ABSTRACT: Here, we use ribosome-footprint profiing and mRNA-seq to determine the average ribosome density on each gene in S. cerevisiae. We then perform quantitative modeling to identify the molecular determinants of ribosome density. Analysis of S. cerevisiae
Project description:Ribosome-footprint profiling provides genome-wide snapshots of translation, but technical challenges can confound its analysis. Here, we use improved methods to obtain ribosome-footprint profiles and mRNA abundances that more faithfully reflect gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results support proposals that both the beginning of coding regions and codons matching rare tRNAs are more slowly translated. They also indicate that emergent polypeptides with as few as three basic residues within a 10-residue window tend to slow translation. With the improved mRNA measurements, the variation attributable to translational control in exponentially growing yeast was less than previously reported, and most of this variation could be predicted with a simple model that considered mRNA abundance, upstream open reading frames, cap-proximal structure and nucleotide composition, and lengths of the coding and 5'-untranslated regions. Collectively, our results provide a framework for executing and interpreting ribosome-profiling studies and reveal key features of translational control in yeast. Ribosome-footprint profiling and RNA-seq (total RNA, poly(A) selected, RiboMinus treated, or Ribo-Zero treated) from log-phase S. cerevisiae. The study includes a reanalysis of the two Samples from GSE53313. The reanalyzed data is linked to the Series record.
Project description:Poly(A) tails enhance the stability and translation of most eukaryotic messenger RNAs, but difficulties in globally measuring poly(A)-tail lengths have impeded greater understanding of poly(A)-tail function. Here we describe poly(A)-tail length profiling by sequencing (PAL-seq) and apply it to measure tail lengths of millions of individual RNAs isolated from yeasts, cell lines, Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, mouse liver, and zebrafish and frog embryos. Poly(A)-tail lengths were conserved between orthologous mRNAs, with mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins and other 'housekeeping' proteins tending to have shorter tails. As expected, tail lengths were coupled to translational efficiencies in early zebrafish and frog embryos. However, this strong coupling diminished at gastrulation and was absent in non-embryonic samples, indicating a rapid developmental switch in the nature of translational control. This switch complements an earlier switch to zygotic transcriptional control and explains why the predominant effect of microRNA mediated deadenylation concurrently shifts from translational repression to mRNA destabilization. 64 samples from a variety of species
Project description:Because maturing oocytes and early embryos lack transcription, posttranscriptional regulatory processes must control their development. To better understand this control, we profiled translational efficiencies and poly(A)-tail lengths throughout Drosophila oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The correspondence between translational-efficiency changes and tail-length changes indicated that tail-length changes broadly reshape translational activity until gastrulation, when this coupling disappears. Relative changes were largely retained in the absence of poly(A)-tail lengthening, which indicated that selective poly(A)-tail shortening primarily specifies the changes. Many translational changes depended on PAN GU and Smaug, and both acted primarily through tail-length changes. Our results also revealed tail-length–independent mechanisms of translational control that repressed translation regardless of tail-length changes during oocyte maturation, maintained translation despite tail-length shortening during oocyte maturation, and prevented detectable translation of bicoid and several other mRNAs before egg activation. In addition to these fundamental insights, our results provide valuable resources for future studies. 42 samples analyzed using RNA-seq, ribosome footprint profiling, and PAL-seq.
