Long Non-coding RNA expression profiles in Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia
ABSTRACT: Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominantly inherited vascular disease characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous telangiectasia and arteriovenous malformations in visceral organs. HHT is predominantly caused by mutations in ENG and ACVRL1, Which both belong to the TGF-β signalling pathway. Further knowledge on how a disturbance of the TGF-β signalling pathway leads to HHT manifestations is needed in order to identify potential therapeutic targets. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulators of gene expression and constitute a sizable fraction of the human transcriptome, we wanted to assess whether lncRNAs play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of HHT. Here we used microarray analysis to profile lncRNAs to compare the expression of HHT telangiectasial and HHT non-telangiectasial nasal tissue from the same patient in a paired design. The microarray probes were re-annotated using the GENCODE v.16 dataset, identifying 4,810 probes mapping to 2,811 lncRNAs. By comparing HHT telangiectasial tissue versus HHT non-telangiectasial tissue, we identified 42 lncRNAs that are differentially expressed (q<0.001). Using GREAT, a tool that assumes cis-regulation, we showed that differently expressed lncRNAs are enriched for genomic loci involved in key pathways concerning HHT. Our study identified lncRNAs that are aberrantly expressed in HHT telangiectasia and indicates that lncRNAs may contribute to regulate protein-coding loci in HHT. Which suggest that the lncRNA component of the transcriptome deserves more attention in HHT. A deeper understanding of lncRNAs and their role in telangiectasia formation possesses potential for discovering therapeutic targets in HHT. Gene expression profiling of 80 paired nasal samples from patients with hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), representing telangiectasial and non-telangiectasial (normal) tissue respectively. The patients were divided into HHT1 or HHT2 in regard to the germline mutation in ENG (HHT1) or ACVRL1 (HHT2). Additional controls were healthy siblings (not carrying the germline mutation) and external controls. The study was conducted using Agilent-028004 SurePrint G3 Human GE 8x60K Microarray platform.
Project description:Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that present with nose and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectases, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary component of the TGF-β receptor complex and the extracellular region of endoglin has been shown to interact with types I and II TGF-β receptors, as well as with BMP9 and BMP10 ligands, both members of the TGF-β family. To search for novel protein interactors, we have screened a microarray containing over 9,000 unique human proteins using recombinant sEng as bait. We find that sEng binds with high affinity, at least, to 22 new proteins. Among these, we have validated the interaction of endoglin with galectin-3, a secreted member of the lectin family with capacity to bind membrane glycoproteins, and with tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21), an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Using human endothelial cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells, we showed that endoglin co-immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with galectin-3 or TRIM21. These results open new research avenues on endoglin function and regulation.
Project description:The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear molecular features of breast tumors occuring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumors signature may help patients' management. To characterize hallmarks of ATM-associated tumors, absolute copy number variation and loss of heterozygosity profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. Overall design: Copy number analysis of Affymetrix OncoScan HD arrays was performed on 23 formamid-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumors. Tumors were developed by carriers of one or two mutated copies of ATM.
Project description:Much remains unknown about the signals that induce early mesoderm to initiate hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that endoglin (Eng), a receptor for the TGFβ superfamily, identifies all cells with hematopoietic fate in the early embryo. These arise in an Eng+Flk1+ mesodermal precursor population at E7.5, a cell fraction also endowed with endothelial potential. In Eng knockout embryos, hematopoietic colony activity and numbers of CD71+Ter119+ erythroid progenitors were severely reduced. This coincided with severely reduced expression of embryonic globin and key BMP target genes including the hematopoietic regulators Scl, Gata1, Gata2 and Msx-1. To interrogate molecular pathways active in the earliest hematopoietic progenitors, we applied transcriptional profiling to sorted cells from E7.5 embryos. Eng+Flk-1+ progenitors co-expressed TGFβ and BMP receptors and target genes. Furthermore, Eng+Flk-1+ cells presented high levels of phospho-SMAD1/5, indicating active TGFβ and/or BMP signaling. Remarkably, under hematopoietic serum-free culture conditions, hematopoietic outgrowth of endoglin-expressing cells was dependent on TGFβ superfamily ligands: BMP4, BMP2, or TGF-β1. These data demonstrate that the E+F+ fraction at E7.5 represents mesodermal cells competent to respond to TGFb1, BMP4, or BMP2, shaping their hematopoietic development, and that endoglin is a critical regulator in this process by modulating TGF/BMP signaling. E7.5 pooled embryos (25 litters; 300 embryos approximately) were dissected and 3,000 cells were sorted in triplicate for Eng-Flk1-, Eng-Flk1+, Eng+Flk1+, and Eng+Flk1- fractions. Microarray results were analyzed with GeneSpring GX software.
