Suppression of MicroRNA-9 by Mutant EGFR Signaling Induces FOXP1 to Enhance Glioblastoma Tumorigenicity
ABSTRACT: The EGF-receptor (EGFR) is amplified and mutated in glioblastoma (GBM) where its common mutation, (∆EGFR, also called EGFRvIII) has a variety of activities that promote growth and inhibit death, thereby conferring a strong tumor-enhancing effect. This range of activities suggested to us that ∆EGFR might exert its influence through pleiotropic effectors and we hypothesized that microRNAs (miRs) might serve such a function. To test this, we determined the miR profiles of GBM cells with activated wild type EGFR (wtEGFR) and mutant EGFR (∆EGFR) to cells with non-activated EGFR or kinase dead ∆EGFR. To identify miRs regulated by EGFR, RNA from 2 different glioma cell lines (U87 and U373) were hybridized to miR expression arrays and analyzed. Each cell type was engineered to express wild type EGFR (wtEGFR), dead kinase ∆EGFR (DK) or ∆EGFR at elevated levels similar to those observed in primary glioblastomas displaying EGFR overexpression. Parental cells expressing endogenous EGFR and wtEGFR cells stimulated with EGF for 1hr were also included in the analyses.
Project description:The aim of our study was to identify a microRNA signature for metastatic CRC that could predict and differentiate metastatic target organ localization. Normal and cancer tissues of three different groups of CRC patients were analyzed. RNA microarray and TaqMan Array analysis were performed on 66 italian patients with or without lymph nodes and/or liver recurrences. Data obtained with the two assays, were analyzed separately and then intersected to identify a primary CRC metastatic signature. Five differentially expressed microRNAs (hsa-miR-21, -103, -93, -31 and -566) were validated by qRT-PCR on a second group of 16 american metastatic patients. In situ hybridization was performed on the 16 american patients as well as on three distinct commercial tissues microarray (TMA), containing normal adjacent colon, the primary adenocarcinoma, normal and metastatic lymph nodes and liver. Hsa-microRNA-31,-21,-93, and-103 upregulation together with hsa-miR-566 downregulation defined the CRC metastatic signature, while in situ hybridization data identified a lymphonodal invasion profile. 33 patients had colon cancer with lymph nodes metastasis only (Any T, Any N, M0) and 15 were diagnosed with colon cancer, lymph nodes and liver metastases (Any T, Any N, M1). Separate tumor samples from the primary tumor, the metastatic lymph nodes and the liver metastasis were collected.
Project description:The expression of human microRNAs in the cellular fraction of human peripheral blood of patients with diagnosed malignant mesotheliomas and asbestos-exposed controls. Altered expression of several miRNAs were observed for patients with diagnosed malignant mesotheliomas in comparison with asebstos-expsoed controls. The study group consists of 23 patients with diagnosed malignant mesothelioma (mean age 66 years, range 34 – 84 years). Patients were not treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy before sample collection. The histological subtypes were: one sarcomatoid, seven biphasic, and twelve epithelioid cases. In three cases the histological subtype was unknown. The control group consists of 17 asbestos-exposed age-matched volunteers without any diagnosed cancer (mean age 68 years, range 47 – 80 years). Oligonucleotide microarrays were purchased from the Norwegican Microarray Consortium (www.microarray.no). The mirVana miRNA Probe Set v2.0 (Ambion) based on the miRBase Sequence Database v8.0. was used.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is strongly implicated in glioblastoma (GBM) tumorigenesis. However, molecular agents targeting EGFR have demonstrated minimal efficacy in clinical trials, suggesting the existence of GBM resistance mechanisms. GBM cells with stem-like properties (CSCs) are highly efficient at tumor initiation and exhibit therapeutic resistance. In this study, GBMCSC lines showed sphere-forming and tumor initiation capacity after EGF withdrawal from cell culture media, compared with normal neural stem cells that rapidly perished after EGF withdrawal. Compensatory activation of related ERBB family receptors (ERBB2 and ERBB3) was observed in GBM CSCs deprived of EGFR signal (EGF deprivation or cetuximab inhibition), suggesting an intrinsic GBM resistance mechanism for EGFR-targeted therapy. Dual inhibition of EGFR and ERBB2 with lapatinib significantly reduced GBM proliferation in colony formation assays compared to cetuximab-mediated EGFR-specific inhibition. Phosphorylation of downstream ERBB signaling components (AKT, ERK1/2) and GBM CSC proliferation were inhibited by lapatinib. Collectively, these findings show that GBM therapeutic resistance to EGFR inhibitors may be explained by compensatory activation of EGFR-related family members (ERBB2, ERBB3) enabling GBM CSC proliferation, and therefore simultaneous blockade of multiple ERBB family members may be required for more efficacious GBM therapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain cancer in adults. Radiotherapy (RT) is the most effective post-operative treatment for the patients even though GBM is one of the most radio-resistant tumors. Dead or dying cells within the tumor are thought to promote resistance to treatment through mechanisms that are very poorly understood. We have evaluated the role of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a versatile bioactive lipid, in GBM radio-resistance. We used an in vitro approach using 3D primary cultures derived from representative GBM patients. We show that irradiated glioma cells produced and released PGE2 in important quantities independently of the induction of cell death. We demonstrate that the addition of PGE2 enhances cell survival and proliferation though its ability to trans-activate the Epithelial Growth Factor receptor (EGFR) and to activate ?