Transcriptional profiling in dioecious plant Populus cathayana reveals potential and sex-specific molecular adaptations to solar UV-B radiation.
ABSTRACT: Recently, we found a dioecious plant Populus cathayana males possess a greater tolerance to enhanced UV-B radiation than do females. To carry this work forward, comparative transcriptome analyses were carried out. Similar to previous studies, a set of conserved functions and pathways related to UV-B stress were detected in males and females, regardless of the sex. In addition, sex-specific responses via transcriptome remodeling were also detected as shown in the changes of sex-related gene expression occurred in some pathways. For example, a lot of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in amino acid metabolism were mainly up-regulated in males, but down-regulated in females. Moreover, we found some DEGs expressed predominantly or exclusively in one sex, which may directly contribute to sex-related physiological responses. 4 samples examined: (i) males exposure to decreased solar UV-B radiation (MC); (ii) females exposure to decreased solar UV-B radiation (FC); (iii) males exposure to ambient solar UV-B radiation (MU); and (iv) females exposure to ambient solar UV-B radiation (FU). Nine plants of each sex were exposed to each treatment, and RNA samples from the 9 individuals were pooled with equal proportion.
Project description:In the present study, we compared transcriptional response to salinity between male and female individuals of Populus yunnanensis. We found that several functional groups of genes involved in important pathways were differentially expressed, including photosynthesis-related genes which were mainly up-regulated in males but down-regulated in females. This gene expression pattern is consistent with physiological observation that salinity inhibited photosynthetic capacity more in females than in males. In conclusion, our study provided molecular evidence of sexual differences in poplar salinity tolerance. Identified sex-related genes in salinity tolerance and their functional groups will enhance our understanding of sexual differences to salinity stress at the transcription level. 4 samples examined: males without salinity stress, males exposed to salinity stress, females without salinity stress and females exposed to salinity stress. Nine plants of each sex were exposed to each treatment, and RNA samples from the 9 individuals were pooled with equal proportion.
Project description:UV radiation (UV) alters secondary metabolism in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. berries, which may affect on the final composition of both, grapes and wines. We compared berry skin transcriptome and phenolic composition between Tempranillo berries grown in the presence or absence of solar UV in a mid-altitude Tempranillo vineyard. By analysing two different ripening degrees, expression of 121 genes was significantly altered. Functional enrichment identified that, principally, secondary metabolism-related transcripts were induced by UV, including VvFLS1, VvGT5 and VvGT6 flavonol biosynthetic genes induction. Concurrently, flavonol accumulation was the most evident impact of UV on the berry skin phenolic composition. Monoterpenoid biosynthetic transcripts were also up-regulated by UV, whereas induction of stilbenoid biosynthetic transcripts and stilbenes accumulation was probably induced by the joint action of UV and other condition under the UV-blocking filter, likely higher temperature. Among regulatory genes, VvMYBF1, VvMYB24 and three bHLH transcription factors were up-regulated by UV. Homologs to Arabidopsis UVR8-dependent UV-B-induced genes were also induced, including VvHY5-1, VvHY5-2 and VvRUP UV-B signalling genes. This suggests that the UV-B-specific signalling pathway is activated in the skin of grapes grown at low-medium altitudes. The biosynthesis and accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds that are appreciated for winemaking were almost specifically triggered, which indicates that viticultural practices increasing solar UV incidence may improve grape features important to wine production. A total of 12 samples were hybridized. Grape skin RNA from berries ripening under a UV-transmitting filter (FUV+) and a UV-blocking filter (FUV-) was compared. Berry skin of two different ripening stages was analysed on each UV treatment. All samples were harvested simultaneously and a NaCl series was used to select the ripening degree in a non-invasive way. Three biological replicates were analyzed for each sample.
Project description:UV radiation is a ubiquitous component of solar radiation that affects plant growth and development. Analysis of natural variation in response to UV radiation revealed significant differences among natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the genetic basis of this is to a large extent unknown. Here, we analyzed the response of Arabidopsis accessions to UV radiation stress by performing RNA-sequencing of three UV sensitive and three UV resistant accessions. The genome-wide transcriptional analysis revealed a large number of genes significantly up- or down-regulated only in sensitive or only in resistant accessions, respectively. Mutant analysis of few selected candidate genes suggested by the RNA-sequencing results indicate a connection between UV radiation stress and plant-pathogen-like defense responses. Examination of transcriptional changes in response to UV treatment in Arabidopsis natural accessions
Project description:To explore possible interactive effects of UV-radiation, temperature and growth conditions, cultivated and field sporophytes of Saccharina latissima were exposed for 24h to UV-radiation at three different temperatures (2,7 & 12°C). Gene expression profiles under UV-radiation at different temperatures were assessed through microarray hybridizations, afterwards comparisons of gene expression profiles in field and culture sporophytes were carried out.
Project description:Solar radiation is one of the biggest threats to the skin, eliciting a specific protective cellular response. To descipt the underlying mechanisms, we have chosen to study in vivo, epidermis gene expression of surface solar radiation (SSR)-irradiated skin using whole genome microarray (Agilent 44K). We studied epidermis samples from five healthy Caucasian patients, with phototype II or III, using two different doses (2J/m2 and 4J/m2) and sham-irradiated.
Project description:The response of microRNAs (miRNAs) to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in human melanocytes while in their natural environment, and in particular, melanocytes from persons with a history of melanoma versus those from healthy persons, have yet to be described. Here, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate and subsequently profile the expression of miRNAs in a pure population of melanocytes from human volunteers exposed to physiological doses of simulated sunlight (ssUVR). The majority of the UV-responsive miRNAs in the melanocytes of melanoma patients were down-regulated in expression when compared to those in the melanocytes of healthy individuals. De-repressed genes associated with these down-regulated UV-miRNAs belonged to regulatory modules involved in controlling the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), apoptosis, and immune-evasion, processes reputedly linked to melanoma. Overall design: Eight healthy fair-skinned females between the ages of 31 and 38, and nine fair-skinned females with a history of having only one primary melanoma between the ages of 35 to 46, were enrolled in this study to determine the effects of simulated solar ultraviolet radiation (ssUVR) on their melanocytes in situ.
Project description:UV radiation is a ubiquitous component of solar radiation that affects plant growth and development. Analysis of natural variation in response to UV radiation revealed significant differences among natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the genetic basis of this is to a large extent unknown. Here, we analyzed the response of Arabidopsis accessions to UV radiation stress by performing RNA-sequencing of three UV sensitive and three UV resistant accessions. The genome-wide transcriptional analysis revealed a large number of genes significantly up- or down-regulated only in sensitive or only in resistant accessions, respectively. Mutant analysis of few selected candidate genes suggested by the RNA-sequencing results indicate a connection between UV radiation stress and plant-pathogen-like defense responses. Overall design: Examination of transcriptional changes in response to UV treatment in Arabidopsis natural accessions
Project description:Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate), a broad-spectrum insecticide, has recently been associated with the development of cutaneous melanoma in an epidemiological cohort study with U.S. farm workers also exposed to ultraviolet radiation, which is known to be the main etiologic factor for skin carcinogenesis. Although comprehensive and well designed, the agricultural epidemiological study was not sufficient to characterize the direct contribution of the insecticide and solar radiation in melanomagenesis. Several studies have explored the synergistic effect of certain chemicals with UV radiation, increasing its deleterious effects on the skin. We hypothesized that carbaryl exposure associated with UV solar radiation may induce melanocyte transformation. This study aimed to characterize human melanocytes after individual or combined exposure to carbaryl (100 μM) and solar radiation (375 mJ/cm2). In a microarray analysis, carbaryl, but not solar radiation, induced an important oxidative stress response, evidenced by the upregulation of antioxidant genes, such as Hemeoxygenase-1 (HMOX1), and downregulation of Microphtalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF), the main regulator of melanocytic activity; results were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Carbaryl and solar radiation induced a gene response suggestive of DNA damage and cell cycle alteration. The expression of genes in these categories was notably more intense in the combined treatment group, in a synergistic manner, for CDKN1A, BRCA1/2 and MDM2 genes. Likewise, flow cytometry assays demonstrated S-phase cell cycle arrest, reduced apoptosis levels and faster induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) lesions in carbaryl treated groups. Our data suggests that carbaryl is genotoxic to human melanocytes, especially when associated with solar radiation. Overall design: Twenty-four hours after plating, cells were at 80% confluency and were subjected to the following experimental treatment groups: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Irradiation and no treatment; Group 3: Carbaryl treatment; Group 4: Irradiation and carbaryl treatment; Group 5: Vehicle treatment; Group 6: Irradiation and vehicle treatment. Treatment regimen consisted of melanocyte incubation with carbaryl 100 µM (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, USA) for 6 hours after single dose exposure to 375mJ/cm2 of solar radiation using a solar simulator (SS2.5kW, Sciencetech Inc., Ontario, Canada) with a global air mass filter (A.M 1.5G, Sciencetech Inc, Ontario, Canada). For the irradiation assays, culture medium was replaced by PBS buffer without Ca2+ or Mg2+ (PBS-A). All experiments were performed in triplicates.
Project description:Urocanic acid (UCA) is a major epidermal chromophore that undergoes trans to cis photoisomerisation following exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although there is considerable evidence that cis-UCA suppresses cell-mediated immune response in mouse skin, the molecular events are not fully understood. In this study, we examined involvement of gene transcription in the immunomodulatory effects of cis-UCA on primary human keratinocytes. The results showed that about 400 genes were induced by UVR, 16 of which also up-regulated by cis-UCA. In contrast, trans-UCA had no effect on gene expression. The genes up-regulated by both cis-UCA and UVR were associated with apoptosis, cell growth arrest, cytokines and oxidative stress. Experiment Overall Design: RNA was extracted from primary human keratinocytes treated with trans-, cis-UCA (10ug/ml) or solar simulated UVR (12J/cm2 ~ 2-3 minimal erythema doses for fair skin), or untreated. At 24hr, the transcriptional profiles were assessed by Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray.