Molecular Adaptations of Striatal Spiny Projection Neurons During Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia
ABSTRACT: L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa) treatment is the major pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease. However, almost all patients receiving levodopa eventually develop debilitating involuntary movements (dyskinesia). While it is known that striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) are involved in the genesis of this movement disorder, the molecular basis of dyskinesia is not understood. In this study, we identify distinct cell-type-specific gene expression changes that occur in sub-classes of SPNs upon induction of a parkinsonian lesion followed by chronic levodopa treatment. We identify several hundred genes whose expression is correlated with levodopa dose, many of which are under the control of AP-1 and ERK signaling. In spite of homeostatic adaptations involving several signaling modulators, AP-1-dependent gene expression remains highly dysregulated in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs) upon chronic levodopa treatment. We also discuss which molecular pathways are most likely to dampen abnormal dopaminoceptive signaling in spiny projection neurons, hence providing potential targets for antidyskinetic treatments in Parkinson's disease. To profile the cell-type-specific responses of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) to striatal dopamine depletion, we conducted TRAP analysis of the two major classes of these neurons: dSPNs that express the dopamine receptor 1a (Drd1a), and iSPNs that express the dopamine receptor 2 (Drd2). To disrupt dopamine innervation to both of these SPN populations that reside in the striatum, we injected the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), unilaterally, in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in hemizygous Drd1-TRAP and Drd2-TRAP adult (9-14 weeks) male mice (kept on a C57BL/6J genetic background). This lesion procedure causes nigral dopamine cell death within a few days, along with a widespread and near-complete loss of dopaminergic innervation to the entire dorsal striatum on one side of the brain (a hemiparkinsonian model). We first examined the effects of dopamine depletion alone, compared to a mock lesion (ascorbate / saline injected). We then examined the effects of chronic levodopa treatment upon the molecular profiles of dopamine- depleted dSPNs and iSPNs, with two dose regimens. The ‘high-dose’ L-DOPA regimen (3 mg/kg on days 1-3, followed by 6 mg/kg on days 4-9) was expected to induce severe dyskinesia in all MFB-lesioned mice. The low-dose L-DOPA regimen (1 mg/kg on days 1-3, followed by 2 mg/kg on days 4-9) was expected to reverse limb use asymmetry without causing conspicuous dyskinesias. To equalize the effects of stress and handling across all groups, including control groups, all mice were equally handled and thus received saline injections when not receiving levodopa injections. Each treatment group contained 7-10 replicates. TRAP-purified mRNAs from either Drd1a- or Drd2-expressing SPNs were reverse-transcribed, amplified, and used to interrogate Affymetrix 430_2.0 GeneChip microarrays.
Project description:Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a persistent behavioral sensitization that develops after repeated levodopa (L-DOPA) exposure in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. we used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to determine the methylation status of cytosines genome wide at base pair resolution following a parkinsonian-like lesion and LID development. Due to the enrichment of RRBS, we focused our analysis to cytosines in a CpG context and observed extensive locus-specific changes in DNA methylation, including a preponderance of demethylation, in the dorsal striatum following the development of dyskinetic behaviors in our animal model system. Changes in DNA methylation were concentrated in putative regulatory regions of many genes known to be aberrantly transcribed following L-DOPA exposure and enriched for genes relevant to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. In the areas of the genome exhibiting the highest levels of effect, the magnitudes of change to methylation were strongly correlated with dyskinetic behaviors. Rats were given a unilateral dopaminergic lesion to the left medial forebrain bundle with 6-OHDA to destroy at least 90% of TH positive axons. Animals were allowed to recover for 3 weeks and then given daily injections of L-DOPA (6 mg/kg) for seven days to establish stable dyskinesia. Animals were sacked 3 hrs following the final L-DOPA injection and the dorsal striatum was immediately dissected and flash frozen. Striatal tissue samples were processed for nucleic acid isolation using the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer's instructions. One μg of gDNA sample was used for library construction. Bisulfite converted DNA libraries were produced and adaptor ligated, and single-end reads were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq-2500 following library QC. Bisulfite conversion efficiency was greater that 98% for all of the samples and we obtained an average of 68 million reads per library. Quality control on raw reads was performed with FastQC (version 0.10.1, http://www.bioinformatics.bbsrc.ac.uk/projects/fastqc), and adaptor trimming and removal of trimmed reads shorter than 20 bp was performed with Trim Galore (version 0.3.7, http://www.bioinformatics.babraham.ac.uk/projects/trim_galore). Trimmed reads were mapped to the UCSC Rattus norvegicus rn5 genome with the methylation-aware mapper bismark (version 0.13.0). Samtools (version 0.1.19–96b5f2294a) was used to sort SAM files produced by bismark and de-duplicate reads. SAM files were analyzed using MethylKit (version 0.9.2) in R (Akalin et al., 2012). Reads were filtered based on coverage, with a cutoff of at least ten reads per site, and normalized for each samples coverage before analysis. The genome was tiled at 250 bp and regions were counted if they contained at least 2 identified CpGs per tile. Differential methylation was defined as a sliding linear model correct p-value of <0.01 and, for highly dynamic regions, included at least a 5% change.
