Analysis of gene expression changes in RN2 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells at 24hrs and 48hrs after Ddx5 knockdown.
ABSTRACT: Ddx5 inhibition in RN2 cells slows cell proliferation and induces apoptosis within 48-72hrs. The aim of this analysis was to gain insight into how Ddx5 inhibition causes this outcome by analyzing gene expression changes in RN2 cells that occur at early timepoints after Ddx5 inhibition that precedes the timepoint when RN2 proliferation/cell death becomes evident in tissue culture (72hrs after inhibition). Derivatives of RN2 AML cells were prepared that encode doxycycline-inducible expression of either of two different shRNAs targeting Ddx5 (shDdx5.1322 and shDdx5.2086) or a negative control shRNA that targets Renilla Luciferase (shRen.713). Six independent cultures of each derivative RN2 cell line (shDdx5.1322, shDdx5.2086, or shRen.713) were treated with doxycycline at timepoint 0 days to induce expression of the indicated shRNA in the RN2 cells. Each shRNA is co-expressed with dsRed in a doxycycline-induced manner and flow cytometry analysis indicated that doxycycline induced expression of dsRed and the shRNA in 70-to-80% of the cells in each culture. RNA was isolated from three independent cultures of each derivative RN2 cell line at either 24hrs and 48hrs after dpxycycline treatment. Therefore this study consists of 18 samples, sequencing results from biological triplicate samples of RN2-shDdx5.1322, RN2-shDdx5.2086, and RN2-shRen.713 at 24hrs post-doxycycline and sequencing results from biological triplicate samples of RN2-shDdx5.1322, RN2-shDdx5.2086, and shRen.713 at 48hrs post-doxycycline.
Project description:MLL-fusions are potent oncogenes that initiate aggressive forms of acute leukemia. As aberrant transcriptional regulators, MLL-fusion proteins alter gene expression in hematopoietic cells through interactions with the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase DOT1L. Notably, interference with MLL-fusion cofactors like DOT1L is an emerging therapeutic strategy in this disease. Here we identify the histone H2B E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20 as an additional requirement for MLL-fusion-mediated leukemogenesis. Suppressing the expression of Rnf20 in diverse models of MLL-rearranged leukemia leads to inhibition of cell proliferation; under tissue culture conditions as well as in vivo. Rnf20 knockdown leads to reduced expression of MLL-fusion target genes, including Hoxa9 and Meis1; effects that resemble Dot1l-inhibition. Using ChIP-seq, we found that H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) is enriched in the body of MLL-fusion target genes, correlating with sites of H3K79 methylation and transcription elongation. Furthermore, we found that Rnf20 is required to maintain local levels of H3K79 di-methylation by Dot1l at Hoxa9 and Meis1. These findings support a model whereby co-transcriptional recruitment of Rnf20 at MLL-fusion target genes leads to amplification of Dot1l-mediated H3K79 methylation, thereby rendering leukemia cells dependent on Rnf20 to maintain their oncogenic transcriptional program. Examination of gene expression profiles upon RNF20 RNAi in MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia cells
Project description:The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein Brd4 is a validated drug target in leukemia, yet its regulatory function in this disease is not well understood. Here, we show that Brd4 chromatin occupancy in acute myeloid leukemia closely correlates with the hematopoietic transcription factors (TFs) Pu.1, Fli1, Erg, C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and Myb at nucleosome-depleted enhancer and promoter regions. We provide evidence that these TFs, in conjunction with the lysine acetyltransferase activity of p300/CBP, facilitate Brd4 recruitment to their occupied sites to promote transcriptional activation. Moreover, chemical inhibition of BET bromodomains is found to suppress the functional output each hematopoietic TF, thereby interfering with essential lineage-specific transcriptional circuits in this disease. These findings reveal a chromatin-based signaling cascade comprised of hematopoietic TFs, p300/CBP, and Brd4, which supports leukemia maintenance and is suppressed by BET bromodomain inhibition. PolyA selected RNA-Seq for drug treated or shRNA-expressing MLL-AF9 transformed acute myeloid leukemia cells (RN2)
Project description:Cancer cells frequently depend on chromatin regulatory activities to maintain a malignant phenotype. Here, we show that leukemia cells require the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex for their survival and aberrant self-renewal potential. While Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, is known to suppress tumor formation in several cancer types, we found that leukemia cells instead rely on Brg1 to support their oncogenic transcriptional program, which includes Myc as one of its key targets. To account for this context-specific function, we identify a cluster of lineage-specific enhancers located 1.7 megabases downstream of Myc that are occupied by SWI/SNF, as well as the BET protein Brd4. Brg1 is required at these distal elements to maintain transcription factor occupancy and for long-range chromatin looping interactions with the Myc promoter. Notably, these distal Myc enhancers coincide with a region that is focally amplified in 3% of acute myeloid leukemia. Together, these findings define a leukemia maintenance function for SWI/SNF that is linked to enhancer-mediated gene regulation, providing general insights into how cancer cells exploit transcriptional coactivators to maintain oncogenic gene expression programs To profile the basal transcription level, we performed NSR and PolyA+ (illumine TruSeq) in a murine AML RN2 cell lines. To define the rapid downregulated genes in response to JQ1, BET bromodomian inhibitor, in RN2 cell, we performed RNA-seq in RN2 exposing to 250nM JQ1 for 48h time course.