Project description:DEAD-box RNA helicases eIF4A and Ded1 are believed to promote translation initiation by resolving mRNA secondary structures that impede ribosome attachment at the mRNA 5’ end or subsequent scanning of the 5’UTR, but whether they perform distinct functions or act redundantly in vivo is poorly understood. We compared the effects of mutations in Ded1 or eIF4A on global translational efficiencies (TEs) in yeast by ribosome footprint profiling. Despite similar reductions in bulk translation, inactivation of a cold-sensitive Ded1 mutant substantially reduced the TEs of >600 mRNAs, whereas inactivation of a temperature-sensitive eIF4A mutant yielded <40 similarly impaired mRNAs. The broader requirement for Ded1 did not reflect more pervasive secondary structures at low temperature, as inactivation of temperature-sensitive and cold-sensitive ded1 mutants gave highly correlated results. Interestingly, Ded1-dependent mRNAs exhibit greater than average 5’UTR length and propensity for secondary structure, implicating Ded1 in scanning though structured 5' UTRs. Reporter assays confirmed that cap- distal stem-loop insertions increase dependence on Ded1 but not eIF4A for efficient translation. While only a small fraction of mRNAs is strongly dependent on eIF4A, this dependence is significantly correlated with requirements for Ded1 and 5’UTR features characteristic of Ded1- dependent mRNAs. Our findings suggest that Ded1 is critically required to promote scanning through secondary structures within 5’UTRs; and while eIF4A cooperates with Ded1 in this function, it also promotes a step of initiation common to virtually all yeast mRNAs. We compared the effects of mutations in Ded1 or eIF4A on global translational efficiencies (TEs) in yeast by ribosome footprint profiling.The study includes 32 samples, comprised of 16 mRNA-Seq samples and 16 ribosome footprint profiling samples, derived from biological replicates of 3 mutant strains, ded1-cs, ded1-ts and tif1-ts, and the corresponding wild-type strains. The tif1-ts mutant and its wild-type counterpart were analyzed at 30°C and 37°C.
Project description:During translation elongation, the ribosome ratchets along its mRNA template, incorporating each new amino acid and translocating from one codon to the next. The elongation cycle requires dramatic structural rearrangements of the ribosome. We show here that deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments reveals not only the position of each ribosome but also, unexpectedly, its particular stage of the elongation cycle. Sequencing reveals two distinct populations of ribosome footprints, 28-30 nucleotides and 20-22 nucleotides long, representing translating ribosomes in distinct states, differentially stabilized by specific elongation inhibitors. We find that the balance of small and large footprints varies by codon and is correlated with translation speed. The ability to visualize conformational changes in the ribosome during elongation, at single-codon resolution, provides a new way to study the detailed kinetics of translation and a new probe with which to identify the factors that affect each step in the elongation cycle. Ribosome profiling, or sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments, in yeast. We assay ribosome footprint sizes and positions in three conditions: untreated yeast (3 replicates) and yeast treated with translation inhibitors cycloheximide (2 replicates) and anisomycin (2 biological replicates, one technical replicate). We also treat yeast with 3-aminotriazole to measure the effect of limited histidine tRNAs on ribosome footprint size and distribution (two treatment durations).
Project description:Proteins begin to fold as they emerge from translating ribosomes. The kinetics of ribosome transit along a given mRNA can influence nascent chain folding, but the extent to which individual codon translation rates impact proteome integrity remains unknown. Here, we show that slower decoding of discrete codons elicits widespread protein aggregation in vivo. Using ribosome profiling, we find that loss of anticodon wobble uridine (U34) modifications in a subset of tRNAs leads to ribosome pausing at their cognate codons in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans. Yeast cells lacking U34 modifications exhibit gene expression hallmarks of proteotoxic stress and accumulate aggregates of endogenous proteins with key cellular functions. Moreover, these cells are severely compromised in clearing stress-induced protein aggregates. Overexpression of hypomodified tRNAs alleviates ribosome pausing, concomitantly restoring protein homeostasis. Our findings demonstrate that modified U34 is an evolutionarily conserved accelerator of decoding and reveal an unanticipated role for tRNA anticodon modifications in maintaining proteome integrity. Ribosome profiling of wild-type and tRNA modification-deficient yeast and nematodes. Yeast samples were generated in various growth conditions (rich medium versus stress induced by treatment with diamide or rapamycin) and paired mRNA-Seq was performed on a subset of samples. Dataset contains three biological replicates for yeast samples and two biological replicates for nematode samples.
