Project description:We have used RNA-seq to examine gene expression from paired human CRC/control mucosa samples and identified CRC-specific expressed long noncoding RNAs To identify CRC-specific expressed genes, including long noncoding RNAs
Project description:Purpose: To characterize the genome-wide distribution of H3K79me2 in human leukemia cell lines treated with the Dot1l inhibitor EPZ004777 or control Methods: We performed Chip-seq for the H3K79me2 on the leukemia cell lines Mutz3, Loucy and Molm14 after 6 days in culture in the presence of 3uM EPZ004777 or DMSO control Results: H3K79me2 is completely erased from key target genes such as the HOXA cluster. Conclusions: Exposure of Mutz3, Loucy and Molm14 to 3uM EPZ004777 erases H3K79 methylation globally as well as on key loci ChIP-Seq for H3K79me2 on human leukemia cell lines exposed for 6 days to the Dot1l inhibitor EPZ004777
Project description:We have employed short-capped RNA sequencing (sc-RNA-seq) in order to identify genes whose expression is regulated by promoter proximal pausing of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPI) in response to stress stimulation. We used serum-deprived mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, either untreated (control) or treated with anisomycin to induce the p38/MAP kinase pathway. Serum starved (72 h 0.2% FCS) mouse 3T3 cells were treated with anisomycin (188.5 nM) for 1 h (in duplicates). Untreated, serum-starved cells were used as a control. We isolated nuclear RNA, performed size fractionation followed by isolation of short-capped RNAs (scRNA). scRNAs were subsequently converted into DNA library and sequenced.
Project description:As sex determines mammalian development, understanding the nature and developmental dynamics of the sexually dimorphic transcriptome is important. To explore this, we generated 72 genome-wide RNA-seq profiles from mouse eight-cell embryos, late gestation and adult livers, together with 4 ground-state pluripotent embryonic (ES) cell lines from which we generated both RNA-seq and multiple ChIP-seq profiles. We complemented this with previously published data to yield 5 snap-shots of pre-implantation development, late-gestation placenta and somatic tissue and multiple adult tissues for integrative analysis. We define a high-confidence sex-dimorphic signature of 56 genes in eight-cell embryos. Sex-chromosome-linked components of this signature are largely conserved throughout pre-implantation development and ES cells, whilst the autosomal component is more dynamic. Sex-biased gene expression is reflected by enrichment for activating and repressive histone modifications. The eight-cell signature is largely non-overlapping with that defined from fetal liver, neither was it correlated with liver or other adult tissues analysed. Fetal and adult liver gene expression signatures are also substantially different, yet a core set of common genes showing modest dimorphic expression was identified. Dramatic sex-specific expression of olfactory receptors was found in fetal liver. Sex-biased expression differences unique to adult liver were enriched for growth hormone-responsiveness. The majority of sex-chromosome based differences identified from eight-cell embryos are also present in placenta but not somatic tissue at the same gestational age. This systematic study identifies three distinct phases of sex dimorphism throughout mouse development, and has significant implications for understanding the developmental origins of sex-specific phenotypes and disease in mammals. ChIP seq of Es Cell
Project description:The goals of this study are to utilize high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of mutant and control fetal testis samples to identify changes in both transcript and repeat element abundance in tissues harboring a homozygous mutation for Glis3. 672 unique genes were differentially expressed in mutant versus wild-type samples. Of the downregulated genes, there was a strong enrichment for piRNA pathway members, while upregulated genes were associated with leydig cell differentiation, meiosis, and histone cluster genes. Differential expression of several repeat elements was also detected in mutant samples. Our findings provide valuable information on the potential mechanisms underlying the fetal germ cell loss observed in Glis3 mutant testes. Whole testis mRNA profiles of embryonic day 14.5 wild type (WT) and Glis3 mutant mice were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina HiSeq2500
