Phenotypes of Th lineages generated by the commonly used activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies differ from those generated by the physiological activation with the specific antigen
ABSTRACT: T-helper (Th) lineages have been generated in vitro by activating CD4 cells with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies during polarization. Physiologically, however, the generation of Th lineages is by activation with the specific antigen presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Here, we used TCR-transgenic mice to compare the phenotypes of Th1, Th9 and Th17 lineages when generated by either one of the two activation modes. Lineage Th cells specific against hen egg lysozyme (HEL), were adoptively transferred into recipient mice transgenically expressing HEL in their lens. Remarkable differences were found between lineages of Th1, Th9, or Th17, generated by either one of the two modes in their capacities to migrate to and proliferate in the recipient spleen and, importantly, to induce inflammation in the recipient mouse eyes. Substantial differences were also observed between the lineage pairs in their transcript expression profiles of certain chemokines and chemokine receptors. Surprisingly, however, close similarities were observed between the transcript expression profiles of lineages of the three phenotypes, activated by the same mode. Furthermore, Th cell lineages generated by the two activation modes differed considerably in their pattern of gene expression, as monitored by microarray analysis, but exhibited commonality with lineages of other phenotypes generated by the same activation mode. This study thus shows that (i) Th lineages generated by activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies differ from lineages generated by antigen/APC and (ii) the mode of activation determines to a large extent the expression profile of major transcripts Naïve CD4+ T cells purified from spleen and lymph node cells of 3A9 mice were activated and polarized toward Th1, Th9, and Th17 lineages, under either plate bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28 (PBAB) or APC presented HEL protein (HA).
Project description:T-helper (Th) lineages have been generated in vitro by activating CD4 cells with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies during polarization. Physiologically, however, the generation of Th lineages is by activation with the specific antigen presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Here, we used T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mice to compare the phenotypes of Th1, Th9 and Th17 lineages when generated by either one of the two activation modes. Lineage Th cells specific against hen egg lysozyme (HEL), were adoptively transferred into recipient mice transgenically expressing HEL in their lens. Remarkable differences were found between lineages of Th1, Th9 or Th17, generated by either one of the two modes in their capacities to migrate to and proliferate in the recipient spleen and, importantly, to induce inflammation in the recipient mouse eyes. Substantial differences were also observed between the lineage pairs in their transcript expression profiles of certain chemokines and chemokine receptors. Surprisingly, however, close similarities were observed between the transcript expression profiles of lineages of the three phenotypes, activated by the same mode. Furthermore, Th cell lineages generated by the two activation modes differed considerably in their pattern of gene expression, as monitored by microarray analysis, but exhibited commonality with lineages of other phenotypes generated by the same activation mode. This study thus shows that (i) Th lineages generated by activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies differ from lineages generated by antigen/APC; and (ii) the mode of activation determines to a large extent the expression profile of major transcripts.
Project description:Microarray analyses were performed to compare gene expression in cultured mouse Th9, Th2 and Treg cells and resting versus activated Th9 cells. Three replicates were analyzed for each culture condition; Th9 unstim, Th2 unstim, Treg unstim, Th9 stim
Project description:IL-4 plays an important role in the induction of Th2 and Th9 cells as well as in the inhibition of Th1 cell generation. We herein show that a combination of IL-4 and TGFbeta augment the development of Th1 cells that express CD103 (CD103+ Th1 cells) if IFNgamma is present. The T-box containing transcription factor, eomesodermin (Eomes) is preferentially expressed in CD103+ Th1 cells, and is involved in IFNgamma production. The induction of T-bet during early T cell activation is essential for the formation of the active chromatin at both the Eomes and IFNgamma gene loci. TGFbeta is required for the induction of Eomes and CD103, as well as the inhibition of Th2 cytokine expression. In addition, IL-4 induces Eomes transcription through activation of the Stat6 signaling pathway. IFNgamma-producing CD103+ Th1 cells are detected in the IEL of normal mice, and their numbers significantly decrease in Tbet- and Stat6-deficient mice. These results represent the first molecular mechanism of IL-4/TGFbeta-dependent augmentation of Th1 cell generation, and raise the possibility that IL-4 and TGFbeta may simultaneously enhance the Th1 cell-mediated immune responses under certain cytokine conditions. Th9+IFNgamma and Th9 cells are profiled for mRNA expression
Project description:Distinct metabolic programs support the differentiation of CD4+T cells into their separate lineages. In this study, we investigated metabolic mechanisms underlying the differentiation of IL-9 producing-CD4+T cells (TH9) in allergic airway inflammation and cancerous tumors. We found here that SIRT1 negatively regulates TH9 differentiation. A deficiency of SIRT1 induced by either conditional deletion in mouse CD4+T cells or the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in mouse or human T cells increased IL-9 production, whereas ectopic SIRT1 expression inhibited it. Notably, SIRT1-inhibited the differentiation of TH9 cells that regulated anti-tumor immunity and allergic pulmonary inflammation. Glycolytic activation through the mTOR-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) pathway was required for the differentiation of the TH9 cells that confer protection against tumors and are involved in allergic airway inflammation. Our results define the essential features of a SIRT1-mTOR-HIF1α signaling-coupled glycolytic pathway in inducing TH9 cell differentiation, with implications for metabolic reprogramming as an immunotherapeutic approach. Lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen and lymph nodes of mice and sorted on a FACSAria II (Becton Dickinson). The sorted naïve T cells (CD4+TCR+CD62Lhi CD44lo) from WT or SIRT1flox/flox-CD4-Cre mice were used for in vitro culture. T cells were activated with 2 ug/ml anti-CD3 (2C11; Bio X Cell), 2 ug/ml anti-CD28 (37.51; Bio X Cell) and 100 U/ml human IL-2. For TH9 cell differentiation, cultures were supplemented with 10 ng/ml IL-4 (R&D system), 2 ng/ml TGFβ1 (R&D system). After 5-6 d culture, differentiated T cells were collected and for microarray assay.
Project description:We report that the Th9 differenciation program is boosted in presence of Il-1beta Examination of the expression profile of Th9 CD4+ T cells after 1 hour and 3 days of differentiation and after in vivo injection
Project description:Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a γc-family cytokine that is highly produced by T-helper 9 (Th9) cells and regulates a range of immune responses, including allergic inflammation. Here we show that IL-2–JAK3–STAT5 signaling is required for Th9 differentiation, with critical STAT5 binding sites in the Il9 (the gene encoding IL-9) promoter. IL-2 also inhibited B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) expression, and over- expression of BCL6 impaired Th9 differentiation. In contrast to IL-2, IL-21 induced BCL6 and diminished IL-9 expression in wild-type but not Bcl6−/− cells, whereas Th9 differentiation was increased in Il21−/− or Il21r−/− T cells. Interestingly, BCL6 bound in proximity to many STAT5 and STAT6 binding sites, including at the Il9 promoter. Moreover, there was increased BCL6 and decreased STAT binding at this site in cells treated with blocking antibodies to IL-2 and the IL-2 receptor, suggesting a possible BCL6–STAT5 binding competition that influences IL-9 production. BCL6 binding was also increased when cells were Th9-differentiated in the presence of IL-21. Thus, our data reveal not only direct IL-2 effects via STAT5 at the Il9 gene, but also opposing actions of IL-2 and IL-21 on BCL6 expression, with increased BCL6 expression inhibiting IL-9 production. These data suggest a model in which increasing BCL6 expression decreases efficient Th9 differentiation, indicating possible distinctive approaches for controlling this process. Genome-wide transcription factors mapping and binding of STAT5B and STAT6 in mouse polarized Th9 cells treated with or without blocking antibodies to IL-2 (anti-IL-2). RNA-Seq is conducted in WT and Il2-/- mice.
Project description:Regulatory and effector T helper (Th) cells are abundant at mucosal surfaces, especially in the intestine, where they control the critical balance between tolerance and inflammation. However, the key factors that reciprocally dictate differentiation along these specific lineages remain incompletely understood. Here we report that the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family member IL-36? signals through IL-36 receptor, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and nuclear factor-?Bp50 in CD4+ T cells to potently inhibit Foxp3-expressing induced regulatory T cell (Treg) development, while concomitantly promoting the differentiation of Th9 cells via a IL-2-STAT5- (signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 5) and IL-4-STAT6-dependent pathway. Consistent with these findings, mice deficient in IL-36? were protected from Th cell-driven intestinal inflammation and exhibited increased colonic Treg cells and diminished Th9 cells. Our findings thus reveal a fundamental contribution for the IL-36/IL-36R axis in regulating the Treg-Th9 cell balance with broad implications for Th cell-mediated disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases and particularly ulcerative colitis.
Project description:CD4+ T helper (Th) differentiation is regulated by diverse inputs, including the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA). RA acts through its receptor RAR? to repress transcription of inflammatory cytokines, but is also essential for Th-mediated immunity, indicating complex effects of RA on Th specification and the outcome of the immune response. We examined the impact of RA on the genome-wide transcriptional response during Th differentiation to multiple subsets. RA effects were subset-selective and were most significant in Th9 cells. RA globally antagonized Th9-promoting transcription factors and inhibited Th9 differentiation. RA directly targeted the extended Il9 locus and broadly modified the Th9 epigenome through RAR?. RA-RAR? activity limited murine Th9-associated pulmonary inflammation, and human allergic inflammation was associated with reduced expression of RA target genes. Thus, repression of the Th9 program is a major function of RA-RAR? signaling in Th differentiation, arguing for a role for RA in interleukin 9 (IL-9) related diseases.
Project description:T helper cell differentiation requires lineage-defining transcription factors and factors that have shared expression among multiple subsets. BATF is required for development of multiple Th subsets but functions in a lineage-specific manner. BATF is required for IL-9 production in Th9 cells but in contrast to its function as a pioneer factor in Th17 cells, BATF is neither sufficient nor required for accessibility at the Il9 locus. Here we show that STAT5 is the earliest factor binding and remodeling the Il9 locus to allow BATF binding in both mouse and human Th9 cultures. The ability of STAT5 to mediate accessibility for BATF is observed in other Th lineages and allows acquisition of the IL-9-secreting phenotype. STAT5 and BATF convert Th17 cells into cells that mediate IL-9-dependent effects in allergic airway inflammation and anti-tumor immunity. Thus, BATF requires the STAT5 signal to mediate plasticity at the Il9 locus.
Project description:IL-9 is a proallergic cytokine produced by a newly proposed Th cell subset, Th9. Th9 cells can be generated by treatment of naive T cells with TGF-? and IL-4 in vitro. However, it is still not clear how TGF-? signaling regulates Th9 differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that Smad2 and Smad4, two transcriptional factors activated by TGF-? signaling, are required for Th9 differentiation in vitro. Deficiency of Smad2 or Smad4 in T cells resulted in impaired IL-9 expression, which was coincident with enrichment of repressive chromatin modification histone H3 K27 trimethylation and enhanced EZH2 binding to the Il9 locus. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 partially rescued IL-9 production in Smad-deficient Th9 cells. Smad proteins may displace EZH2 directly from the Il9 locus, because Smad2 and Smad4 can bind EZH2. Our data shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying Th9 cell differentiation, revealing that the TGF-?-Smad2/4-signaling pathway regulates IL-9 production through an epigenetic mechanism.