Differential gene expression analysis of fetal liver cells of R26-LSL-KITD816V:Vav-iCre mice related to controls
ABSTRACT: Analysis of differential gene expression. The influence of a constitutively activated mutant Kit receptor on gene expression in fetal hematopoietic cells was analyzed. Results provide information of genes and cellular processes that are influenced by Kit signaling. Total RNA obtained from embryonic day E13.5 fetal liver of double transgenic R26-LSL-KITD816V:Vav-iCre mice compared to single transgenic controls. R26-LSL-KITD816V mice have been registered with the mouse genome database (MGI:5516508, allele named Gt(ROSA)26sorTM1(GFP-cKIT*)Hsc). Vav-iCre mice have been described by De Boer et al. in 2003.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF-like BAF and PBAF complexes have been implicated in the regulation of stem cell function and cancers. Several subunits of BAF or PBAF, including BRG1, BAF53a, BAF45a, BAF180, and BAF250a, are known to be involved in hematopoiesis. Baf200, a subunit of PBAF complex, plays a pivotal role in heart morphogenesis and coronary artery angiogenesis. However, little is known on the importance of Baf200 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. METHODS:Utilizing Tie2-Cre-, Vav-iCre-, and Mx1-Cre-mediated Baf200 gene deletion combined with fetal liver/bone marrow transplantation, we investigated the function of Baf200 in fetal and adult hematopoiesis. In addition, a mouse model of MLL-AF9-driven leukemogenesis was used to study the role of Baf200 in malignant hematopoiesis. We also explored the potential mechanism by using RNA-seq, RT-qPCR, cell cycle, and apoptosis assays. RESULTS:Tie2-Cre-mediated loss of Baf200 causes perinatal death due to defective erythropoiesis and impaired hematopoietic stem cell expansion in the fetal liver. Vav-iCre-mediated loss of Baf200 causes only mild anemia and enhanced extramedullary hematopoiesis. Fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells from Tie2-Cre + , Baf200 f/f or Vav-iCre + , Baf200 f/f embryos and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells from Vav-iCre + , Baf200 f/f mice exhibited impaired long-term reconstitution potential in vivo. A cell-autonomous requirement of Baf200 for hematopoietic stem cell function was confirmed utilizing the interferon-inducible Mx1-Cre mouse strain. Transcriptomes analysis revealed that expression of several erythropoiesis- and hematopoiesis-associated genes were regulated by Baf200. In addition, loss of Baf200 in a mouse model of MLL-AF9-driven leukemogenesis accelerates the tumor burden and shortens the host survival. CONCLUSION:Our current studies uncover critical roles of Baf200 in both normal and malignant hematopoiesis and provide a potential therapeutic target for suppressing the progression of leukemia without interfering with normal hematopoiesis.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis in the embryo is regulated by the coordinated expression of the MyoD family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs). MyoD and Myf-5, which are the primary muscle lineage-determining factors, function in a partially redundant manner to establish muscle progenitor cell identity. Previous diphtheria toxin (DTA)-mediated ablation studies showed that MyoD+ progenitors rescue myogenesis in embryos in which Myf-5-expressing cells were targeted for ablation, raising the possibility that the regulative behavior of distinct, MRF-expressing populations explains the functional compensatory activities of these MRFs. Using MyoD(iCre) mice, we show that DTA-mediated ablation of MyoD-expressing cells results in the cessation of myogenesis by embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), as assayed by myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and Myogenin staining. Importantly, MyoD(iCre/+);R26(DTA/+) embryos exhibited a concomitant loss of Myf-5+ progenitors, indicating that the vast majority of Myf-5+ progenitors express MyoD, a conclusion consistent with immunofluorescence analysis of Myf-5 protein expression in MyoD(iCre) lineage-labeled embryos. Surprisingly, staining for the paired box transcription factor, Pax7, which functions genetically upstream of MyoD in the trunk and is a marker for fetal myoblasts and satellite cell progenitors, was also lost by E12.5. Specific ablation of differentiating skeletal muscle in ACTA1Cre;R26(DTA/+) embryos resulted in comparatively minor effects on MyoD+, Myf-5+ and Pax7+ progenitors, indicating that cell non-autonomous effects are unlikely to explain the rapid loss of myogenic progenitors in MyoD(iCre/+);R26(DTA/+) embryos. We conclude that the vast majority of myogenic cells transit through a MyoD+ state, and that MyoD+ progenitors are essential for myogenesis and stem cell development.
Project description:Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is recruited to the TNF receptor 1 to mediate proinflammatory signaling and to regulate TNF-induced cell death. RIPK1 deficiency results in postnatal lethality, but precisely why Ripk1(-/-) mice die remains unclear. To identify the lineages and cell types that depend on RIPK1 for survival, we generated conditional Ripk1 mice. Tamoxifen administration to adult RosaCreER(T2)Ripk1(fl/fl) mice results in lethality caused by cell death in the intestinal and hematopoietic lineages. Similarly, Ripk1 deletion in cells of the hematopoietic lineage stimulates proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and hematopoietic cell death, resulting in bone marrow failure. The cell death reflected cell-intrinsic survival roles for RIPK1 in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, because Vav-iCre Ripk1(fl/fl) fetal liver cells failed to reconstitute hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated recipients. We demonstrate that RIPK3 deficiency partially rescues hematopoiesis in Vav-iCre Ripk1(fl/fl) mice, showing that RIPK1-deficient hematopoietic cells undergo RIPK3-mediated necroptosis. However, the Vav-iCre Ripk1(fl/fl) Ripk3(-/-) progenitors remain TNF sensitive in vitro and fail to repopulate irradiated mice. These genetic studies reveal that hematopoietic RIPK1 deficiency triggers both apoptotic and necroptotic death that is partially prevented by RIPK3 deficiency. Therefore, RIPK1 regulates hematopoiesis and prevents inflammation by suppressing RIPK3 activation.
Project description:Overexpression of BCLX and BFL1/A1 has been reported in various human malignancies and is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance, identifying these prosurvival BCL2 family members as putative drug targets. We have generated transgenic mice that express human BFL1 or human BCLX protein throughout the haematopoietic system under the control of the Vav gene promoter. Haematopoiesis is normal in both the Vav-BFL1 and Vav-BCLX transgenic (TG) mice and susceptibility to spontaneous haematopoietic malignancies is not increased. Lymphoid cells from Vav-BCLX TG mice exhibit increased resistance to apoptosis in vitro while most blood cell types form Vav-BFL1 TG mice were poorly protected. Both transgenes significantly accelerated lymphomagenesis in E?-MYC TG mice and, surprisingly, the Vav-BFL1 transgene was the more potent. Unexpectedly, expression of transgenic BFL1 RNA and protein is significantly elevated in B lymphoid cells of Vav-BFL1/E?-MYC double-transgenic compared to Vav-BFL1 mice, even during the preleukaemic phase, providing a rationale for the potent synergy. In contrast, Vav-BCLX expression was not notably different. These mouse models of BFL1 and BCLX overexpression in lymphomas should be useful tools for the testing the efficacy of novel human BFL1- and BCLX-specific inhibitors.
Project description:Neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer that originates from neural crest-derived cells, is the most common deadly solid tumor of infancy. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene, which occurs in approximately 20-25% of human neuroblastomas, is the most prominent genetic marker of high-stage disease. The availability of valid preclinical in vivo models is a prerequisite to develop novel targeted therapies. We here report on the generation of transgenic mice with Cre-conditional induction of MYCN in dopamine ?-hydroxylase-expressing cells, termed LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre. These mice develop neuroblastic tumors with an incidence of >75%, regardless of strain background. Molecular profiling of tumors revealed upregulation of the MYCN-dependent miR-17-92 cluster as well as expression of neuroblastoma marker genes, including tyrosine hydroxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule 1. Gene set enrichment analyses demonstrated significant correlation with MYC-associated expression patterns. Array comparative genome hybridization showed that chromosomal aberrations in LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre tumors were syntenic to those observed in human neuroblastomas. Treatment of a cell line established from a tumor derived from a LSL-MYCN;Dbh-iCre mouse with JQ1 or MLN8237 reduced cell viability and demonstrated oncogene addiction to MYCN. Here we report establishment of the first Cre-conditional human MYCN-driven mouse model for neuroblastoma that closely recapitulates the human disease with respect to tumor localization, histology, marker expression and genomic make up. This mouse model is a valuable tool for further functional studies and to assess the effect of targeted therapies.
Project description:Vav proteins are phosphorylation-dependent GDP/GTP exchange factors for Rho/Rac GTPases. Despite intense characterization of mammalian Vav proteins both biochemically and genetically, there is little information regarding the conservation of their biological properties in lower organisms. To approach this issue, we have performed a characterization of the regulatory, catalytic, and functional properties of the single Vav family member of Drosophila melanogaster. These analyses have shown that the intramolecular mechanisms controlling the enzyme activity of mammalian Vav proteins are already present in Drosophila, suggesting that such properties have been set up before the divergence between protostomes and deuterostomes during evolution. We also show that Drosophila and mammalian Vav proteins have similar catalytic specificities. As a consequence, Drosophila Vav can trigger oncogenic transformation, morphological change, and enhanced cell motility in mammalian cells. Gain-of-function studies using transgenic flies support the implication of this protein in cytoskeletal-dependent processes such as embryonic dorsal closure, myoblast fusion, tracheal development, and the migration/guidance of different cell types. These results highlight the important roles of Vav proteins in the signal transduction pathways regulating cytoskeletal dynamics. Moreover, they indicate that the foundations for the regulatory and enzymatic activities of this protein family have been set up very early during evolution.
Project description:Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Six-week-old female p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) and compound Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P < .02) in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Importantly, significant reductions of pancreatic ducts with carcinoma (90%; P < .0001) and PanIN 3 (~50%; P < .001) lesions were observed in the compound transgenic mice. The levels of n-3 PUFA were much higher (>85%; P < .05-0.01) in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.
Project description:We report here the identification and characterization of a novel Vav family member, Vav-3. Signaling experiments demonstrate that Vav-3 participates in pathways activated by protein tyrosine kinases. Vav-3 promotes the exchange of nucleotides on RhoA, on RhoG and, to a lesser extent, on Rac-1. During this reaction, Vav-3 binds physically to the nucleotide-free states of those GTPases. These functions are stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation in wild-type Vav-3 and become constitutively activated upon deletion of the entire calponin-homology region. Expression of truncated versions of Vav-3 leads to drastic actin relocalization and to the induction of stress fibers, lamellipodia, and membrane ruffles. Moreover, expression of Vav-3 alters cytokinesis, resulting in the formation of binucleated cells. All of these responses need only the expression of the central region of Vav-3 encompassing the Dbl homology (DH), pleckstrin homology (PH), and zinc finger (ZF) domains but do not require the presence of the C-terminal SH3-SH2-SH3 regions. Studies conducted with Vav-3 proteins containing loss-of-function mutations in the DH, PH, and ZF regions indicate that only the DH and ZF regions are essential for Vav-3 biological activity. Finally, we show that one of the functions of the Vav-3 ZF region is to work coordinately with the catalytic DH region to promote both the binding to GTP-hydrolases and their GDP-GTP nucleotide exchange. These results highlight the role of Vav-3 in signaling and cytoskeletal pathways and identify a novel functional cross-talk between the DH and ZF domains of Vav proteins that is imperative for the binding to, and activation of, Rho GTP-binding proteins.
Project description:Activation of endogenously expressed KRas[G12D] in the pancreas of mice gives rise primarily to early stage PanIN lesions, however such lesions can occasionally progress to end-stage ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Progression of KRas[G12D]- initiated lesions to PDAC is accelerated by modest expression of MYC from the Rosa26 locus. Deletion of 1 copy of endogenous c-Myc or both copies of endogenous Zbtb17 (aka Miz1), slows progression to PDAC and extends healthful survival of Pdx1-Cre;lsl-KRas[G12D];Rosa26-lsl-MYC[DM] (KMC) mice. Tumours were removed from mice with all 4 genotypes and validated by histological examination prior to RNA-SEQ analysis.