-catenin. Indeed, PGE2 can substitute for EGF to promote primary cultures survival and growth in vitro and the effect is likely to occur though the Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor in adults. It is known that amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) occurs in approximately 40% of GBM, leading to enhanced activation of the EGFR signaling pathway and promoting tumor growth. Although GBM mutations are stably maintained in GBM in vitro models, rapid loss of EGFR gene amplification is a common observation during cell culture. To maintain EGFR amplification in vitro, heterotopic GBM xenografts with elevated EGFR copy number were cultured under varying serum conditions and EGF concentrations. EGFR copy numbers were assessed over several passages by quantitative PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization. As expected, in control assays with 10% FCS, cells lost EGFR amplification with increasing passage numbers. However, cells cultured under serum free conditions stably maintained elevated copy numbers. Furthermore, EGFR protein expression positively correlated with genomic amplification levels. Although elevated EGFR copy numbers could be maintained over several passages in vitro, levels of EGFR amplification were variable and dependent on the EGF concentration in the medium. In vitro cultures of GBM cells with elevated EGFR copy number and corresponding EGFR protein expression should prove valuable preclinical tools to gain a better understanding of EGFR driven glioblastoma and assist in the development of new improved therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant central nervous system tumor. Alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. However, the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ is affected by many factors. And, several clinic trials, including co-administration of TMZ with other drugs, have failed in successful treatment of GBM. We have previously reported that Netrin-4 (NTN4), a laminin-like axon guidance protein, plays a protective role in GBM cell senescence upon TMZ-triggered DNA damage. However, the master regulator of NTN4 needs further elucidation. Epidermal growth factor/Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF/EGFR) can modulate the expression of various extracellular matrix related molecules, and prevent DNA damage in GBM cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between EGF/EGFR signaling and NTN4, and explored their effect on therapeutic efficacy in GBM cells upon TMZ treatment. METHODS:Co-expression analysis were performed by using the RNA sequencing data from NIH 934 cell lines and from single cell RNA sequencing data of GBM tumor. The co-expressing genes were used for GO enrichment and signaling pathway enrichment. mRNA expression of the target genes were quantified by qPCR, and cell senescence were investigated by Senescence-Associated Beta-Galactosidase Staining. Protein phosphorylation were observed and analyzed by immunoblotting. The RNA sequencing data and clinical information of TMZ treated patients were extracted from TCGA-glioblastoma project, and then used for Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS:Analysis of RNA sequencing data revealed a potential co-expression relationship between NTN4 and EGFR. GO enrichment of EGFR-correlated genes indicated that EGFR regulates GBM cells in a manner similar to that in central nervous system development and neural cell differentiation. Pathway analysis suggested that EGFR and its related genes contribute to cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and caspase related signaling. We also show that EGF stimulates NTN4 expression in GBM cells and cooperates with NTN4 to attenuate GBM cell senescence induced by DNA damage, possibly via AKT and ERK. Clinical analysis showed that co-expression of EGFR and NTN4 significantly predicts poor survival in TMZ-treated GBM patients. CONCLUSIONS:This study indicates that EGF/EGFR regulates and cooperates with NTN4 in DNA damage resistance in GBM. Therefore, our findings provide a potential therapeutic target for GBM.
Project description:Abnormal secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) by non-neuronal cells (e.g., glioma-associated microglia) establishes a feedback loop between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) invasion and a functional disruption of brain tissue. Considering the postulated significance of this vicious circle for GBM progression, we scrutinized mechanisms of EGF-dependent pro-invasive signaling in terms of its interrelations with energy metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The effects of EGF on the invasiveness of human glioblastoma T98G cells were estimated using time-lapse video microscopy, immunocytochemistry, cell cycle assay, immunoblot analyses, and Transwell® assay. These techniques were followed by quantification of the effect of EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) and ROS inhibitors on the EGF-induced T98G invasiveness and intracellular ROS, ATP, and lactate levels and mitochondrial metabolism. The EGF remarkably augmented the proliferation and motility of the T98G cells. Responses of these cells were accompanied by cellular rear-front polarization, translocation of vinculin to the leading lamellae, and increased promptness of penetration of micropore barriers. Erlotinib (the EGFR inhibitor) significantly attenuated the EGF-induced T98G invasiveness and metabolic reprogramming of the T98G cells, otherwise illustrated by the increased mitochondrial activity, glycolysis, and ROS production in the EGF-treated cells. In turn, ROS inhibition by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) had no effect on T98G morphology, but considerably attenuated EGF-induced cell motility. Our data confirmed the EGFR/ROS-dependent pro-neoplastic and pro-invasive activity of EGF in human GBM. These EGF effects may depend on metabolic reprogramming of GBM cells and are executed by alternative ROS-dependent/-independent pathways. The EGF may thus preserve bioenergetic homeostasis of GBM cells in hypoxic regions of brain tissue.
Project description:We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by cetuximab, a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody, induces up-regulation of its ligands resulting in resistance and that microRNAs (miRs) play an important role in the ligand regulation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).Genome-wide changes in gene and miR expression were determined in cetuximab-sensitive cell line, SCC1, and its resistant derivative 1Cc8 using DNA microarrays and RT-PCR. The effects of differentially expressed EGFR ligands and miRs were examined by MTS, colony formation, ELISA, and western blot assays. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and its regulator, miR-212, were differentially expressed with statistical significance when SCC1 and 1Cc8 were compared for gene and miR expression. Stimulation with HB-EGF induced cetuximab resistance in sensitive cell lines. Inhibition of HB-EGF and the addition of miR-212 mimic induced cetuximab sensitivity in resistant cell lines. MicroRNA-212 and HB-EGF expression were inversely correlated in an additional 33 HNSCC and keratinocyte cell lines. Six tumors and 46 plasma samples from HNSCC patients were examined for HB-EGF levels. HB-EGF plasma levels were lower in newly diagnosed HNSCC patients when compared to patients with recurrent disease.Increased expression of HB-EGF due to down-regulation of miR-212 is a possible mechanism of cetuximab resistance. The combination of EGFR ligand inhibitors or miR modulators with cetuximab may improve the clinical outcome of cetuximab therapy in HNSCC.
Project description:The extent of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) guided tumor resection has a determining impact in high-grade glioma and glioblastoma surgery. Yet the intensity of the 5-ALA induced fluorescence may vary within the tumor. We aimed to correlate 5-ALA induced fluorescence with the expression of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its constitutively active version EGFRvIII in different glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines. To elucidate the role of EGFR in the metabolism of 5-ALA in GBM cell lines with variable EGFR expression status, we analyzed the activation of EGFR by its primary ligand EGF, and its downstream effect on Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a key enzyme regulating the metabolism of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), the fluorescent metabolite of 5-ALA. Effects of direct pharmacological inhibition by Tin(IV)-Protoporphyrin (SnPP) or gene knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on HO-1 enzyme were analyzed in respect to 5-ALA induced fluorescence. Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR by Gefitinib was tested. A significant difference in 5-ALA induced fluorescence was obtained in U87MG (low EGFR expression) and LN229EGFR cells (EGFR overexpression) compared to BS153 (EGFR overexpression/EGFRvIII+). Treatment of U87MG and LN229EGFR cells with EGF significantly reduced cellular fluorescence, by promoting HO-1 transcription and expression in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be reversed by EGFR-specific siRNA treatment, which reduced protein expression of about 80% in U87MG. Remarkably, inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPP or reduction of HO-1 protein levels by siHO-1 treatment restored fluorescence in all cell lines, independently of EGFR quantitative and qualitative expression. Gefitinib treatment was able to restore fluorescence after EGF stimulation in U87MG cells but not in BS153 cells, overexpressing EGFR/EGFRvIII. In GBM cell lines, 5-ALA induced fluorescence is variable and influenced by EGF-induced downstream activation of HO-1. HO-1 protein expression was identified as a negative regulator of 5-ALA induced fluorescence in GBM cells. We further propose that co-expression of EGFRvIII but not quantitative EGFR expression influence HO-1 activity and therefore cellular fluorescence.
Project description:EGFRvIII is the most common deletion mutant of EGFR in human cancer and its levels are highly correlated with poor prognosis in GBM. The deletion of exons 2-7 removes most of the extracellular ligand binding domain, so it is unable to bind EGF or other EGFR-binding ligands. Nevertheless, the mutant receptor is constitutively phosphorylated, and is capable of activating downstream signaling pathways at a low level. To comprehensively identify the downstream signaling consequences of the EGFRvIII, we incorporated phosphoproteomic, transcription profiling and DNase-Seq data from U87MG glioblastoma cells expressing titrated levels of this mutant receptor. Total RNA were extracted from U87MG cells engineered to expressed different levels of EGFRvIII: medium (U87M; 1.5 million copies of EGFRvIII receptor per cell), high (U87H; 2 million copies per cell), super-high (U87SH; 2.5 million copies per cell), and kinase-dead EGFRvIII (U87DK; 2 million copies of kinase dead EGFRvIII per cell). RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays.