-dimensional (3D), organ mimetic cell culture is aiming to become an alternative to common two-dimensional (2D) cell culture or animal testing in that field. We developed a biocompatible 3D cell culture environment for a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model that enables cellular maintenance in a polycarbonate scaffold structure. Albumin, regarded as a differentiation marker, was elevated in statically 3D cultivated HepG2 cells. Expression of HCC tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was reduced compared to immunofluorescence stainings of 2D cultivated cells. Remarkably, expression of cytokeratin and pathophysiologically relevant beta-1 integrin (ITGB1) was found enhanced in nonperfused 3D cell culture. Changes in gene expression induced by the 3D cultivation environment were investigated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Our findings revealed involvement of the insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway in upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and ITGB1. The experimental data indicate a more differentiated state in 3D cultivated HepG2 cells than in the respective 2D experiments. Hence, scaffold-supported 3D cultivation of HepG2 cells may lead to a gain of information valuable for both drug testing and cancer research. HepG2 cells were cultivated for five days under 2D and 3D statical and perfused conditions. Cultivation was started with 0.25x10^6 cells in 2D and with 1x10^6 vital cells for the 3D experiments. The day of seeding was defined as d0. The groups were classified as follows: 2D, i.e., monolayer cultures, 3D, i.e., statical 3D cultures and BR, which denotes perfused 3D culture of HepG2 cells. The perfusable bioreactor system was operated using a peristaltic pump. It houses the MatriGrid, a polycarbonate-based microporous cellular support. For 3D static cultivation, cell-inoculated MatriGrids were placed in wells of a 24-well plate. Microarray experiments of three 2D (i.e., control), three 3D statically and three actively perfused 3D cultivations were performed at SIRS-Lab GmbH (SIRS-Lab GmbH, Jena, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Altogether, 9 RNA samples of hepatocyte cultures and an internal control RNA were hybridized on two HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips.
Project description:Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are conventionally cultured as adherent monolayers on tissue culture plastic. MSCs can also be cultured as 3D cell aggregates (spheroids). Optimised 3D conditions (60,000 MSCs cultured as a spheroid for 5 days) inhibited MSC proliferation and induced cell shrinkage in the absence of cell death. Primary human MSCs isolated from 2 donors were cultured under both monolayer (2D MSCs) and optimised 3D (3D MSCs) conditions. High quality RNA was isolated from all samples, and global gene expression analysis was performed in duplicate (using Agilent SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression 8x60K v2 Microarrays) to identify gene expression changes in 3D compared to 2D MSC cultures.
Project description:Cancer tissue-like structures were developed by using established human tumor cell lines in perfusion-based bioreactor systems. In colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, perfusion allowed more homogeneous scaffold seeding than tri-dimensional (3D) static cultures and significantly (13.7 fold, p<0.0001) higher proliferation. Resulting tissues exhibited morphology and phenotypes similar to xenografts generated in immunodeficient mice. Whole transcriptome analysis of 2D, 3D static and 3D perfusion cultures revealed the highest correlation between xenografts and 3D perfusion cultures (r=0.985). Clinically relevant concentrations of 5-FU, used in neo- and adjuvant CRC treatment, had no effect on numbers of HT-29 CRC cells cultured in 3D perfusion or xenografts, as compared with a 55.8% reduction in 2D cultures. Treatment induced apoptosis in 2D cultures, but only “nucleolar stress” in perfused cells and xenografts, consistent with partial responsiveness. In 3D perfusion cultures BCL-2, TRAF1, and FLIP gene expression was marginally affected, as compared with significant down-regulation in 2D cell cultures. Accordingly, ABT-199 BCL-2 inhibitor, induced cytostatic effects in 3D perfusion but not in 2D cell cultures (p=0.003). Tumor cells from partially responsive (Dworak 2) patients undergoing neo-adjuvant treatment, typically (10/11) expressed BCL-2, as compared with 0/3 highly (Dworak 3-4) responsive and 4/15 fully resistant CRC (Dworak 0/1, p=0.03), closely matching 3D perfusion cultures data. These results indicate that 3D perfusion cultures efficiently mimic phenotypic and functional features observed in xenografts and clinical specimens. These models may be of critical translational relevance to address fundamental human tumor cell biology issues and to develop predictive pre-clinical tests of novel compounds. Overall design: Expression profiles of colorectal cancer cell lines cultured in 2D, 3D static, 3D perfusion or growing as xenografts were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicates, using Illumina HiSeq2000.
