A splicing-dependent transcriptional checkpoint associated with pre-spliceosome formation
ABSTRACT: There is good evidence for functional interactions between splicing and transcription in eukaryotes, but how and why these processes are coupled remain unknown. Prp5 is an RNA-stimulated ATPase required for pre-spliceosome formation in yeast. We demonstrate through in vivo RNA labelling that, in addition to a splicing defect, the prp5-1 mutation causes a defect in the transcription of intron-containing genes. We present chromatin immunoprecipitation evidence for a transcriptional elongation defect in which RNA polymerase that is phosphorylated at serine 5 of the largest subunit’s heptad repeat accumulates over introns, and that this defect requires the U2 snRNP-associated Cus2p. A similar accumulation of polymerase was observed when pre-spliceosome formation was blocked by a mutation in U2 snRNA. These results indicate the existence of a transcriptional elongation checkpoint that is associated with pre-spliceosome formation during co-transcriptional spliceosome assembly. We propose a role for Cus2p as a potential checkpoint factor in transcription. Examining the Pol II profile in MT strain and WT strain
Project description:During meiosis in yeast, global splicing efficiency increases. The mechanism for this is relief of competition for the splicing machinery by repression of intron-containing ribosomal protein genes (RPGs). Repression of RPGs with rapamycin also increases splicing efficiency in vegetative cells. Reducing levels of an RPG-dedicated transcription factor globally improves splicing and suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth defect of a spliceosome mutation. These results indicate that the spliceosome is limiting and pre-mRNAs compete with each other. Under these conditions, splicing efficiency of a given pre-mRNA therefore depends on both its concentration and affinity for the limiting splicing factor(s) as well as those of the competing pre-mRNAs. We propose that trans-competition control of splicing helps repress meiotic gene expression in vegetative cells, and promotes efficient meiosis. Competition between RNAs for a limiting factor may be a general condition important for function of a variety of post-transcriptional control mechanisms. Splicing and gene expression profiles of 1) wild type yeast cells treated with rapamycin (2 biological replicates) relative to untreated cells and 2) prp4-1 pGAL-IFH1 (down-regulated expression of IFH1 transcription factor(specific for ribosomal protein genes)) relative to prp4-1 yeast.
Project description:Nucleosomes are decorated with numerous post-translational modifications capable of influencing many DNA processes. Here, we describe a new class of modification, methylation of glutamine, occurring on yeast histone H2A at position 105 (Q105) and human H2A at Q104. We identify Nop1 as the methyltransferase in yeast and we demonstrate that Fibrillarin is the equivalent enzyme in human cells. Glutamine methylation of H2A is restricted to the nucleolus. Global analysis in yeast, using a H2AQ105me specific antibody, show that this modification is exclusively enriched over the 35S rDNA transcriptional unit. We show that the Q105 residue is part of the binding site for the histone chaperone FACT (Facilitator of Transcription) complex. Methylation of Q105 or its substitution to alanine disrupts binding to FACT in vitro. A yeast strain mutated at Q105 exhibits a defect in histone incorporation and shows increased transcription at rDNA genes. This defect is phenocopied by mutations in FACT that decrease its activity. Together these data identify glutamine methylation of H2A as the first histone epigenetic mark dedicated to a specific RNA polymerase and define its function as a regulator of FACT interaction with nucleosomes.
Project description:The spliceosome is a dynamic macromolecular machine that catalyzes the removal of introns from pre-mRNA to make mature message. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cwf10 (homolog Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snu114 and of Human U5-116K), an integral member of the U5 snRNP, is a GTPase that shares sequence homology with the eukaryotic translation elongation factor EF2. Cwf10 is required for pre-mRNA splicing; however, its mechanism(s) of action is still not understood. Cwf10/Snu114 family members contain a conserved N-terminal extension (NTE) that lacks homology with EF2 and has been predicted to be an intrinsically unfolded domain. Using S. pombe as a model system, we show that the NTE is not essential, but cells lacking this domain are defective in pre-mRNA splicing at all temperatures. Genetic interactions between cwf10-ΔNTE and other pre-mRNA splicing mutants are consistent with a role for the NTE in spliceosome activation. Characterization of Cwf10-NTE by various biophysical techniques shows the NTE contains both regions of structure and disorder in solution. The first twenty-three highly-conserved amino acids of the NTE are essential for its role in splicing, but are not sufficient to restore pre-mRNA splicing to wild-type levels in cwf10-∆NTE cells. When the NTE is overexpressed in the cwf10-ΔNTE background, it can complement the truncated Cwf10 protein in trans, and it also immunoprecipitates a complex similar in composition to the late-stage U5.U2/U6 spliceosome. These data show that the structurally flexible NTE is capable of making specific contacts within the spliceosome that may facilitate Cwf10’s overall role facilitating spliceosome rearrangements. Interrogation of the S. pombe transcriptome using poly-A enriched RNA sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 2500) in wild type and cwf10-ΔNTE cultures. A total of 4 samples were analysed: two biological repeats of wild-type strain and two biological repeats of cwf10-ΔNTE
Project description:Somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene ZRSR2 (located on the X chromosome) are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). ZRSR2 is involved in the recognition of 3' splice site during the early stages of spliceosome assembly; however, its precise role in RNA splicing has remained unclear. Here, we characterize ZRSR2 as an essential component of the minor spliceosome (U12-dependent) assembly. shRNA mediated knockdown of ZRSR2 leads to impaired splicing of the U12-type introns, and RNA-Sequencing of MDS bone marrow reveals that loss of ZRSR2 activity causes increased mis-splicing. These splicing defects involve retention of the U12-type introns while splicing of the U2-type introns remain mostly unaffected. ZRSR2 deficient cells also exhibit reduced proliferation potential and distinct alterations in myeloid and erythroid differentiation in vitro. These data identify a specific role for ZRSR2 in RNA splicing and highlight dysregulated splicing of U12-type introns as a characteristic feature of ZRSR2 mutations in MDS. RNA sequencing was performed on 16 bone marrow samples (MDS and normal) and six samples of control or ZRSR2 shRNA transduced TF-1 cells and data was analysed for aberrant splicing caused by ZRSR2 mutations/deficiency.