Project description:Ribosome profiling is a widespread tool for studying translational dynamics in human cells. Its central assumption is that ribosome footprint density on a transcript quantitatively reflects protein synthesis. Here, we test this assumption using pulsed-SILAC (pSILAC) high-accuracy targeted proteomics. We focus on multiple myeloma cells exposed to bortezomib, a first-line chemotherapy and proteasome inhibitor. In the absence of drug effects, we found that direct measurement of protein synthesis by pSILAC correlated well with indirect measurement of synthesis from ribosome footprint density. This correlation, however, broke down under bortezomib-induced stress. By developing a statistical model integrating longitudinal proteomic and mRNA-seq measurements, we found that proteomics could directly detect global alterations in translational rate caused by bortezomib; these changes are not detectable by ribosomal profiling alone. Further, by incorporating pSILAC data into a gene expression model, we predict cell-stress specific proteome remodeling events. These results demonstrate that pSILAC provides an important complement to ribosome profiling in measuring proteome dynamics. Timecourse experiment with six points over 48hr after bortezomib exposure in MM.1S myeloma cells. mRNA-seq and ribosome profiling data at each time point.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and tolerance in bacteria, while important for biotechnology and bioenergy applications, remain incompletely understood. Genetic studies have identified potential cellular targets for ethanol and revealed multiple mechanisms of tolerance, but it remains difficult to separate direct and indirect effects of ethanol. We used adaptive evolution to generate spontaneous ethanol-tolerant strains of Escherichia coli, then characterized the mechanisms of toxicity and resistance associated with select mutations. Evolved alleles of metJ, rho, and rpsQ were sufficient to recapitulate much of the observed ethanol tolerance, implicating translation and transcription as key processes affected by ethanol. We found that ethanol induces mistranslation errors during protein synthesis, and that the evolved rpsQ allele protects cells by rendering the ribosome hyper-accurate. Ribosome profiling and RNAseq analyses of the ethanol-tolerant strain versus the wild type established that ethanol negatively affects transcriptional and translational processivity. Ethanol-stressed cells exhibited ribosomal stalling at internal AUG codons, which may be ameliorated by the adaptive inactivation of the MetJ repressor of methionine biosynthesis genes. Ethanol also caused aberrant intragenic transcription termination for mRNAs with low ribosome density, which was reduced in a strain with the adaptive rho mutation. Furthermore, ethanol inhibited transcript elongation by RNA polymerase in vitro. We propose that ethanol-induced inhibition and uncoupling of mRNA and protein synthesis are major contributors to ethanol toxicity in E. coli, and that adaptive mutations in metJ, rho, and rpsQ protect central dogma processes in the presence of ethanol. Examination of wild-type and mutant strains at three different time points (one pre-ethanol-stress, two post-ethanol-stress)
Project description:Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a conserved RNA surveillance pathway that is an important modulator of disease pathology and is required for embryonic development. Despite significant research effort, the rules that govern NMD remain incompletely understood. Here we used a combined¬ approach, integrating RNA-Seq, ribosome footprinting, and CLIP-Seq analysis of the essential NMD factor Upf1, to provide a more complete picture of the role of NMD in modulating gene expression in murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We show that presence of an exon-exon junction ≥50 nucleotides (nt) downstream of a termination codon (dEJ) contributes to NMD independently of 3' UTR length, but has stronger effects in genes with shorter 3' UTRs. We also map translated upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in mESCs and show that they are associated with NMD regulation, especially of genes encoding transcription factors, and we find that lowly translated mRNAs can escape NMD. Finally, we identify over 200 direct binding targets of Upf1 and describe a pathway of Upf1-dependent gene regulation reliant on Upf1 binding to the 3' UTR and independent of presence of a dEJ. Together, these analyses characterize known and discover novel determinants of NMD and establish a broader role in mESC gene regulation for Upf1. mRNA-Seq analysis of wildtype (2 samples), translationally inhibited (by cycloheximide treatment, 2 samples), control-depleted (2 samples), and Upf1-depleted (4 samples) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs); CLIP-Seq analysis of Upf1 (5 samples, and 5 samples of IgG control CLIP-Seq); Ribosome footprint profiling of wildtype (1 sample), control-depleted (1 sample), and Upf1-depleted (1 sample) mESCs