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Omics score: 298
Transcriptomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 to maize root exudates
ABSTRACT: Root exudates play an important role in plant-microbe interaction. The transcriptional profilings of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 in response to maize root exudates under static condition, were investigated by an Illumina RNA-seq for understanding the regulatory roles of the root exudates. 4 treatments, including 2 blank control (24 h and 48 h-post inoculation, named as 5 and 15, respectively), and 2 treatments with maize root exudates (24 h and 48 h-post inoculation, named as 7 and 17, respectively)
Project description:Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with outstanding abilities to enhance plant growth and to control soil-borne diseases. Root exudates is known to play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. To explore the rhizosphere interactions and plant-beneficial characteristics of SQR9, the complete genome sequence as well as the transcriptome in response to maize root exudates under biofilm-forming conditions were elucidated.Maize root exudates stimulated SQR9 biofilm formation in liquid culture, which is known to be positively correlated with enhanced root colonization. Transcriptional profiling via RNA-sequencing of SQR9 under static conditions indicated that, at 24 h post-inoculation, root exudates stimulated the expression of metabolism-relevant genes, while at 48 h post-inoculation, genes related to extracellular matrix production (tapA-sipW-tasA operon) were activated by root exudates. The individual components in maize root exudates that stimulated biofilm formation included glucose, citric acid, and fumaric acid, which either promoted the growth of SQR9 cells or activated extracellular matrix production. In addition, numerous groups of genes involved in rhizosphere adaptation and in plant-beneficial traits, including plant polysaccharide utilization, cell motility and chemotaxis, secondary antibiotics synthesis clusters, and plant growth promotion-relevant, were identified in the SQR9 genome. These genes also appeared to be induced by the maize root exudates.Enhanced biofilm formation of B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by maize root exudates could mainly be attributed to promoting cell growth and to inducing extracellular matrix production. The genomic analysis also highlighted the elements involved in the strain's potential as a PGPR. This study provides useful information for understanding plant-rhizobacteria interactions and hence for promoting the agricultural applications of this strain.
Project description:Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root-root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone-flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root-root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity.
Project description:Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress.
Project description:Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR), RS2 (moderately resistant, MR) and L-402 (highly susceptible, T). The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2) were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains) suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in the other compounds. Each of the four compounds were correlated with a reduction in disease index in the susceptible cultivar, T, and tomato seedlings irrigated with L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate at 2 mmol·L-1 showed the best resistance to M. incognita. Taken together, this study provided a valuable contribution to understanding the underlying mechanism of nematode resistance in tomato cultivars.
Project description:Plant disease can be effectively suppressed in intercropping systems. Our previous study demonstrated that neighboring maize plants can restrict the spread of soil-borne pathogens of pepper plants by secreting defense compounds into the soil. However, whether maize plant can receive benefits from its neighboring pepper plants in an intercropping system is little attention. We examined the effects of maize roots treated with elicitors from the pepper pathogen Phytophthora capsici and pepper root exudates on the synthesis of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs), the expression of defense-related genes in maize, and their ability to alleviate the severity of southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) caused by Bipolaris maydis. We found that SCLB was significantly reduced after the above treatments. The contents of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs: DIBOA, DIMBOA, and MBOA) and the expression levels of BX synthesis and defense genes in maize roots and shoots were up-regulated. DIMBOA and MBOA effectively inhibited the mycelium growth of Bipolaris maydis at physiological concentrations in maize shoots. Further studies suggested that the defense related pathways or genes in maize roots and shoots were activated by elicitors from the P. capsici or pepper root exudates. In conclusion, maize increased the levels of BXs and defense gene expression both in roots and shoots after being triggered by root exudates and pathogen from neighboring pepper plants, eventually enhancing its resistance.
Project description:Transcription profiling by array of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42 after interaction exudates (IE) treatment, at OD600=1.0 and at OD600=1.0 respectively. IE was the root exudates prepared from maize plants growing with FZB42. The reference was treated with the root exudates (RE), prepared from maize plants grown in an axenic system.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that root exudates play important roles in plant disease resistance. Black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae, is a destructive soil-borne disease in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity and composition of the root exudates from resistant and susceptible tobacco cultivars. The root exudates of the resistant cultivar Gexin 3 showed inhibitory activity against P. nicotianae, while the exudates of susceptible cultivar Xiaohuangjin 1025 stimulated the colony growth but had no effect on spore germination. Metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry depicted differing metabolic patterns of root exudates between Gexin 3 and Xiaohuangjin 1025. The activity and composition of root exudates was altered by P. nicotianae inoculation. Multivariate analysis showed that root exudates (including organic acids, alkaloids, fatty acids, and esters) were different between the two varieties. The defense substances in root exudates, such as tartaric acid, ferulic acid, and lauric acid, may represent a pre-infection prevention strategy for tobacco. Phenylpropanoids as well as inducers of salicylic acid, fatty acids, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, and hydrojasmonate may be involved in tobacco defense responses. Compared to the susceptible cultivar, the roots of the resistant cultivar exhibited high enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, which may prompt the synthesis and secretion of phenylpropanoids. Our results indicated that the root exudates not only provide a pre-infection prevention strategy by exuding antimicrobial substances, but also increase tobacco disease resistance by eliciting plant defense responses. In addition, some defense compounds as well as compounds that play a role in inducing plant defense responses, showed potential for disease control application. This study provides an insight into possible disease resistance mechanisms of root exudates, and attempts the beneficial utilization of these secondary metabolites of plants.
Project description:Interspecies interactions play a key role in soil-borne disease suppression in intercropping systems. However, there are limited data on the underlying mechanisms of soil-borne Phytophthora disease suppression. Here, a field experiment confirmed the effects of maize and soybean intercropping on Phytophthora blight of soybean caused by Phytophthora sojae. Experimentally, the roots and root exudates of maize were found to attract P. sojae zoospores and inhibit their motility and the germination of cystospores. Furthermore, five phenolic acids (p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and ferulic acid) that were consistently identified in the root exudates and rhizosphere soil of maize were found to interfere with the infection behavior of P. sojae. Among them, cinnamic acid was associated with significant chemotaxis in zoospores, and p-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid showed strong antimicrobial activity against P. sojae. However, in the rhizosphere soil of soybean, only p-hydroxybenzoic acid, low concentrations of vanillic acid, and ferulic acid were identified. Importantly, the coexistence of five phenolic acids in the maize rhizosphere compared with three phenolic acids in the soybean rhizosphere showed strong synergistic antimicrobial activity against the infection behavior of P. sojae. In summary, the types and concentrations of phenolic acids in maize and soybean rhizosphere soils were found to be crucial factors for Phytophthora disease suppression in this intercropping system.
Project description:Root-knot nematodes are obligate parasites that invade roots and induce the formation of specialized feeding structures. Although physiological and molecular changes inside the root leading to feeding site formation have been studied, very little is known about the molecular events preceding root penetration by nematodes. In order to investigate the influence of root exudates on nematode gene expression before plant invasion and to identify new genes potentially involved in parasitism, sterile root exudates from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were produced and used to treat Meloidogyne incognita pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles. After confirming the activity of A. thaliana root exudates (ARE) on M. incognita stylet thrusting, six new candidate genes identified by cDNA-AFLP were confirmed by qRT-PCR as being differentially expressed after incubation for one hour with ARE. Using an in vitro inoculation method that focuses on the events preceding the root penetration, we show that five of these genes are differentially expressed within hours of nematode exposure to A. thaliana roots. We also show that these genes are up-regulated post nematode penetration during migration and feeding site initiation. This study demonstrates that preceding root invasion plant-parasitic nematodes are able to perceive root signals and to respond by changing their behaviour and gene expression.
Project description:Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are associated with plant roots and use organic compounds that are secreted from root exudates as food and energy source. Root exudates can chemoattract and help bacteria to colonize the surface of plant roots by inducing chemotactic responses of rhizospheric bacteria. In this study, we show that root colonization of Brachypodium distachyon by Bacillus velezensis strain B26 depends on several factors. These include root exudates, organic acids, and their biosynthetic genes, chemotaxis, biofilm formation and the induction of biofilm encoding genes. Analysis of root exudates by GC-MS identified five intermediates of the TCA cycle; malic, fumaric, citric, succinic, oxaloacetic acids, and were subsequently evaluated. The strongest chemotactic responses were induced by malic, succinic, citric, and fumaric acids. In comparison, the biofilm formation was induced by all organic acids with maximal induction by citric acid. Relative to the control, the individual organic acids, succinic and citric acids activated the epsD gene related to EPS biofilm, and also the genes encoding membrane protein (yqXM) and hydrophobin component (bslA) of the biofilm of strain B26. Whereas epsA and epsB genes were highly induced genes by succinic acid. Similarly, concentrated exudates released from inoculated roots after 48 h post-inoculation also induced all biofilm-associated genes. The addition of strain B26 to wild type and to icdh mutant line led to a slight induction but not biologically significant relative to their respective controls. Thus, B26 has no effect on the expression of the ICDH gene, both in the wild type and the mutant backgrounds. Our results indicate that root exudates and individual organic acids play an important role in selective recruitment and colonization of PGPR and inducing biofilm. The current study increases the understanding of molecular mechanisms behind biofilm induction by organic acids.