Project description:whole genome analysis of RNA pol II and histone H3 in WT and Spt6-depleted cells using a tetracycline regulated ts degron mutant, spt6-td. ChIP-seq of histone H3and pol II in budding yeast (W303 background)
Project description:Recent ChIP experiments indicate that spliceosome assembly and splicing can occur cotranscriptionally in S. cerevisiae. However, only a few genes have been examined, and all have long second exons. To extend these studies, we analyzed intron-containing genes with different second exon lengths, by ChIP as well as by whole-genome tiling arrays (ChIP-CHIP). The data indicate that U1 snRNP recruitment is independent of exon length. Recursive splicing constructs, which uncouple U1 recruitment from transcription, suggest that cotranscriptional U1 recruitment contributes to optimal splicing efficiency. In contrast, U2 snRNP recruitment as well as cotranscriptional splicing is deficient on short second exon-genes. We estimate that approximately 90% of endogenous yeast splicing is post-transcriptional, consistent with an analysis of post-transcriptional snRNP-associated pre-mRNA. Keywords: ChIP-CHIP Overall design: ChIP-CHIP was performed on tagged U1, U2, and U5 snRNPs to address spliceosome assembly on intron-containing genes in S. cerevisiae. Data expressed as log2 (immunoprecipitation/input) ratios.
Project description:The U2 snRNA is a basal component of the major spliceosome, which is responsible for >90% human pre-mRNA splicing. A 5-nucleotide deletion in one of the mouse U2 snRNA genes (Rnu2-8) causes cerebellar granule cell degeneration in the NMF291 mouse mutant strain. To identify the altered transcripts in the NMF291–/– cerebellum, we interograted Affy. mouse 1.0 ST Exon arrays with total RNAs from three postnatal-30-day (P30) wild type and three NMF291–/– cerebella. Affy. mouse 1.0 ST Exon arrays were hybridized with total RNAs derived from three P30 female wild type and NMF291–/– mice (biological replicates).
Project description:In eukaryotes, a dynamic ribonucleic protein machine known as the spliceosome catalyzes the removal of introns from pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). Recent studies show the process of RNA-synthesis and RNA-processing to be spatio-temporally coordinated, indicating that RNA splicing takes place in the context of chromatin. H2A.Z is a highly conserved histone variant of the canonical histone H2A. In S. cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited into chromatin by the SWR1-complex, is found near the 5’ ends of protein-coding genes, and has been implicated in transcription regulation. Here we show that splicing of intron-containing genes in cells lacking H2A.Z is impaired, particularly under suboptimal splicing conditions. Cells lacking H2A.Z are especially dependent on a functional U2 snRNP, as H2A.Z shows extensive genetic interactions with U2 snRNP associated proteins, and RNA-seq reveals introns with non-consensus branch points are particularly sensitive to H2A.Z loss. Consistently, H2A.Z promotes efficient spliceosomal rearrangements involving the U2 snRNP, as H2A.Z loss results in persistent U2 snRNP association and decreased recruitment of downstream snRNPs to nascent RNA. H2A.Z impairs transcription elongation, suggesting that spliceosome rearrangements are tied to H2A.Z’s role in elongation. Depletion of disassembly factor Prp43 suppresses H2A.Z-mediated splice defects, indicating that, in the absence of H2A.Z, stalled spliceosomes are disassembled and unspliced RNAs are released. Together these data demonstrate that H2A.Z is required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing and indicate a role for H2A.Z in coordinating the kinetics of transcription elongation and splicing. Overall design: Transcriptomes of 11 different cell types in S. cerevisiae generated by sequencing of one to two independent preparations of rRNA-depleteted RNA libraries
Project description:Histones are among the most conserved proteins known, but organismal differences do exist. In this study we examined the contribution that divergent amino acids within histone H3 make to cell growth and chromatin structure in S. cerevisiae. We show that, while amino acids that define histone H3.3 are dispensable for yeast growth, substitution of residues within the histone H3 alpha 3 helix with the human counterparts results in a severe growth defect. Mutations within this domain also result in altered nucleosome positioning, both in vivo and in vitro, which is accompanied by increased preference for nucleosome favoring sequences. These results suggest that divergent amino acids within the histone H3 alpha 3 helix play organismal roles in defining chromatin structure. Mnase-seq for two replicates each of wildtype and H3 c-terminal mutants.
Project description:We report the genome-wide localization of SESAME and found that three SESAME subunits localized in the gene body. Examining the genome-wide localization of SESAME subunits (Sam1, Ser33, Pyk1) and Set1