Project description:The hair follicle is a biological oscillator that alternates growth, regression, and rest phases driven by the sequential activation of the proliferation/differentiation programs of resident stem cell populations. The activation of hair follicle stem cell niches and subsequent entry into the growing phase is mainly regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signalling, while regression and resting phases are mainly regulated by Tgf-β/Bmp/Smad activity. A major question still unresolved is the nature of the molecular switch that dictates the coordinated transition between both signalling pathways. Here we have focused on the role of Endoglin (Eng), a key co-receptor for members of the Tgf-β/Bmp family of growth factors.Using an Eng haploinsufficient mouse model, we report that Eng is required to maintain a correct follicle cycling pattern and for an adequate stimulation of hair follicle stem cell niches. We further report that β-catenin binds to the Eng promoter depending on Bmp signalling. Moreover, we show that β-catenin interacts with Smad4 in a Bmp/Eng-dependent context and both proteins act synergistically to activate Eng promoter transcription. These observations point to the existence of a growth/rest switching mechanism in the hair follicle that is based on an Eng-dependent feedback crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and Bmp/Smad signals. Implication of Endoglin, Wnt/β-catenin and Bmp/Smad signals in the growth/rest hair follicle Overall design: Microarray experiments were performed using Mouse Gene Expression 4x44K Microarray Kit G4122F (Agilent technologies, Wilmington, DE). RNA was isolated using RNAesy Extraction Kit (QIAGen, Germany). RNA was labeled and array hybridized us ing the Low RNA Linear Amplification Kit and the In Situ Hybridization Kit Plus (Agilent technologies, Wilmington, DE) respectively. After hybridization and washing, the slides were scanned in an Axon GenePix Scanner (Axon Instruments Inc., Union City, CA) and analysed using Feature Extraction Software 10.1 (Agilent technologies, Wilmington, DE). Two different RNA samples obtained from each Eng modified cell line were labelled with Cy5-dUTP. The RNA samples extracted Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jmcb/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jmcb/mjy051/5101434 by Bukkyo University user on 23 September 2018 23from wild type cells were marked with Cy3-dUTP (Amersham, Sweden). Two additional hybridizations were performed using the reciprocal fluorochrome labelling . The genes whose expression was up or downregulated at least 2-fold in Eng+/-with respect to control cells were selected for analysis.
Project description:To decipher the roles of non-coding RNAs during male germline development, we use the lncRNAs microarray to profile the genome-wide lncRNAs expression pattern in the male germline Testes samples from 6 time points were collected for lncRNAs and mRNAs microarray profiling
Project description:Gene expression profiles of normal kidney (3 technical replicates) and a renal tumor (3 technical replicates) from a hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) patient carrying a germline mutation in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Overall design: Tumor and normal tissue from one patient, both in 3 techincal replicates.
Project description:Gene expression profiles of normal kidney (3 technical replicates) and a renal tumor (3 technical replicates) from a hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) patient carrying a germline mutation in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Tumor and normal tissue from one patient, both in 3 techincal replicates.
Project description:Different combinations of Endoglin tissue specific enhancers define hemangioblast and hemogenic endothelium cell fractions Overall design: We generated a series of embryonic stem cell lines, each targeted with reporter constructs driven by tissue specific promoter/enhancer combinations of Endoglin (ENG). The Eng promoter (P) when combined with the -8/+7/+9kb enhancers targeted cells in FLK1 mesoderm that were enriched for blast colony forming potential, whereas the P/-8kb enhancer targeted TIE2+/c-KIT+/CD41- HE cells that were enriched for hematopoietic potential. These cell fractions were isolated and their transcriptomes profiled by RNA-seq.
Project description:Tumor associated miRNAs in hereditary breast cancer. In this study we investigated the role of miRNAs in hereditary breast tumors comparing with normal breast tissue. Global miRNA expression profiling was performed on 22 hereditary breast tumors and 15 non-tumoral breast tissues. We identified 19 miRNAs differentially expressed, most of them down-regulated in tumors. An important proportion of deregulated miRNAs in hereditary tumors were previously identified commonly deregulated in sporadic breast tumors. Our results identify miRNAs associated to hereditary breast cancer, as well as miRNAs commonly miss-expressed in hereditary and sporadic tumors, suggesting common underlying mechanisms of tumor progression. In addition, we provide evidence that KRAS is a target of miR-30c, and that this miRNA suppresses breast cancer cell growth potentially through inhibition of KRAS signaling. Single color experiments in a pairwise comparison design.