Project description:The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4 is a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we demonstrate that the AML maintenance function of BRD4 requires its interaction with NSD3, which belongs to a subfamily of H3K36 methyltransferases. Unexpectedly, AML cells were found to only require a short isoform of NSD3 that lacks the methyltransferase domain. We show that NSD3-short is an adaptor protein that sustains leukemia by linking BRD4 to the CHD8 chromatin remodeler, by using a PWWP chromatin reader module, and by employing an acidic transactivation domain. Genetic targeting of NSD3 or CHD8 mimics the phenotypic and transcriptional effects of BRD4 inhibition. Furthermore, BRD4, NSD3, and CHD8 colocalize across the AML genome, and each is released from super-enhancer regions upon chemical inhibition of BET bromodomains. These findings suggest that BET inhibitors exert therapeutic effects in leukemia by evicting BRD4-NSD3-CHD8 complexes from chromatin to suppress transcription. PolyA+ (illumine TruSeq)/not-so-random (NSR) primers selected RNA-Seq for shRNA/sgRNA-expressing MLL-AF9 transformed acute myeloid leukemia cells (RN2).
Project description:The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4 is a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we demonstrate that the AML maintenance function of BRD4 requires its interaction with NSD3, which belongs to a subfamily of H3K36 methyltransferases. Unexpectedly, AML cells were found to only require a short isoform of NSD3 that lacks the methyltransferase domain. We show that NSD3-short is an adaptor protein that sustains leukemia by linking BRD4 to the CHD8 chromatin remodeler, by using a PWWP chromatin reader module, and by employing an acidic transactivation domain. Genetic targeting of NSD3 or CHD8 mimics the phenotypic and transcriptional effects of BRD4 inhibition. Furthermore, BRD4, NSD3, and CHD8 colocalize across the AML genome, and each is released from super-enhancer regions upon chemical inhibition of BET bromodomains. These findings suggest that BET inhibitors exert therapeutic effects in leukemia by evicting BRD4-NSD3-CHD8 complexes from chromatin to suppress transcription. ChIP-Seq for regulatory factors of BRD4, NSD3, CHD8 and histone modification H3K36me2 in MLL-AF9 transformed acute myeloid leukemia cells (RN2)
Project description:Using an integrative approach combining a Tet-off conditional AML mouse model, global expression profiling following suppression of the driving MLL-AF9 oncogene, and a new Tet-on conditional shRNA expression system we have identified Myb as critical mediator of addiction to MLL-AF9. Suppression of Myb in established AML in vivo terminates aberrant self-renewal and triggers a terminal myeloid differentiation program that precisely phenocopies the effects of suppressing MLL-AF9. Remarkably, suppressing Myb effectively eradicates aggressive and chemotherapy resistant AML. To further investigate Myb dependent transcriptional programs involved in mediating aberrant self-renewal in leukemia, we globally surveyed gene expression changes following acute shRNA-induced suppression of Myb in an established Tet-on competent model of MLL-AF9;NrasG12D-induced AML. To enable regulatable suppression of Myb in AML, we retrovirally transduced established Tet-on competent MLL-AF9;NrasG12D induced AML cells with TRMPV-Neo vectors (Zuber et al., Nature Biotech, 2010) harboring shRNAs targeting Myb (shMyb.2572 and shMyb.2652), a control shRNA targeting Renilla Luciferase (shRen.713), or an empty miR30 cassette of the recipient cloning vector (Rec). Following drug selection, shRNA expression was induced by doxycycline treatment and total RNA was isolated from sorted shRNA expressing (Venus+/dsRed+) leukemia cells after 3 days of dox treatment, and subjected to Affymetrix microarray expression analysis. Expression profiles following expression of two independent Myb shRNAs were compared to those observed after induction in shRen.713- and Rec-expressing control samples (each in 3 biological replicates).
Project description:We recently identified a missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in DDX5 (rs1140409, p.S480A) that enhances the risk of developing cirrhosis. DDX5 is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and transcriptional modulator. We hypothesized that the activity of DDX5 in regulating fibrogenic gene transcription in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is altered by the S480A SNP. To test this, we employed two approaches: 1) transient overexpression of DDX5 cDNA or siRNA knockdown of endogenous DDX5, with replacement by either DDX5 wild type (WT) or SNP cDNA, or 2) stable expression of exogenous DDX5 WT and SNP in HSC lines. WT DDX5 mRNA in HSCs was inversely correlated with gene expression for alpha2(I) collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and transforming growth factor-beta1. Stable DDX5 SNP-expressing cells had higher basal and transforming growth factor-beta1-stimulated expression and enhanced promoter activities of fibrogenic genes. DDX5 variant-expressing cells also had higher Smad3 and AP-1-responsive reporter activities. In a one-hybrid GAL4 system, co-expression of the DDX5 SNP variant with chimeras of GAL4 DNA binding domain linked to JunD or Sp1 displayed higher transactivation of a GAL4-responsive reporter than that of DDX5 WT. Increased fibrogenic gene expression in DDX5 SNP-expressing cells was associated with reduced recruitment of DDX5 homodimers to responsive promoters, but there was no difference in the recruitment of the co-repressor HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1). These data suggest that DDX5 is a repressor of fibrogenic genes in HSCs through interaction with transcriptional complexes. The enhanced fibrogenic activity of the DDX5 risk variant is linked to a reduced repressive function toward these target genes.
Project description:In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), dysregulated expression of DDX5 (DEAD box protein 5) and impaired autophagy have been reported separately. However, the relationship between them has not been explored. Here we present evidence to show that, by interacting with autophagic receptor p62, DDX5 promotes autophagy and suppresses tumorigenesis. DDX5 inversely correlated with p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) expression in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated and non-HBV-associated HCCs. Patients with low DDX5 expression showed poor prognosis after tumor resection. We found that DDX5 overexpression induced, while DDX5 knockdown attenuated, autophagic flux in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. DDX5 promoted p62 degradation and markedly reduced the half-life of p62. Moreover, DDX5 overexpression dramatically reduced, while DDX5 knockdown promoted, cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. We found that DDX5 bound to p62 and interfered with p62/TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6) interaction. Further findings revealed that the N-terminal domain of DDX5, involved in the interaction with p62, was sufficient to induce autophagy independent of its RNA binding and helicase activity. DDX5 overexpression decreased p62/TRAF6-mediated lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and subsequently inhibited the mTOR signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRAF6 blocked DDX5-induced autophagy. Furthermore, we showed that miR-17-5p downregulated DDX5 and impaired autophagy. Inhibition of miR-17-5p promoted autophagic flux and suppressed tumor growth in HCC xenograft models. Conclusion: Our findings define a noncanonical pathway that links miR-17-5p, DDX5, p62/TRAF6, autophagy, and HCC. These findings open an avenue for the treatment of HCC.
Project description:DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 5 (DDX5) is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is overexpressed in various malignancies. Increasing evidence suggests that DDX5 participates in carcinogenesis and cancer progression via promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the functional role of DDX5 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we observed that DDX5 was significantly up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal tissues. The expression of DDX5 correlated strongly with Ki67 index and pathological stage of gastric cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that knockdown of DDX5 inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and xenografts growth, whereas ectopic expression of DDX5 promoted these cellular functions. Mechanically, DDX5 induced gastric cancer cell growth by activating mTOR/S6K1. Treatment of everolimus, the specific mTOR inhibitor, significantly attenuated DDX5-mediated cell proliferation. Interestingly, the expression of DDX5 and p-mTOR in gastric cancer tissues demonstrated a positive correlation. Taken together, these results revealed a novel role of DDX5 in gastric cancer cell proliferation via the mTOR pathway. Therefore, DDX5 may serve as a therapeutic target in gastric cancer.