Project description:Gene splicing requires three basal genetic elements; the 3’ and 5’ splice sites and the branchpoint to which the 5’ intron termini is ligated to form a closed lariat during the splicing reaction. The 5’ and 3’ splice sites that define exon boundaries have been widely identified, revealing pervasive transcription and splicing of human genes. However, the locations of the third requisite element, the branchpoint, are still largely unknown. Here we employ two complementary approaches, targeted RNA sequencing and exoribonuclease digestion, to distil sequenced reads that traverse the lariat junction and, via non-conventional alignment, locate human branchpoint nucleotides. Alignments identify 88,748 branchpoints that correspond to 20% of known introns, with 76% supported by diagnostic sequence mismatch errors. This affords a first genome-wide analysis of branchpoints, describing their distribution, selection, and the existence of a diverse array of overlapping sequence motifs with distinct usage, evolutionary histories, and co-variation with distal splicing elements. The overlap of branchpoints with noncoding human genetic variation also indicates a notable contribution to disease. This annotation and analysis incorporates branchpoints into transcriptomic research and reflects a core role for this element in the regulatory code that governs gene splicing and expression. RNaseR validation of branchpoint nucleotides
Project description:Purpose: To characterize the genome-wide distribution of H3K79me2 in murine MN1 driven myeloid leukemia Methods: We performed Chip-seq for the H3K79me2 in leukemias isolated from moribund mice that had been injected with common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) transduced with MSCV-MN1-GFP Results: H3K79me2 is enriched at key loci that 1. are bound by MN1 in the data set of Heuser et al, (Cancer Cell. 2011 Jul 12;20(1):39-52.), 2. upregulated upon transduction with MN1, and lose expression upon deletion of the H3K79 methyltransferase Dot1l. Conclusions: A leukemogenic program in MN1 leukemias is marked by H3K79me2 and dependent on this mark ChIP-Seq for H3K79me2 using MN1 driven leukemias isolated from the bone marrow of moribund mice.
Project description:Factor induced reprogramming is a slow and inefficient process with only rare cells progressing towards induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Owing to these restraints, mechanistic studies have been limited to analyses of heterogeneous bulk populations undergoing reprogramming and partially reprogrammed cell lines. Here, by combining surface markers (Thy1, SSEA1) and an Oct4-GFP fluorescent reporter allele, we analyzed defined intermediate cell populations poised to becoming iPSCs at the transcriptional and epigenetic levels using genome-wide and single cell technologies. We found that factor-induced reprogramming elicits two discernible transcriptional waves that are characterized by the initial extinction of the somatic gene expression program and the concomitant acquisition of an ESC-like proliferative and metabolic state, followed by the activation of an embryonic pluripotent state primed for differentiation. The first wave is mostly driven by gene activation through c-Myc and gene repression by Klf4, whereas the second wave is a result of gradually activated Oct4/Sox2 targets in cooperation with Klf4 targets and other downstream regulators. While microRNA expression and enrichment for individual histone modifications (H3K4me3 or H3K27me3 enriched promoters) mirrored the observed biphasic transcriptional pattern, the establishment of bivalent domains (H3K4me3/H3K27me3 enriched promoters) occurred more gradually. In contrast, changes in DNA methylation took place predominantly at the end of reprogramming when cells assumed a stable pluripotent state. Cells that became refractory to reprogramming activated the first but failed to initiate the second transcriptional wave. However, introduction of additional copies of the reprogramming transgenes into these cells rescued their ability to form iPSCs, indicating that suboptimal transcription factor levels are a limiting factor for efficient iPSC formation. This integrative analysis allowed us to identify novel genes and microRNAs that enhance reprogramming and surface markers that further subdivide intermediate cell populations. Collectively, our data offer new mechanistic insights into the nature and sequence of molecular events inherent to cellular reprogramming and provide a valuable resource of molecules that may act as roadblocks during iPSC formation. Time series design with samples sorted into subpopulations according to surface markers.
Project description:We describe the discovery of sno-lncRNAs, a class of nuclear-enriched intron-derived long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are processed on both ends by the snoRNA machinery. During exonucleolytic trimming, the sequences between the snoRNAs are not degraded, leading to the accumulation of lncRNAs flanked by snoRNA sequences but lacking 5' caps and 3' poly(A) tails. Such RNAs are widely expressed in cells and tissues and can be produced by either box C/D or box H/ACA snoRNAs. Importantly, the genomic region encoding one abundant class of sno-lncRNAs (15q11-q13) is specifically deleted in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). The PWS region sno-lncRNAs do not colocalize with nucleoli or Cajal bodies, but rather accumulate near their sites of synthesis. These sno-lncRNAs associate strongly with Fox family splicing regulators and alter patterns of splicing. These results thus implicate a previously unannotated class of lncRNAs in the molecular pathogenesis of PWS. We have used deep sequencing to explore the gene expression from poly(A)+ RNAs in embryonal carcinoma (EC) line PA-1 cells treated with scrambled or specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASOs).