Ribosome profiling study of dom34 and hbs1 knockout strains using short (16-nt) and long (28-nt) monosome-protected footprints and disome-protected footprints
ABSTRACT: Ribosomes that stall before completing peptide synthesis must be recycled and returned to the cytoplasmic pool. The protein Dom34 and cofactors Hbs1 and Rli1 can dissociate stalled ribosomes in vitro, but the identity of targets in the cell is unknown. Here we use ribosome profiling methodology to reveal a high- resolution molecular characterization of Dom34 function in vivo. We show that Dom34 removes stalled ribosomes from mRNAs that are truncated but, in contrast, does not generally dissociate ribosomes on coding sequences known to trigger stalling, such as polyproline. We also show that Dom34 targets arrested ribosomes near the ends of 3 ́ UTRs. These ribosomes appear to gain access to the 3 ́ UTR via a mechanism that does not require decoding of the mRNA. These results suggest that Dom34 carries out the important task of rescuing ribosomes found in noncoding regions. 25 samples are included in the study (2 mRNA-Seq samples and 23 ribosome footprint profiling samples). These include wild-type and dom34 or hbs1 knockout strains that were created in a variety of genetic backgrounds, treated with various agents in cell culture (e.g. diamide, 3-AT, or glucose starvation), treated differently during cell lysis (use of cycloheximide vs. other ribosome-stabilizing agents), or prepared in different ways after cell lysis (e.g. retention of short vs. long monosome-protected footprints or disome footprints).
Project description:Ribosome profiling data from U2OS, HeLa and Kc167 cells under various lysis conditions and using immunoprecipitation to purifiy ribosome associated footprints. Two human cell lines (U2OS and HeLa cells) and a Drosophila melanogaster cell line (Kc167) are used to see if the 3'UTR reads are identified in each cell type. Immunoprecipitation of ribosomes is used to analyse if 3'UTR reads derive from ribosomes (are found with ribosome immunoprecipitates) and to which extent the lysis conditions contribute to the identification of the 3'UTR reads.
Project description:A major determinant of mRNA half-life is the codon-dependent rate of translational elongation. How the processes of translational elongation and mRNA decay communicate is unclear. In this study we establish that the DEAD-box helicase Dhh1p is the sensor of codon optimality (i.e. translational elongation rate) that targets an mRNA for decay. First, we find that mRNAs whose translation elongation rate is slowed by inclusion of non-optimal codons are specifically degraded in a DHH1-dependent manner. Biochemical experiments show that Dhh1p is preferentially associated with mRNAs with suboptimal codon choice. We find that these effects on mRNA decay are sensitive to the number of slow moving ribosomes on an mRNA. Using a tethering system, we establish that non-optimal mRNAs become preferentially saturated with ribosomes when Dhh1p is bound. Moreover, over-expression of Dhh1p leads to the accumulation of ribosomes specifically on mRNAs with low codon optimality in ribosome profiling experiments. Lastly, Dhh1p physically interacts with ribosomes in vivo. Together, these data argue that Dhh1p is a sensor for ribosome speed, targeting an mRNA for repression and subsequent decay. Overall design: 18 biological samples are included in the study (9 ribosome footprinting samples and 9 mRNA-Seq samples). These include wild-type, Dhh1 knockout, and Dhh1 overexpression strains (with biological replicates), as well as catalytically inactive Dhh1 overexpression. Also included are ribosome footprint profiling and mRNA-Seq of overexpression mCherry reporter mRNA with catalytically active or inactive overexpressed Dhh1 tetherered.
Project description:Translation elongation stalling has the potential to produce toxic truncated protein fragments. Translation of either non-stop mRNA or transcripts coding for poly-basic sequences induces ribosome stalling, and the arrest product is degraded by the ribosome-mediated quality control (RQC) system. During this process, the stalled ribosome is dissociated into subunits, and the polypeptide is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Listerin on the 60S large ribosomal subunit, leading to subsequent proteasomal degradation. However, it is largely unknown how the specific stalled ribosomes are recognized as aberrant to engage the RQC system. Here, we report that ubiquitination of the ribosomal protein uS10 of the 40S small ribosomal subunit, by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hel2 (or RQC-trigger (Rqt) 1) initiates RQC. We identified a novel RQC-trigger (RQT) complex composed of the RNA helicase-family protein Slh1/Rqt2, the ubiquitin binding protein Cue3/Rqt3, and yKR023W/Rqt4 that is required for RQC. The defects in RQC of the RQT mutants correlated with sensitivity to anisomycin, which stalls ribosome at the rotated form, suggesting that RQT factors rescue ribosomes stalled by this drug. Our un-biased survey by ribosome profiling revealed that ribosomes stalled at the rotated state with specific pairs of codons at P-A sites serve as RQC substrates. Rqt1 specifically ubiquitinates these arrested ribosomes to target them to the RQT complex, allowing subsequent RQC reactions including dissociation of the stalled ribosome into subunits. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the surveillance system for aberrant proteins induced by ribosome stalling and mediated by ribosome ubiquitination. Overall design: Ribosome profiling samples are obtained from wild type and RQT mutant (rqt1, rqt2, uS10KR, Rqt1DeltaRingDomain) yeast with 2 replications.
Project description:Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. We present a protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing. This ribosome profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, we describe an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes. The protocol we describe requires 5 - 7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Ribosome profiling in cultured mammalian cells under three different footprinting conditions
Project description:During translation elongation, the ribosome ratchets along its mRNA template, incorporating each new amino acid and translocating from one codon to the next. The elongation cycle requires dramatic structural rearrangements of the ribosome. We show here that deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments reveals not only the position of each ribosome but also, unexpectedly, its particular stage of the elongation cycle. Sequencing reveals two distinct populations of ribosome footprints, 28-30 nucleotides and 20-22 nucleotides long, representing translating ribosomes in distinct states, differentially stabilized by specific elongation inhibitors. We find that the balance of small and large footprints varies by codon and is correlated with translation speed. The ability to visualize conformational changes in the ribosome during elongation, at single-codon resolution, provides a new way to study the detailed kinetics of translation and a new probe with which to identify the factors that affect each step in the elongation cycle. Ribosome profiling, or sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments, in yeast. We assay ribosome footprint sizes and positions in three conditions: untreated yeast (3 replicates) and yeast treated with translation inhibitors cycloheximide (2 replicates) and anisomycin (2 biological replicates, one technical replicate). We also treat yeast with 3-aminotriazole to measure the effect of limited histidine tRNAs on ribosome footprint size and distribution (two treatment durations).
Project description:mRNAs bound by ribosomes from yeast cells were analysed in order to determine the exact position of ribosomes in the presence or absence of Rio1p. Beside total Ribosome Protected Fragments (RPFs), RPFs from mRNAs protected by immature pre-40S pre-ribosomes was also analysed. The analysis showed that immature 40S ribosomes can carry out translation and their premature entry into translation is hindered by Rio1p. Overall design: mRNAs fragments protected by ribosomes were subjected to NGS Ribosome Profiling experiment. Samples included (1) total ribosome-associated mRNAs from yeast cells expressing Rio1p, (2) total ribosome-associated mRNAs from yeast cells depleted of Rio1p and (3) immuno-selected mRNAs associated with immature pre-40S pre-ribosomal particles from yeast-cells depleted of Rio1p. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments were used as templates for cDNA libraries. The resulting cDNAs were sequenced and the sequences were annealed to the yeast genome. The position of the reads were determined in relation to either the translation start site or the stop codon of the corresponding coding DNA sequences.
Project description:Translation of poly(A) tails leads to mRNA cleavage but the mechanism and global pervasiveness of this “nonstop/no-go” decay process is not understood. Here we performed ribosome profiling of short 15-18 nt mRNA footprints to identify ribosomes stalled at 3’ ends of mRNA decay intermediates. We found mRNA cleavage extending hundreds of nucleotides upstream of ribosome stalling in poly(A) and predominantly in one reading frame. These observations suggest that cleavage is closely associated with the ribosome. Surprisingly, ribosomes appeared to stall when as few as 3 consecutive ORF-internal lysine codons were positioned in the A, P, and E sites though significant mRNA degradation was not observed. Endonucleolytic cleavage was widespread, however, at sites of premature polyadenylation and rescue of the ribosomes stalled at these sites was dependent on Dom34. These results suggest this process may be critical when changes in polyadenylation occur during development, tumorigenesis, or when translation termination/recycling is impaired. Overall design: 14 samples are included in the study (2 mRNA-Seq samples and 12 ribosome footprinting samples). Read sizes were examined for lengths of 15-18 nt or 25-34 nt or both in some cases, reads were aligned by 5' or 3' ends or both in some cases.
Project description:Translation elongation rates are regulated to ensure proper conformation and biological function of proteins. Translation of either non-stop mRNA or transcripts coding for poly-basic sequences induces ribosome stalling, and the arrest product is degraded by the ribosome-mediated quality control system (RQC). During this process, the stalled ribosome is dissociated into subunits, and the polypeptide is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Listerin on the 60S large ribosomal subunit (LSU) leading to subsequent proteasomal degradation. However, it is largely unknown how stalled ribosomes are recognized and dissociated into subunits. Here we report that ubiquitination of the ribosomal protein uS10 by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hel2 is required for the production of the RQC substrate. RQC-trigger (RQT) factors, a RNA helicase-family protein Slh1/Rqt2, ubiquitin binding protein Cue3/Rqt3 and yKR023W/Rqt4, were also required for the primary steps of RQC, and associated with Hel2-ribosome complexes. Rqt2-4 factors were dispensable for the ubiquitination of uS10 by Hel2/Rqt1 and associated with ribosomes independent of the ubiquitination of uS10. However, the ubiquitin-binding activity of Rqt3 were crucial to trigger RQC. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) analysis revealed that Hel2 bound ribosomes are in an rotated state containing hybrid state AP- and PE-tRNAs. Furthermore, ribosome profiling revealed that short footprints, hallmarks of hybrid state ribosomes18, were accumulated at tandem CGA rare codons at the beginning of the poly arginine stalling sequence and long footprints at subsequent codons, respectively. Short footprints at CGA codons were decreased in rqt1 mutant but drastically increased in uS10 mutants defective in the ubiquitination or rqt2 mutant. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Hel2 stabilizes ratcheted ribosomes leading to ubiquitination of uS10. Subsequently, Rqt2-4 factors target these hybrid state ribosomes specifically, allowing subsequent RQC reactions. Overall design: Ribosome,profiling
Project description:Post-transcriptional gene regulation plays a significant role in the response to Pi starvation. Here, we utilized advances in next-generation sequencing technology to examine changes in transcriptional control, RNA association with translating ribosomes in 14-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings subjected to 7 days of Pi starvation. Overall design: 14 samples, 2 conditions 500uM NaH2PO4, 0uM NaH2PO4. 2 bioreplicates of 4 RNA pools (total mRNA, ribosome footprints, small RNA, double stranded RNA)
Project description:Eukaryotic cells have evolved extensive protein quality control mechanisms to remove faulty translation products. Here we show that yeast cells continually produce faulty mitochondrial polypeptides that stall on the ribosome during translation but are imported into the mitochondria. The cytosolic protein Vms1, together with the E3 ligase Ltn1, protects against the mitochondrial toxicity of these proteins and maintains cell viability under respiratory conditions. In the absence of these factors, stalled polypeptides aggregate after import and sequester critical mitochondrial chaperone and translation machinery. Aggregation depends on C-terminal alanyl/threonyl sequences (CAT-tails) that are attached to stalled polypeptides on 60S ribosomes by Rqc2. Vms1 binds to 60S ribosomes at the mitochondrial surface and antagonizes Rqc2, thereby facilitating import, impeding aggregation and directing aberrant polypeptides to intra-mitochondrial quality control. Vms1 is a key component of a rescue pathway for ribosome-stalled mitochondrial polypeptides that are inaccessible to ubiquitylation, due to coupling of translation and translocation.