CCR-5 using HIV-1 induces an anti-inflammatory profile in primary macrophages
ABSTRACT: Macrophages are important effector cells of the immune system and play an important role in mounting inflammatory responses. Macrophages can be activated by different stimuli in the tissue, either by cytokines produced by T helper cells (M1 or M2 polarization) or by the pathogens they encounter. Macrophages are also important target cells of HIV-1 and are preferentially infected by CCR5-using viruses. In this study, we investigated the ability of HIV-1 to induce changes in gene expression in unpolarized macrophages as well as in M1 or M2 polarized cells. We observed that CCR5-using HIV-1 regulates the expression of genes that are also regulated by IL-4 in macrophages. Genes regulated by HIV-1 infection and IL-4 polarization are involved in dampening pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages, which may facilitate HIV-1 to escape from detection by other immune cells. We also observed that changes in macrophage gene expression triggered by CCR5-using HIV-1 differed from those regulated by a CXCR4-using virus. This indicates that CCR5-using HIV-1 may be able to modulate macrophage gene expression to achieve successful replication. Our results provide insight in the complex interplay between HIV-1 and cells of the immune system. Polarized macrophages were obtained by stimulation of primary human monocytes with IFN-gamma (250 U/ml) in combination with TNF-alpha (12.5 ng/ml) (M1), IL-4 (50 ng/ml) (M2a), IL-10 (50 ng/ml) (M2c) for 5 days. Cells were inoculated for 24 hours with one of two HIV-1 strains (CCR5 or CXCR4 using HIV1) or their non replicating counterparts (heat inactivated virus). Macrophages that were not stimulated wiht cyokines or inoculates with HIV-1 were used as control. A total of 16 treatment conditions were tested in triplicate, for a total of 48 samples analysed.
Project description:Macrophages provide an interface between innate and adaptive immunity and are important long-lived reservoirs for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1). Multiple genetic networks involved in regulating signal transduction cascades and immune responses in macrophages are coordinately modulated by HIV-1 infection. To evaluate complex interrelated processes and to assemble an integrated view of activated signaling networks, a systems biology strategy was applied to genomic and proteomic responses by primary human macrophages over the course of HIV-1 infection. Macrophage responses, including cell cycle, calcium, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and cytokines/chemokines, to HIV-1 were temporally regulated, in the absence of cell proliferation. In contrast, Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways remained unaltered by HIV-1, although TLRs 3, 4, 7, and 8 were expressed and responded to ligand stimulation in macrophages. HIV-1 failed to activate phosphorylation of IRAK-1 or IRF-3, modulate intracellular protein levels of Mx1, an interferon-stimulated gene, or stimulate secretion of TNF, IL-1b, or IL-6. Activation of pathways other than TLR was inadequate to stimulate, via cross-talk mechanisms through molecular hubs, the production of proinflammatory cytokines typical of a TLR response. HIV-1 sensitized macrophage responses to TLR ligands, and the magnitude of viral priming was related to virus replication. HIV-1 induced a primed, proinflammatory state, M1HIV, which increased the responsiveness of macrophages to TLR ligands. HIV-1 might passively evade pattern recognition, actively inhibit or suppress recognition and signaling, or require dynamic interactions between macrophages and other cells, such as lymphocytes or endothelial cells. HIV-1 evasion of TLR recognition and simultaneous priming of macrophages may represent a strategy for viral survival, contribute to immune pathogenesis, and provide important targets for therapeutic approaches. Affymetrix arrays were used to identify genomic macrophage response to HIV during viral spread in culture. Experiment Overall Design: An HIV-1 spreading infection was established in primary human macrophages. RNA was extracted from both viral- and mock-infected macrophages cultures over 7 days and hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 GeneChips for analysis.
Project description:HIV-1 and HIV-2 are two etiological agents of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Several differences exist between these two retroviruses in terms of geographical distribution, replication, transmission and progression to AIDS. The molecular reasons explaining these features are largely unknown. One reason could rely on host factors able to differently counteract HIV replication. Among these factors, cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as playing crucial roles. One aspect of the complex interplay between HIV and host miRNAs is the ability of HIV-1 to modulate host miRNAs and thereby to create favorable conditions for its replication. Here, we sought to compare the miRNA modulations elicited by HIV-1 and HIV-2 using an unbiased experimental strategy based on miRNA arrays. Surprisingly, we observed that these two unrelated HIVs similarly modulated the host miRNA repertoire, when utilizing CD4 and CXCR4 for entry. However, these modulations were different from the changes triggered by HIV-1 using CD4 and CCR5. In accordance with the mode of action of miRNAs, our observations were confirmed at the mRNA level. We concluded that co-receptor utilization (CXCR4 or CCR5), as opposed to genomic organization and phylogeny, is a key event determining the modulations of the host miRNA repertoire.
Project description:Macrophage activation is the main immunological process occurring during the development of several diseases, and the heterogeneity of macrophage activation or differentiation has been suggested to be involved in disease progression. In the present study, we attempted to identify molecules specifically expressed on human classically activated macrophages (M1) to investigate the significance of the M1-like phenotype in human diseases. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1, M2a, M2b, and M2c phenotypes, and gene expression profiles were analyzed by cDNA microarray analysis and were used for bioinformatics examination. The gene expression profiles of murine macrophages were additionally evaluated. We identified guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), which is associated with leucine-rich repeat protein 3-mediated inflammasome assembly in the M1 macrophages of both humans and mice. Notably, GBP5 protein expression was detected in cultured M1 macrophages by Western blot analysis. GBP5 is a useful candidate marker of the M1 phenotype. CD14+ monocytes from human PBMC were cultured with GM-CSF(10 ng mL−1) or M-CSF (50 ng mL−1) for seven days to differentiate into macrophages.To induce macrophage subtypes [M1, M1(-), M2a, M2b, and M2c], the macrophages were further stimulated for 24 h with LPS (10 ng mL−1) + IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IL-4 (10 ng mL−1), IL-1β (10 ng mL−1), and IL-10 (10 ng mL−1). Control macrophages (M0) were prepared by incubating for 24 h without additional factors.Two independent experiments were performed using different donors.
Project description:Analysis of the effects of CNI-1493 treatment on M1 and M2 polarized macrophages. The purpose of this microarray is to identify genes that may be differentially expressed in M1 or M2 macrophages after treatment with CNI-1493. CNI-1493 is a known inhibitor of M1 macrophages but details of its molecular mechanism are unknown. The effect of CNI-1493 on M2 macrophages has yet to be explored, but we hypothesize that CNI-1493 treatment will attenuate pro-tumor properties of M2 macrophages. We demonstrate with this array that known macrophage markers are unchanged after treatment with CNI-1493, indicating that CNI-1493 does not change the macrophage phenotype on a transcriptional level. Additionally, no candidate genes to suggest how CNI-1493 may attenuate the pro-tumor effects of M2 macrophages are readily identifiable. Total RNA extracted from M1 or M2 macrophages after polarization with GM-CSF (25ng/ml) or M-CSF (25ng/ml) for 7 days, followed by addition of IFN-γ (20ng/ml) and LPS (100ng/ml) or IL-4 (40ng/ml) for 18 hours, respectively, from CD14+ human PBMCs, and treated with CNI-1493 (200nM)
Project description:Macrophage activation is the main immunological process occurring during the development of several diseases, and the heterogeneity of macrophage activation or differentiation has been suggested to be involved in disease progression. In the present study, we attempted to identify molecules specifically expressed on human classically activated macrophages (M1) to investigate the significance of the M1-like phenotype in human diseases. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1, M2a, M2b, and M2c phenotypes, and gene expression profiles were analyzed by cDNA microarray analysis and were used for bioinformatics examination. The gene expression profiles of murine macrophages were additionally evaluated. We identified guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), which is associated with leucine-rich repeat protein 3-mediated inflammasome assembly in the M1 macrophages of both humans and mice. Notably, GBP5 protein expression was detected in cultured M1 macrophages by Western blot analysis. GBP5 is a useful candidate marker of the M1 phenotype. Overall design: CD14+ monocytes from human PBMC were cultured with GM-CSF(10 ng mL−1) or M-CSF (50 ng mL−1) for seven days to differentiate into macrophages.To induce macrophage subtypes [M1, M1(-), M2a, M2b, and M2c], the macrophages were further stimulated for 24 h with LPS (10 ng mL−1) + IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IL-4 (10 ng mL−1), IL-1β (10 ng mL−1), and IL-10 (10 ng mL−1). Control macrophages (M0) were prepared by incubating for 24 h without additional factors.Two independent experiments were performed using different donors.
Project description:Mechanisms that may allow circulating monocytes to persist as CD4 T cells diminish in HIV-1 infection have not been investigated. We have characterized steady-state gene expression signatures in circulating monocytes from HIV-infected subjects and have identified a stable anti-apoptosis gene signature comprised of 38 genes associated with p53, CD40L, TNF and MAPKinase signaling networks. The significance of this gene signature is indicated by our demonstration of cadmium chloride- or Fas ligand-induced apoptosis resistance in circulating monocytes in contrast to increasing apoptosis in CD4 T cells from the same infected subjects. As potential mechanisms in vivo, we show that monocyte CCR5 binding by HIV-1 virus or agonist chemokines serve as independent viral and host modulators resulting in increased monocyte apoptosis resistance in vitro. We also show evidence for concordance between circulating monocyte apoptosis-related gene expression in HIV-1 infection in vivo and available datasets following viral infection or envelope exposure in monocyte derived macrophages in vitro. The identification of in vivo gene expression associated with monocyte resistance to apoptosis is of relevance to AIDS pathogenesis since it would contribute to: (1) maintaining viability of infection targets and long-term reservoirs of HIV-1 infection in the monocyte/macrophage populations, and (2) protecting a cell subset critical to host survival in spite of sustained high viral replication. Keywords: two group study design 33 samples hybridized, including 13 HIV-1 Patients, 12 Healthy Controls and 4 HIV-1 Patients and 4 Controls followed 6 months later
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of differential HIV opsonization on DC modulation. DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and among the first cells HIV is attaching to. HIV spontaneously activates the complement system even in the absence of specific antibodies and is therefore found opsonized with complement fragments from the beginning of infection. Gene expression profiles of DCs from three different human donors and treated for 24 hrs with 100 ng/ml LPS, 300 ng/ml non-opsonized HIV (HIV-MC), or 300 ng/ml complement-opsonized (HIV-C) were compared to those of untreated immature DCs.
Project description:Temporal changes of the expression levels of the complete human transcriptome during the first 24 hours following infection of IFN-pre-treated macrophages. This approach has allowed us to identify genes involved in the IFN signaling that have an impact on HIV-1 infection of macrophages KEYWORDS: time course Purified primary macrophages were treated with 1000 IU/ml of IFNα2, for 18 hours before infection. Pre-treated macrophages were infected with the Bal strain of HIV-1 at an MOI of 1. Uninfected and untreated cells were used for control. Aliquots of cells (3x106 cells) were taken at 0,2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hrs after infection for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. *** No CEL file for Sample GSM757646 MDMs CTL at T0
Project description:We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression in human macrophages infected in vitro with HIV-1 and then subjected to phagocytic stimuli; we identified distinct classes of differentially regulated genes during this process Primary human macrophages from 3 different donors were infected with HIV-1ADA WT or mock-infected for 8 days. They were incubated or not (basal) with IgG-SRBCs (FcR) or Salmonella Typhimurium (4/74 strain) during 1 hour at 37°C, then lysed and RNA of each sample was analyzed with microarrays.
Project description:We assessed correlates of protection from disease progression in a rare subset of HIV-infected individuals, viremic non-progressors (VNPs). These individuals have high viral load for several years, but in contrast to the majority of infected individuals, they do not progress to AIDS. Here we found this lack of progression was associated with selective preservation of two essential subsets of memory CD4+ T cells, central memory (TCM) and stem-cell memory (TSCM) cells. Compared to HIV-infected putative progressors, VNPs had higher proliferation of these indispensable subsets of memory cells, which was associated with the number of TCM. In addition, the long-lived CD4+ TCM and TSCM cells in VNPs had decreased HIV infection compared to the less critical effector memory CD4+ T cells, which indicates a possible mechanism by which VNPs maintain their CD4+ T cell pool after several years of infection, and remain free from AIDS progression. 6 HIV-infected patients fitting the clinical criteria of Viremic Non-Progressors were identified. VNPs were defined as having confirmed HIV-1 infection for at least 9 years with sustained plasma HIV RNA levels >10,000 copies/ml and maintenance of peripheral blood CD4+ T cell counts >500 cells/mm3 and a CD4% (of all lymphocytes) >15%. As controls, 7 HIV-infected Putative Progressors were identified. PPs were defined as having plasma HIV RNA levels >10,000 copies/mL, CD4+ T cell counts >400 cells/mm3 and having been initially infected with HIV 2-24 months prior to the index visit. The estimated date of initial HIV infection was calculated according to published algorithms that incorporate “de-tuned” anti-HIV-1 antibody ELISA results or by a documented sero-conversion window of <6 months. All participants were required to be antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve. RNA from 6 VNP and 7 PPs was purified from PAXgene whole blood tubes and hybridized to Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. During data analysis, one VNP patient (PID 4015) was determined to be an outlier and removed from further analysis. Thus, 5 VNPs and 7 PPs are represented in this Series.