Project description:This study addresses the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation (STN-HFS) in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and its interaction with levoDOPA (L-DOPA), focusing on the striatum. The objectives were 1) to identify the molecular signature of STN-HFS action at striatal level, associated with its efficient antiparkinsonian action, and 2) to investigate the molecular substrates of the interaction between the two treatments in order to evidence possible genes involved in dyskinesia. Striatal gene expression profile was assessed in rats with nigral DOPAmine neuron lesion, either treated or not, using agilent microarrays and qPCR verification. The treatments consisted in anti-akinetic STN-HFS (5 days), chronic L-DOPA treatment inducing dyskinesia (LIDs) or the combination of the two treatments that exacerbated LIDs. STN-HFS modulated 71 genes with functional or biochemical annotation, including genes sharing the GO terms regulation of growth, regulation of apoptosis, extracellular region. Ttr, Igf2, Sostdc1 and Nr4A3 (Nor-1), are among the 5 genes showing the highest specific upregulation. Down-regulated genes include Prkcd, Sirt5 and Bbc3. These results show that genes involved in neuroprotection and/or neurogenesis are key components of STN-HFS action in the striatum. STN-HFS and LDOPA treatment share very few common gene regulation features suggesting that the molecular substrates underlying their striatal action are mostly different. In addition to genes already reported to be associated with LIDs (Pdyn, Trh, Grm4/mGlu4, Cnr1/CB1), the comparison between DOPA and DOPA/STN-HFS identifies immunity-related genes: C1s, Rt1-Da and Irf7a, as potential players in L-DOPA side effects. Total RNA was extracted from striatal tissue from four groups of 3 animals bearing 6-hydroxyDOPAmine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal DA pathway: lesion alone without any subsequent treatment (L), L-DOPA treatment for 19 days (D), STN-HFS for 5 days (S) and combination of L-DOPA and STN-HFS (DS).
Project description:Polycomb group (PcG) proteins bind to and repress genes in embryonic stem cells and through lineage commitment to the terminal differentiated state. PcG repressed genes are commonly characterized by the presence of the epigenetic histone mark, H3K27me3, catalyzed by the Polycomb repressive complex 2. Here, we present in vivo evidence for a previously unrecognized plasticity of PcG-repressed genes in terminal differentiated brain neurons of parkisonian mice. We show that acute administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, induces a remarkable increase in H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation. The induction of the H3K27me3S28p histone mark specifically occurs in medium spiny neurons expressing the dopamine D1 receptors and is dependent on Msk1 kinase activity and DARPP-32-mediated inhibition of protein phosphatase-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that increased H3K27me3S28p was accompanied by reduced PcG binding to regulatory regions of genes. An analysis of the genome wide distribution of L-DOPA induced H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation by ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) in combination with expression analysis by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) showed that the induction of H3K27me3S28p correlated with increased expression of a subset of PcG repressed genes. We found that induction of H3K27me3S28p persisted during chronic L-DOPA administration to parkisonian mice and correlated with aberrant gene expression. We propose that dopaminergic transmission can activate PcG repressed genes in the adult brain and thereby contribute to long-term maladaptive responses including the motor complications, or dyskinesia, caused by prolonged administration of L-DOPA in Parkinsons disease. 12 mice were used for RNAseq, 4 conditions, 3 mice per condition.
Project description:Polycomb group (PcG) proteins bind to and repress genes in embryonic stem cells and through lineage commitment to the terminal differentiated state. PcG repressed genes are commonly characterized by the presence of the epigenetic histone mark, H3K27me3, catalyzed by the Polycomb repressive complex 2. Here, we present in vivo evidence for a previously unrecognized plasticity of PcG-repressed genes in terminal differentiated brain neurons of parkisonian mice. We show that acute administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, induces a remarkable increase in H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation. The induction of the H3K27me3S28p histone mark specifically occurs in medium spiny neurons expressing the dopamine D1 receptors and is dependent on Msk1 kinase activity and DARPP-32-mediated inhibition of protein phosphatase-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that increased H3K27me3S28p was accompanied by reduced PcG binding to regulatory regions of genes. An analysis of the genome wide distribution of L-DOPA induced H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation by ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) in combination with expression analysis by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) showed that the induction of H3K27me3S28p correlated with increased expression of a subset of PcG repressed genes. We found that induction of H3K27me3S28p persisted during chronic L-DOPA administration to parkisonian mice and correlated with aberrant gene expression. We propose that dopaminergic transmission can activate PcG repressed genes in the adult brain and thereby contribute to long-term maladaptive responses including the motor complications, or dyskinesia, caused by prolonged administration of L-DOPA in Parkinsons disease. 8 ChIP-seq libraries were generated from a pool of chromatin generated from 45 mice.
Project description:Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a common consequence of prolonged pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). While LID becomes more common with long term exposure to levodopa, its development can be quite variable. We leveraged the variable expression of LID in a rat model to interrogate differential gene expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of animals that develop LID and those that do not. Differential expression of genes associated with LID was found only in striatum, not substantia nigra. Overall design: All rats were unilaterally lesioned using identical parameters with either 6-hydroxydopamine or vehicle lesion. Success was determined by >90% reduction of DA in the striatum as measured by HPLC, and behaviorally using non-drugged motor behavior testing. Daily injections of levodopa or saline were commenced 3.5 weeks after 6-OHDA lesioning. LID behaviors were rated every other day for a total of seven sessions.
Project description:Genetic association studies, pharmacological investigations and analysis of mice-lacking individual genes have made it clear that Cocaine administration and Withdrawal have a profound impact on multiple neurotransmitter systems. The GABAergic medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) exhibit changes in the expression of genes encoding receptors for glutamate and in the signaling pathways triggered by dopamine binding to G-protein-coupled dopamine receptors. Deep sequence analysis provides a sensitive, quantitative and global analysis of the effects of Cocaine on the NAc transcriptome. RNA prepared from the NAc of adult male mice receiving daily injections of Saline or Cocaine, or Cocaine followed by a period of Withdrawal, was used for high-throughput sequence analysis. Changes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. On the basis of pathway analysis, a preponderance of the genes affected by Cocaine and Withdrawal was involved in the cadherin, heterotrimeric G-protein and Wnt signaling pathways. Distinct subsets of cadherins and protocadherins exhibited a sustained increase or decrease in expression. Sustained down-regulation of several heterotrimeric G-protein β- and γ-subunits was observed. In addition to altered expression of receptors for small molecule neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and endocannabinoids, changes in the expression of plasma membrane transporters and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters were also observed. The effects of chronic Cocaine and Withdrawal on the expression of genes essential to cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic, peptidergic and endocannabinoid signaling are as profound as their effects on dopaminergic transmission. Simultaneous targeting of multiple Withdrawal-specific changes in gene expression may facilitate development of new therapeutic approaches that are better able to prevent relapse. High-throughput sequence analysis of RNA prepared from the nucleus accumbens of adult male mice receiving daily injections of Saline or Cocaine, or Cocaine followed by a period of Withdrawal. Nucleus accumbens libraries were sequenced in nine lanes (three technical replicates per sample) on an Illumina GAIIx using a 37-cycle paired-end sequencing protocol. Replicates were analyzed for intra-sample disparity and read data from all three lanes were then merged into one composite data file per sample; intra-sample coefficient of determination, R2 ≥ 0.98. The composite file was used for subsequent analyses.
Project description:Cocaine-mediated repression of the histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a has recently been implicated in transcriptional, morphological, and behavioral responses to chronic cocaine administration. Here, using a ribosomal affinity purification approach, we find that G9a repression by cocaine occurs in both Drd1 (striatonigral)- and Drd2 (striatopallidal)-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Conditional knockout and overexpression of G9a within these distinct cell types, however, reveals divergent behavioral phenotypes in response to repeated cocaine treatment. Our studies further indicate that such developmental deletion of G9a selectively in Drd2 neurons results in the unsilencing of transcriptional programs normally specific to striatonigral neurons, and the acquisition of Drd1-associated projection and electrophysiological properties. This partial striatopallidal to striatonigral ‘switching’ phenotype in mice indicates a novel role for G9a in contributing to neuronal subtype identity, and suggests a critical function for cell-type specific histone methylation patterns in the regulation of behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. Polyribosome associated mRNAs from 2-5 month old, age and sex matched Drd1-Cre; Drd1-TRAP; G9afl/fl and Drd1-TRAP; G9afl/fl, Drd2-Cre; Drd2-TRAP; G9afl/fl and Drd2-TRAP; G9afl/fl mice (n = 2-4 mice/genotype/drug treatment, 2 hours after the last of eight repeated cocaine injections of 20 mg/kg/day) were obtained as previously described. EGFP labeled ribosomes and associated mRNAs were immunoprecipitated using a mix of two monoclonal anti-GFP antibodies (50 μg of clones #19C8 and #19F7 for each IP, available at Sloan-Kettering Monoclonal Antibody Facility). Purified mRNA was amplified and processed for microarray and qPCR analysis using the Affymetrix two-cycle cDNA Synthesis kit (Affymetrix) as previously described. Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays were used in all experiments. Information regarding the array design and features can be found at www.affymetrix.com. Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays were scanned using the GeneChip Scanner 3000 (Affymetrix) and globally scaled to 150 using the Affymetrix GeneChip Operating Software (GCOS v1.4).
Project description:Despite addiction being one of the most prevalent and debilitating disorders worldwide, effective treatments are lacking. Repeated cocaine exposure induces maladaptive transcriptional regulation within the brain’s reward circuitry, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone acetylation or methylation on Lys (K) residues, have been linked to these lasting actions of cocaine. However, in contrast to K methylation, the functional role of histone Arg (R) methylation remains unexplored in addiction models and poorly understood in brain in general. Here we show that protein-R-methyltransferase-6 (PRMT6) and its associated histone mark, asymmetric dimethylation of R2 on histone H3 (H3R2me2a), are decreased in the NAc of mice and rats after repeated cocaine exposure, as well as in the NAc of cocaine-addicted humans. PRMT6 downregulation occurs selectively in NAc medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2-MSNs) and serves to protect against cocaine-induced addictive-like behavioral abnormalities. Using ChIP-seq, we demonstrate that reduced H3R2me2a binding at gene targets in NAc after repeated cocaine is strongly correlated with increased binding of H3K4me3, and identify Src kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (Srcin1 or p140Cap) as a key gene for these chromatin modifications. Cocaine induction of Srcin1 in NAc, which is associated with reduced Src signaling, decreases cocaine reward, the motivation to self administer cocaine, and cocaine-induced changes in NAc MSN dendritic spines. These results suggest that this suppression of Src signaling in NAc D2-MSNs, via PRMT6 and H3R2me2a downregulation, functions as a homeostatic brake to restrain cocaine action, and provide novel candidates for the development of new treatments for cocaine addiction. H3R2me2A ChIP-seq of mouse. Cocaine vs Saline, 3 biological replicates.