Phenotypes of Th lineages generated by the commonly used activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies differ from those generated by the physiological activation with the specific antigen
ABSTRACT: T-helper (Th) lineages have been generated in vitro by activating CD4 cells with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies during polarization. Physiologically, however, the generation of Th lineages is by activation with the specific antigen presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Here, we used TCR-transgenic mice to compare the phenotypes of Th1, Th9 and Th17 lineages when generated by either one of the two activation modes. Lineage Th cells specific against hen egg lysozyme (HEL), were adoptively transferred into recipient mice transgenically expressing HEL in their lens. Remarkable differences were found between lineages of Th1, Th9, or Th17, generated by either one of the two modes in their capacities to migrate to and proliferate in the recipient spleen and, importantly, to induce inflammation in the recipient mouse eyes. Substantial differences were also observed between the lineage pairs in their transcript expression profiles of certain chemokines and chemokine receptors. Surprisingly, however, close similarities were observed between the transcript expression profiles of lineages of the three phenotypes, activated by the same mode. Furthermore, Th cell lineages generated by the two activation modes differed considerably in their pattern of gene expression, as monitored by microarray analysis, but exhibited commonality with lineages of other phenotypes generated by the same activation mode. This study thus shows that (i) Th lineages generated by activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies differ from lineages generated by antigen/APC and (ii) the mode of activation determines to a large extent the expression profile of major transcripts Naïve CD4+ T cells purified from spleen and lymph node cells of 3A9 mice were activated and polarized toward Th1, Th9, and Th17 lineages, under either plate bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28 (PBAB) or APC presented HEL protein (HA).
Project description:Microarray analyses were performed to compare gene expression in cultured mouse Th9, Th2 and Treg cells and resting versus activated Th9 cells. Three replicates were analyzed for each culture condition; Th9 unstim, Th2 unstim, Treg unstim, Th9 stim
Project description:IL-4 plays an important role in the induction of Th2 and Th9 cells as well as in the inhibition of Th1 cell generation. We herein show that a combination of IL-4 and TGFbeta augment the development of Th1 cells that express CD103 (CD103+ Th1 cells) if IFNgamma is present. The T-box containing transcription factor, eomesodermin (Eomes) is preferentially expressed in CD103+ Th1 cells, and is involved in IFNgamma production. The induction of T-bet during early T cell activation is essential for the formation of the active chromatin at both the Eomes and IFNgamma gene loci. TGFbeta is required for the induction of Eomes and CD103, as well as the inhibition of Th2 cytokine expression. In addition, IL-4 induces Eomes transcription through activation of the Stat6 signaling pathway. IFNgamma-producing CD103+ Th1 cells are detected in the IEL of normal mice, and their numbers significantly decrease in Tbet- and Stat6-deficient mice. These results represent the first molecular mechanism of IL-4/TGFbeta-dependent augmentation of Th1 cell generation, and raise the possibility that IL-4 and TGFbeta may simultaneously enhance the Th1 cell-mediated immune responses under certain cytokine conditions. Th9+IFNgamma and Th9 cells are profiled for mRNA expression
Project description:Distinct metabolic programs support the differentiation of CD4+T cells into their separate lineages. In this study, we investigated metabolic mechanisms underlying the differentiation of IL-9 producing-CD4+T cells (TH9) in allergic airway inflammation and cancerous tumors. We found here that SIRT1 negatively regulates TH9 differentiation. A deficiency of SIRT1 induced by either conditional deletion in mouse CD4+T cells or the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in mouse or human T cells increased IL-9 production, whereas ectopic SIRT1 expression inhibited it. Notably, SIRT1-inhibited the differentiation of TH9 cells that regulated anti-tumor immunity and allergic pulmonary inflammation. Glycolytic activation through the mTOR-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) pathway was required for the differentiation of the TH9 cells that confer protection against tumors and are involved in allergic airway inflammation. Our results define the essential features of a SIRT1-mTOR-HIF1α signaling-coupled glycolytic pathway in inducing TH9 cell differentiation, with implications for metabolic reprogramming as an immunotherapeutic approach. Lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen and lymph nodes of mice and sorted on a FACSAria II (Becton Dickinson). The sorted naïve T cells (CD4+TCR+CD62Lhi CD44lo) from WT or SIRT1flox/flox-CD4-Cre mice were used for in vitro culture. T cells were activated with 2 ug/ml anti-CD3 (2C11; Bio X Cell), 2 ug/ml anti-CD28 (37.51; Bio X Cell) and 100 U/ml human IL-2. For TH9 cell differentiation, cultures were supplemented with 10 ng/ml IL-4 (R&D system), 2 ng/ml TGFβ1 (R&D system). After 5-6 d culture, differentiated T cells were collected and for microarray assay.
Project description:We report that the Th9 differenciation program is boosted in presence of Il-1beta Examination of the expression profile of Th9 CD4+ T cells after 1 hour and 3 days of differentiation and after in vivo injection
Project description:Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a γc-family cytokine that is highly produced by T-helper 9 (Th9) cells and regulates a range of immune responses, including allergic inflammation. Here we show that IL-2–JAK3–STAT5 signaling is required for Th9 differentiation, with critical STAT5 binding sites in the Il9 (the gene encoding IL-9) promoter. IL-2 also inhibited B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) expression, and over- expression of BCL6 impaired Th9 differentiation. In contrast to IL-2, IL-21 induced BCL6 and diminished IL-9 expression in wild-type but not Bcl6−/− cells, whereas Th9 differentiation was increased in Il21−/− or Il21r−/− T cells. Interestingly, BCL6 bound in proximity to many STAT5 and STAT6 binding sites, including at the Il9 promoter. Moreover, there was increased BCL6 and decreased STAT binding at this site in cells treated with blocking antibodies to IL-2 and the IL-2 receptor, suggesting a possible BCL6–STAT5 binding competition that influences IL-9 production. BCL6 binding was also increased when cells were Th9-differentiated in the presence of IL-21. Thus, our data reveal not only direct IL-2 effects via STAT5 at the Il9 gene, but also opposing actions of IL-2 and IL-21 on BCL6 expression, with increased BCL6 expression inhibiting IL-9 production. These data suggest a model in which increasing BCL6 expression decreases efficient Th9 differentiation, indicating possible distinctive approaches for controlling this process. Genome-wide transcription factors mapping and binding of STAT5B and STAT6 in mouse polarized Th9 cells treated with or without blocking antibodies to IL-2 (anti-IL-2). RNA-Seq is conducted in WT and Il2-/- mice.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE36520: Identification of a new pathway for Th1 cell development induced by cooperative stimulation with IL-4 and TGFbeta [Affymetrix] GSE36554: Identification of a new pathway for Th1 cell development induced by cooperative stimulation with IL-4 and TGFbeta [Agilent] Refer to individual Series
Project description:T helper cells (Th) play an important role guarding, regulating and modulating immune responses. The different Th lineages fulfill different tasks in response to infections. The two best defined subtypes are Th1 (involved in cellular immunity) and Th2 (humoral immunity). The cytokine environment after activation determines the differentiation path of a Th cell. We defined a strategy to investigate the differentiation signature of T helper cells with a proteomics approach. Murine primary naïve CD4+ T-cells from spleen were differentiated and activated in vitro. After 3 days of differentiation proteins were analysed. The proteomic profile of the Th1 and Th2 cells will help understand these phenotypes better, which is important in finding therapeutic targets for disease and for the development of effective vaccines.
Project description:Th cell differentiation is transcriptionally regulated, relying on the induction of “lineage-defining” transcription factors. We report that formation of super-enhancers is critical in robust induction of Th9 cells and that assembly of the Il9 super-enhancers requires OX40-triggered chromatin H3K27 acetylation. Mechanistically, we found that OX40 costimulation induces RelB expression, which recruits the histone acetyltransferase p300 to the Il9 locus to catalyze H3K27 acetylation. This allows binding of the super-enhancer factor Brd4 to initiate assembly of the super-enhancer complex, which in turn drives robust Th9 induction. Thus, Th9 cells are induced in massive numbers upon OX40 costimulation and disruption of super-enhancers abolished Th9 induction in vitro and inhibited Th9-mediated allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Our data identify super-enhancers as a key mechanism of Th9 induction and uncover a new mechanism of Th cell differentiation. Overall design: Analysis of H3K27Ac histone modifications and BRD4 binding in CD4+ T cells cultured in vitro under Th9 differentiation conditions for 48 hours in the presence or absence of OX40 ligation.
Project description:We next sought to identify the transcriptional program that differentiates IL-9+Th2 cells from “conventional” Th2 cells. To this end, we selected representative Th1, Th17, Th2, and IL-9+Th2 clones (Figure 5A) and determined their transcriptome in the resting state and at different time points after activation using RNAseq. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were isolated by Ficoll-Plaque Plus (GE Healthcare, UK) density gradient centrifugation. Human CD4+ T cells were isolated from PBMC by EasySep positive selection kit (Stemcell Technologies) according to manufacturer’s instruction. Positively selected CD4+ T cells were washed with PBS and stained for subsequent Th cell subset sorting. Memory Th cell subsets were sorted to over 90% purity according to their expression of chemokine receptors from CD45RA-CD25-CD8-CD3+ cells: Th1(CXCR3+CCR8-CCR6-CCR4-), Th2 (CXCR3-CCR8-CCR6-CCR4+), Th17 (CXCR3-CCR8-CCR6+CCR4+), Th9 (CXCR3-CCR8+CCR6-CCR4+). Single cell Th subset clones were directly sorted into 96well plate according to their expression of chemokine receptors (see above). Single cell clones were expanded and maintained by periodic restimulation with PHA (phytohaemaglutinine, 1 µg/ml, Sigma-Chemicals) and irradiated allogenic feeder cells (5x104/well) in culture medium. T cells were polyclonally activated using beads coated with antibodies against CD3, CD2, and CD28 (T cell/bead = 2:1, human T cell activation/expansion Kit, Miltenyi). Cell cultures were sampled before activation (time 0h) and 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 hours after activation.
Project description:Helper T cells can adopt a number of different phenotypes. We performed microarray-assisted mRNA profiling on antigen-stimulated, TCR transgenic murine splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of cytokines. Transcriptome snapshots of Th cells differentiating into Th1 and Th2 phenotypes were obtained at various time-points. Principle component analysis shows that time since activation and Th skewing are the largest sources of variance (i.e., the largest contributing factors) in our profiling experiments. Divergence between the Th1 and Th2 phenotypes is established early and does not increase in terms of number of differential genes from day 1 to day 4 after stimulation. Notwithstanding the lack of further divergence between the Th1 and Th2 lineages, we show that gene expression is best described by a turnover rather than a core response model, although we find evidence for both. We identify clusters of skewed genes associated with early-persistent (core response) and late (turnover) Th1 and Th2 gene expression. In addition to the classical Th genes, members of the Batf transcription factor family are differentially expressed in particular helper phenotypes, suggesting an important role for this family in helper T-cell phenotype differentiation.