Project description:TGFbeta/TNFalpha treated spheroid A549 cultures are a model of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). These experiments capture the changes in global gene expression that result from cells being induced to undergo EMT (3D control vs 3D treated), but also the differences in gene expression when A549 is grown in spheroid cultures (2D control vs 3D untreated). EMT is efficiently induced only in the spheroid culture model. A total of 8 samples are analyzed, corresponding to 4 conditions (2D control, 2D treated, 3D control, 3D treated) and 2 biological replicates.
Project description:Background. Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs) have been implicated as a cell-of-origin for high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. However, there are relatively few in vitro models of this tissue type available for use in studies of FTSEC biology and malignant transformation. In vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models aim to recreate the architecture and geometry of tissues in vivo and restore the complex network of cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions that occur throughout the surface of the cell membrane. Results. We have established and characterized 3D spheroid culture models of primary FTSECs. FTSEC spheroids contain central cores of hyaline matrix surrounded by mono- or multi-layer epithelial sheets. We found that 3D culturing alters the molecular characteristics of FTSECs compared to 2D cultures of the same cells. Gene expression profiling identified more than a thousand differentially expressed genes between 3D and 2D cultures of the same FTSEC lines. Pathways significantly under-represented in 3D FTSEC cultures were associated with cell cycle progression and DNA replication. This was also reflected in the reduced proliferative indices observed in 3D spheroids stained for the proliferation marker MIB1. Comparisons with gene expression profiles of fresh fallopian tube tissues revealed that 2D FTSEC cultures clustered with follicular phase tubal epithelium, whereas 3D FTSEC cultures clustered with luteal phase samples. Conclusions. This 3D model of fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells will advance our ability to study the underlying biology and etiology of fallopian tube tissues and the pathogenesis of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. 3 primary FTSEC lines were plated in 2D, or in 3D on polyHEMA coated plates
Project description:Comparison of gene expression of different colon carcinoma cell lines under 2D and 3D culturing conditions Cells were seeded under 2D and 3D culturing condition. After seven days total RNA was isolated and used for cDNA synthesis.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cells have been a great interest due to its potential to provide a renewable source of surrogate dopamine neurons for transplantation into Parkinson’s disease patients. We have differentiated hESCs with a monolayer of PA6 cells under 2D and 3D systems for 28 days. Genome-wide microarray analysis showed that our 3D samples increased expression of genes that are involved in neuronal developments such as Wnt, hedgehog and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways. The results suggest that the 3D differentiation system may have affected the regulatory or signalling mechanisms which enhanced the rate of differentiation towards ectoderm. 3 biological replicates for 2D samples and 2 biological replicates for 3D samples.
Project description:HCV proliferation is closely related to three-dimentional cellular condition. In case of blood-borne (bb) HCV culture in HuS-E2 cells, bbHCV was reproduced only from 3D-cultured cells in hollow fibers. Thus, in order to identify novel factors which support HCV proliferation under three-dimentional condition, we compared gene expression profile between 2D- and 3D-cultured HuS-E/2 cells with 3D-gene Human oligo chip 25k (Toray, Tokyo, Japan).
Project description:Comparison of gene expression profile of human pluripotent stem cells (hHSC_F1285T_iPS2) expanded in perfused stirred tank bioreactors after 3 and 7 days compared to 2D precultures (day 0)