Expression data from differentiating murine embryonic stem cells
ABSTRACT: Various substances have been reported to enhance the cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Ascorbic Acid had a cardiogenic effect in mESC CGR8 cell line. Transcriptome of AA-treated CGR8 ESCs did not reveal any significant changes in gene expression as compared to untreated cells. We performed a global gene expression analysis to better understand the mechanism of Ascorbic acid-induced cardiac differentiation. Differentiating murine embryonic stem cells from CGR cell line were selected at stages of Day 0 (undifferentiated cells), Day 2, Day 3 and Day 5 of differentiation for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarray chip. Samples were collected in 3 biological replicate and were either treated with Ascorbic acid or nontreated (control group). Only those samples were processed for further analysis in which we were able to confirm that AA significantly enhanced cardiac differentiation efficiency at later stages (day 8 and 12) of differentiation by assessing the number of beating EBs in control and AA-treated groups. Cardiac efficiency was evaluated later on this study. But samples that were analyzed by microarray analysis was limited till Day 5. We did not perform whole genome study for these later days of differentiation ( day 8 or 12).
Project description:Cardiac muscle differentiation in vivo is guided by sequential growth factor signals, including endoderm-derived diffusible factors, impinging on cardiogenic genes in the developing mesoderm. Previously, by RNA interference in AB2.2 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), we identified the endodermal transcription factor Sox17 as essential for Mesp1 induction in primitive mesoderm and subsequent cardiac muscle differentiation. However, downstream effectors of Sox17 remained to be proven functionally. In this study, we used genome-wide profiling of Sox17-dependent genes in AB2.2 cells, RNA interference, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter genes to dissect this pathway. Sox17 was required not only for Hhex (a second endodermal transcription factor) but also for Cer1, a growth factor inhibitor from endoderm that, like Hhex, controls mesoderm patterning in Xenopus toward a cardiac fate. Suppressing Hhex or Cer1 blocked cardiac myogenesis, although at a later stage than induction of Mesp1/2. Hhex was required but not sufficient for Cer1 expression. Over-expression of Sox17 induced endogenous Cer1 and sequence-specific transcription of a Cer1 reporter gene. Forced expression of Cer1 was sufficient to rescue cardiac differentiation in Hhex-deficient cells. Thus, Hhex and Cer1 are indispensable components of the Sox17 pathway for cardiopoiesis in mESCs, acting at a stage downstream from Mesp1/2. Keywords: Cardiac development, Embryonic stem cells, Endoderm, Myogenesis, RNA interference Genome-wide expression profiling of Sox17-dependent genes. Mouse embryonic stem cells expressing Sox17 or luciferase shRNA were differentiated for up to 10 days by the embryoid body method [PMID:8155574], then were analysed using Affymetrix microarrays. ESCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors coexpressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) with shRNA against Sox17, or against firefly luciferase. Transduced cells were flow-sorted based on GFP fluorescence, grown as embryoid bodies, and transferred to tissue culture plates after 4.5 days [PMID:17360443]. Cells were harvested at days 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10 in two biological replicates, except where noted.
Project description:Differentiating embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes is inefficient, and we discover that FGF-10 can induce embryonic stem cells differentiation into cardiomyocytes. We use microarray to gain insight into the global gene expression and elucidate the machenism that FGF-10 induces embryonic stem cells differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Two-day embryoid bodies were treated with or without 100 ng/ml FGF10 and RNA was obtained 24 hours later and hybridized by Affymetrix microarray
Project description:This experiment is part of the FunGenES project (FunGenES - Functional Genomics in Embryonic Stem Cells partially funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, http://www.fungenes.org). The experiment was conducted at University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Goal of the experiment was an analysis the transcriptome of the ES-cell derived pure T-brachyury expressing CGR8 cells. Materials and methods: On day 0, EBs were made from T-brachyury ES (CGR8) cell line by hanging drop protocol. On second day, the hanging drop EBs were transferred into suspension. On third day, the EBs were treated or untreated with puromycin at a concentration of 5ug/ml for 2 days. On 5th day, the medium was changed and added medium with or without puromycin at a concentration of 2 ug/ml for 1 day. On day 6th , RNA was isolated from EBs treated or untreated with puromycin for affymetrix analysis.
Project description:To analyze the role of DNA methylation during differentiation, we performed genome-wide expression analysis of undifferentiated wild type, dnmt1-/- and triple knock out (TKO; dnmt1-/-, dnmt3a-/-, dnmt3b-/-) ESCs as well as respective embryoid bodies (EBs) at two stages of differentiation We generated EBs from wild type, dnmt1-/- and TKO ESCs using the hanging drop method and performed affymetrix microarray expression analysis at three time points; i) in the undifferentiated ESC state (d0), ii) early EB differentiation (d4) and iii) later EB differentiation stage (d16).
Project description:Cardiac disease accounts for the largest proportion of adult mortality and morbidity in the industrialized world. However, progress toward improved clinical treatments is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the genetic programs controlling early cardiogenesis. To better understand this process, we set out to identify genes whose expression is enriched within early cardiac fated populations, obtaining the transcriptional signatures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) differentiating along a cardiac path. We compared the RNA profiles of cardiac precursors cells (CPCs) with time-matched non-CPCs and undifferentiated mESCs, using a transgenic mESC line harboring an Nkx2-5 cardiac-specific regulatory sequence driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) to facilitate selection of CPCs. Approximately 24% (43/176) of the transcripts enriched in the CPC population have known roles in cardiac function or development. Importantly, we evaluated the biological relevance of a subset 31/133 (23%) of the remaining candidate genes by in situ hybridization and report that all were expressed in key cardiac structures during cardiogenesis (embryonic day, E7.5 - 9.5), many of which were previously uncharacterized. These data demonstrate the power of mESC differentiation to model specific developmental processes and provide a valuable resource that may be mined to further elucidate the genetic programs underlying cardiogenesis. Experiment Overall Design: Transgenic mouse embryonic stem cell line (Nkx2-5-GFP, PMID:9834187) contains an Nkx2-5 cardiac-specific transcription factor driving expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Cells were differentiated through embryoid body formation (hanging droplet technique) as described in PMID:8155574. Following primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (PMEF) feeder subtraction, mESCs were dissociated and resuspended in differentiation medium. Cells at this time point were designated as day 0. Following incubation for two days, the EBs were transferred, in suspension, to poly-HEMA coated tissue culture dishes to prevent cell attachment and grown in medium containing ascorbic acid PMID:12668514) which was replenished every 3 days thereafter. Experiment Overall Design: Cells were harvested on days 0, 4 and 6 in three biological replicates Experiment Overall Design: each (1a, 2a and 3a), washed in PBS for 30 minutes at 37ºC then resuspended in 0.25% trypsin for 7 minutes. Experiment Overall Design: Cells from day 6 were then sorted using the BD Biosciences FACSAria™ Cell sorting system into GFP+ and GFP- fractions into RLT buffer (RNeasy, Qiagen). This sorting separates cells into two groups reflecting their differentiation into those fated to a non-cardiac lineage (GFP negative) and to a cardiac lineage (GFP positive).
Project description:RNA (poly(A)+ fraction) has ben isolated from undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells and from embryonic stem cells induced to differentiate using the hanging drop model, 6 days following iinduction of differentiation. Profiling of the transcritome at these two stages of differentiation using deep RNA sequencing allows identifying modulated coding and noncoding transcripts upon induction of differentiation. RNA profiling of mouse embryonic stem cells at two stages of differentiation, i.e. undifferntiated state and at day 6 after induction of differentiation. Two conditions, three biological replicates per condition
Project description:Gata5 efficiently promotes cardiomyocyte fate from murine ESCs.By removing serum from the culture conditions, GATA4 and GATA6 are each also able to efficiently promote cardiogenesis in ESC derivatives, with some distinctions. Thus, GATA factors can function in ESC derivatives upstream of other cardiac transcription factors to direct specification of progenitors with cardiac potential. We used microarray to compared the global gene expression of Gata5-induced cardiac cells with other growth factor directed ESC-derived cardiac cells iGata5 ESCs were induced with doxycycline at day 4 and harvested at day16 for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Snai1 is a master factor of epithelial to mesenchymal transitioin (EMT), however, its role in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and lineage commitment remains undefined. We used microarrays to compare the global programme of gene expression between control and Snai1 knockout Flk1+ and Flk1- cells sorted from 4 day EBs. Control and Snai1 knockout ESCs were cultured as embryoid bodies in spotaneous differentiation media, 4 days EBs were dissociated and sorted by anti-Flk1 antibody to separated Flk1+ and Flk1- cells, total RNA were collected for Affymetrix microarrays
Project description:This experiment is part of the FunGenES project (FunGenES - Functional Genomics in Embryonic Stem Cells partially funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, http://www.fungenes.org). The experiment was conducted at the University Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France. The aim of this project is to identify new regulators, and new markers of the early steps of adipocyte commitment.Addition of RA on early-differentiating mES cells (Hanging drops, Day 3) orientates their commitment to the adipocyte lineage, while inhibiting myogenesis. The effect of RA on adipogenesis is mediated by retinoic acid receptor beta (RARb), since it can be mimiked by the addition of CD2314 compound, a specific agonist of this receptor isotype. In contrast, mES cell adipogenesis can be bloked by artificial activation of the Wnt pathway using GSK3 inhibitors such as lithium, or Bio.To decipher the genetic pathways that control the early steps of adipogenesis, we have compared the transcriptome of mES cells stimulated to differentiate using adipogenesis-enhancing (CD2314) or -inhibitory (BIO, or CD2314+BIO) treatments (treatment between day 3 and day 6). We have analysed the transcriptome of these cells at day 3 (before treatment), at day 6 (just after stimulation or inhibition of the early steps of adipocyte commitment) and at day 11 (to investigate later regulators of adipogenesis). Materials and methods: CGR8 at different time point during adipogenic differentiation. - Induction of differentiation by removal of LIF at day 0, hanging drops from day 0 to 3. - At day 3, harvesting of the hanging drops, and start adipogenesis-enhancing (CD2314) or -inhibitory (BIO, or CD2314+BIO) treatments (treatment from day 3 to 6, EBs in suspension on petri dishes).- At day 6, harvesting of the EBs and plating on gelatin-treated TC plates in normal culture medium ( GMEM+10%serum).- At Day 7, treatment with final inducers of adipogenic differentiation (Insuline, T3, BRL). Same medium until end point of differentiation (Day 21). Relationships between samples: day03= CGR8, day 3 of differentiation, hanging drops from day 0 (removal of LIF) and 3. day06_0= day 6 of differentiation, control condition from day 3 to 6 (GMEM+serum)day06_bio= day 6 of differentiation, treatment with Bio from day 3 to day 6. day06_cd= day 6 of differentiation,treatment with CD2314 from day 3 to day 6.day06_cd_bio= day 6 of differentiation,treatment with CD2314 plus Bio from day 3 to day 6.Day11_0= day 11 of differentiation, cells in control condition from day 3 to 6 (GMEM+serum).Day11_bio= day 11 of differentiation, cells treated with Bio from day 3 to day 6.Day11_cd= day 11 of differentiation,cells treated with CD2314 from day 3 to day 6.Day11_cd_bio= day 11 of differentiation,cells treated with CD2314 plus Bio from day 3 to day 6.Treatments: - At day 3, addition of adipogenesis-enhancing (CD2314) or -inhibitory (BIO, or CD2314+BIO) treatments (treatment from day 3 to 6).- At Day 7, treatment with final inducers of adipogenic differentiation (Insuline, T3, BRL). O= No treatment CD= treatment w Culture conditions; - Hanging drops from day 0 to Day 3.- Suspension culture between day 3 to 6, Petri dishes.- Plating on gelatine from day 6 to end point.
Project description:Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) bind RA-response elements in regulatory regions of their target genes. While canonical RAREs comprise direct repeats of the consensus 5’-RGKTCA-3’ sequence separated by 1, 2 or 5 nucleotides (DR1, DR2, DR5), we show that shortly after RA treatement of mouse embryoid bodies or F9 cells, RARs occupy a large repertoire of DR0, DR2, DR5, DR8 and IR0 elements. In vitro, RAR-RXR bind these non-canonical spacings with comparable affinities to DR2 and DR5. Most DR8 elements comprise three half sites with DR2 and DR0 spacings. This specific half site organisation constitutes a previously unrecognised, but frequent signature of RAR binding elements and acts as an RARE. At later stages of embryoid body differentiation, RARs relocalise to a restricted repertoire of sites comprising predominantly DR5 elements. Differentiation thus involves genomic relocalisation of RARs, and a switch from DR0 and DR8 at early times to DR5 at later stages. Examination of genomic localisation of RAR in differentiating embryoid bodies.