Profiling hepatic microRNAs in zebrafish: Fluoxetine exposure mimics a fasting response that targets AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)
ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has suggested that fluoxetine, a serotonin-reuptake inhibitor and emerging environmental contaminant, can have non-targeted effects on metabolism in fish exposed to this waterborne pollutant. Using the highest, environmentally relevant, detectable level of fluoxetine (540 ng/L) we examined the impact of fluoxetine on the miRNA profile in the liver of zebrafish that were both fed and fasted for a period of 7 days. These results were further compared to the miRNA profile of zebrafish fasted and fed for 7 days, which were not exposed to fluoxetine. Results indicated that several miRNA that were involved with downregulating genes/pathways in response to fasting were also upregulated in fish exposed to fluoxetine, irrespective to fasting or feeding. These results suggest fluoxetine can have non-targeted effects on metabolic pathways mediated through miRNA expression. Furthermore, specific miRNA (dre-let-7d & dre-miR-140-5p) were found to target the catalytic subunit (AMPKa1 & AMPKa2, respectively) of AMP-Kinase, a master regulator of metabolism. Using predictive software and qPCR validation, combined with the expression profile of these two miRNA, we were able to establish a significant relationship between the expression of these specific miRNA to the downregulation of AMPKa subunit under the influence of 540 ng/L fluoxetine. Adult, female zebrafish were either fed or fasted for 7 days with and without the presense of 540 ng/L fluoxetine, and livers extracted and miRNA purified for miRNA microaary experiment.
Project description:This study examined the similarities in microRNA profiles between fasted and fluoxetine (FLX) exposed zebrafish and downstream target transcripts and biological pathways. Using a custom designed microarray targeting 270 zebrafish miRNAs, we identified 9 differentially expressed miRNAs targeting transcripts in biological pathways associated with anabolic metabolism, such as adipogenesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, triacylglycerol synthesis, and insulin signaling. Exposure of female zebrafish to 540 ng/L FLX, an environmentally relevant concentration and a known metabolic repressor, increased specific miRNAs indicating greater inhibition of these pathways in spite of continued feeding. Further examination revealed two specific miRNAs, dre-let-7d and dre-miR-140-5p, were predicted in silico to bind to a primary regulator of metabolism, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and more specifically the two isoforms of the catalytic subunit, AMPK?1 and ?2, respectively. Real-time analysis of the relative transcript abundance of the ?1 and ?2 mRNAs indicated a significant inverse relationship between specific miRNA and target transcript. This suggests that AMPK-related pathways may be compromised during FLX exposure as a result of increased miRNA abundance. The mechanism by which FLX regulates miRNA abundance is unknown but may be direct at the liver. The serotonin transporter, slc6a4, is the target of FLX and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and it was found to be expressed in the liver, although treatment did not alter expression of this transporter. Exposure to FLX disrupts key hepatic metabolic pathways, which may be indicative of reduced overall fitness and these effects may be linked to specific miRNA abundance. This has important implications for the heath of fish because concentrations of SSRIs in aquatic ecosystems are continually increasing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Droxidopa is an oral prodrug of norepinephrine approved for the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. This two-part, randomized, crossover study evaluated the 24-h pharmacokinetic profile of droxidopa in 24 healthy elderly subjects. METHODS:Noncompartmental analysis was used to calculate the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time of Cmax (tmax), and elimination half-life (t½e) of droxidopa and metabolites. Droxidopa was administered in the fed (high-fat/high-calorie meal) or fasted state either as a single 300-mg dose (three 100-mg capsules) or 3 times/day (TID) (three 100-mg capsules) at 4-h intervals. RESULTS:Administration of a single droxidopa dose in the fed versus fasted state decreased mean Cmax (2057 vs 3160 ng/mL) and mean AUC (10,927 vs 13,857 h × ng/mL) and increased median tmax twofold (4.00 vs 2.00 h). Differences between the fed and fasted state for mean t½e (2.58 vs 2.68 h) were not observed. Fed versus fasted geometric mean ratios for Cmax and AUC were 66% [90% confidence interval (CI) 60.7-71.7] and 80% (90% CI 72.6-88.1), respectively. With TID dosing, similar values for Cmax were observed after each dose (range 2789-3389 ng/mL) with no return to baseline between doses. Norepinephrine Cmax was 895 pg/mL following dose 1, with no further increases upon subsequent doses; norepinephrine levels remained above baseline for 12-16 h after dose 1. CONCLUSIONS:Absorption of a single dose of droxidopa is slowed after a high-fat/high-calorie meal; for consistent effect, administer droxidopa in the same manner (with or without food). Pharmacokinetic parameters of droxidopa are similar after single and TID dosing. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01149629.
Project description:Stress and anxiety-related behaviors are seen in many organisms. Studies have shown that in humans and other animals, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine) can reduce anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. The efficacies and side effects, however, can vary between individuals. Fluoxetine can modulate anxiety in a stereospecific manner or with equal efficacy regardless of stereoisomer depending on the mechanism of action (e.g. serotonergic or GABAergic effects). Zebrafish are an emerging and valuable translational model for understanding human health related issues such as anxiety. In this study we present data showing the behavioral and whole brain transcriptome changes with fluoxetine treatment in wild-derived zebrafish and suggest additional molecular mechanisms of this widely-prescribed drug.We used automated behavioral analyses to assess the effects of racemic and stereoisomeric fluoxetine on male wild-derived zebrafish. Both racemic and the individual isomers of fluoxetine reduced anxiety-related behaviors relative to controls and we did not observe stereospecific fluoxetine effects. Using RNA-sequencing of the whole brain, we identified 411 genes showing differential expression with racemic fluoxetine treatment. Several neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, isotocin, urocortin 3, prolactin) showed consistent expression patterns with the alleviation of stress and anxiety when anxiety-related behavior was reduced with fluoxetine treatment. With gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, we identified lipid and amino acid metabolic processes, and steroid biosynthesis among other terms to be over-enriched.Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine reduces anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish and alters their neurogenomic state. We identify two biological processes, lipid and amino acid metabolic synthesis that characterize differences in the fluoxetine treated fish. Fluoxetine may be acting on several different molecular pathways to reduce anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish. This study provides data that could help identify common molecular mechanisms of fluoxetine action across animal taxa.
Project description:Comparison of transcriptome data in fed and fasted conditions of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) anterior intestine using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method was done in a strategy to identify key regulated genes at the transcript level and to allow the identification of activated/deactivated pathways after feeding. Overall design: For the fasted group of zebrafish, total RNAs from the anterior intestines of a pool of 6 animals were used to generate the SAGE library (14bp TAGs, including the 4-bp anchor enzyme site) using the I-SAGE kit (Invitrogen, Cergy Pointoise, France). For the fed group of zebrafish (pool of 6 animals), and the fed and fasted trout (pool of 8 animals each), total RNAs extracted from the anterior intestine were used to generate long-SAGE libraries (20pb TAGs, including the 4-bp anchor enzyme site) using the I-SAGE Long kit (Invitrogen, Cergy Pointoise, France).
Project description:AIMS:This study aimed to determine the effect of food intake on uracil and dihydrouracil plasma levels. These levels are a promising marker for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity and for individualizing fluoropyrimidine anticancer therapy. METHODS:A randomized, cross-over study in 16 healthy volunteers was performed, in which subjects were examined in fasted and fed state on two separate days. In fed condition, a high-fat, high-caloric breakfast was consumed between 8:00 h and 8:30 h. Whole blood for determination of uracil, dihydrouracil and uridine plasma levels was drawn on both test days at predefined time points between 8:00 h and 13:00 h. RESULTS:Uracil levels were statistically significantly different between fasting and fed state. At 13:00 h, the mean uracil level in fasting state was 12.6 ± 3.7 ng ml-1 and after a test meal 9.4 ± 2.6 ng ml-1 (P < 0.001). Dihydrouracil levels were influenced by food intake as well (mean dihydrouracil level at 13:00 h in fasting state 147.0 ± 36.4 ng ml-1 and in fed state 85.7 ± 22.1 ng ml-1 , P < 0.001). Uridine plasma levels showed curves with similar patterns as for uracil. CONCLUSIONS:It was shown that both uracil and dihydrouracil levels were higher in fasting state than in fed state. This is hypothesized to be an direct effect of uridine plasma levels, which were previously shown to be elevated in fasting state and reduced after intake of food. These findings show that, when assessing plasma uracil and dihydrouracil levels for adaptive fluoropyrimidine dosing in clinical practice, sampling should be done between 8:00 h and 9:00 h after overnight fasting to avoid bias caused by circadian rhythm and food effects.
Project description:Food intake in fish and mammals is orchestrated by hypothalamic crosstalk between orexigenic (food intake stimulation) and anorexigenic (food intake inhibition) signals. Some of these signals are released by peripheral tissues that are associated with energy homeostasis or nutrient availability. During the fish larva stage, orexigenic stimulation plays a critical role in individual viability. The goal of this study was to assess the mRNA levels of the main neuropeptides involved in food intake regulation (npy, agrp, carppt, and pomc), in concert with the mRNA levels and peptide levels of ghrelin, under a fasting intervention at the larval stage in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Prior to the fasting intervention, the zebrafish larva cohort was reared for 20 days post fertilization (dpf) and then randomly divided into two groups of 20 individuals. One group was subjected to a fasting intervention for 5 days (fasted group), and the other group was fed normally (fed group); this experimental protocol was performed twice independently. At the end of the fasting period, individuals from each experimental group were divided into different analysis groups, for evaluations such as relative gene expression, immunohistochemistry, and liquid chromatography coupled to nano high-resolution mass spectrometry (nLC-HRMS) analyses. The relative expression levels of the following genes were assessed: neuropeptide Y (npy), agouti-related peptide (agrp), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cartpt), ghrelin (ghrl), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (mboat4), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghsr), and glucokinase (gck). In the fasted group, significant upregulation of orexigenic peptides (npy - agrp) and ghsr was observed, which was associated with significant downregulation of gck. The anorexigenic peptides (pomc and cartpt) did not show any significant modulation between the groups, similar to mboat4. Contrary to what was expected, the relative mRNA upregulation of the orexigenic peptides observed in the fasted experimental group could not be associated with significant ghrelin modulation as assessed by three different approaches: qPCR (relative gene expression of ghrelin), nLC-HRMS (des-acyl-ghrelin levels), and immunohistochemistry (integrated optical density of prepropeptides in intestinal and hepatopancreas tissues). Our results demonstrate that zebrafish larvae at 25 dpf exhibit suitable modulation of the relative mRNA levels of orexigenic peptides (npy and agrp) in response to fasting intervention; nevertheless, ghrelin was not coregulated by fasting. Therefore, it can be suggested that ghrelin is not an essential peptide for an increase in appetite in the zebrafish larva stage. These results give rise to new questions about food intake regulation factors in the early stages of fish.
Project description:Reductions in mesolimbic responsivity have been noted following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; Ochner et al., 2011a). Given potential for postoperative increases in postprandial gut (satiety) peptides to affect mesolimbic neural responsivity, we hypothesized that: (1) post RYGB changes in mesolimbic responsivity would be greater in the fed relative to the fasted state and; (2) fasted vs. fed state differences in mesolimbic responsivity would be greater post-relative to pre-surgery. fMRI was used to asses neural responsivity to high- and low-calorie food cues in five women 1 mo pre- and 1 mo post-RYGB. Scans were repeated in fasted and fed states. Significant post RYGB decreases in the insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) responsivity were found in the fasted state. These changes were larger than neural changes in the fed state, which were non-significant. Preoperatively, fasted vs. fed differences in neural responsivity were greater in the precuneus, with large but nonsignificant clusters in the vmPFC and dlPFC. Postoperatively, however, no fasted vs. fed differences in neural responsivity were noted. Results were opposite to that predicted and appear inconsistent with the initial hypothesis that postoperative increases in postprandial gut peptides are the primary driver of postoperative changes in neural responsivity.
Project description:Fluoxetine is widely used to treat depression, including depression in pregnant and postpartum women. Studies suggest that fluoxetine may have adverse effects on offspring, presumably through its action on various serotonin receptors (HTRs). However, definitive evidence and the underlying mechanisms are largely unavailable. As initial steps towards establishing a human cellular and animal model, we analyzed the expression patterns of several HTRs through the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into neuronal cells, and analyzed expression pattern in zebrafish embryos. Treatment of zebrafish embryos with fluoxetine significantly blocked the expression of multiple HTRs. Furthermore, fluoxetine gave rise to a change in neuropsychology. Embryos treated with fluoxetine continued to exhibit abnormal behavior upto 12 days post fertilization due to changes in HTRs. These findings support a possible long-term risk of serotonin pathway alteration, possibly resulting from the "placental drug transfer".
Project description:Exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during development may elicit long-term neuroadaptive changes that could alter the basal regulation of stress-associated physiological and behavioral processes later in life. Currently, the effects of juvenile fluoxetine exposure in rodent models appear to be dependent on the developmental window targeted as well as the duration of drug exposure. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) model is rapidly becoming a useful tool in pharmacological research and can be used to help elucidate some of the long-term effects of fluoxetine exposure prior to sexual maturation on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress markers. In the current study, juvenile zebrafish were chronically exposed to fluoxetine hydrochloride (0 or 100 ?g/L) for 14 days (31-44 days post-fertilization (dpf)), then were left untreated until young adulthood. Starting at 90 dpf, basal neuroendocrine stress and behavioral responses of zebrafish were assessed. Cortisol was extracted from the young adult zebrafish body (trunk) and quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in response to introduction to the novel tank test. It was expected that juvenile exposure to fluoxetine would (1) reduce basal cortisol levels and (2) elicit anxiolytic effects in the novel tank test in adulthood. However, fluoxetine exposure during the juvenile period was not associated with alterations in basal levels of cortisol nor were there any significant changes in anxiety-like behavior in the young adult zebrafish. Thus, in zebrafish, it does not appear that SSRI exposure during the juvenile period has a long-term adverse or maladaptive impact on the basal expression of cortisol and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Further studies are needed to determine if SSRI exposure during this developmental window influences neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to acute stress.
Project description:Human gene expression traits have been shown to be dependent on gender, age and time of day in blood and other tissues. However, other factors that may impact gene expression have not been systematically explored. For example, in studies linking blood gene expression to obesity related traits, whether the fasted or fed state will be the most informative is an open question. Here, we employed a two-arm cross-over design to perform a genome-wide survey of gene expression in human peripheral blood to address explicitly this type of question. We were able to distinguish expression changes due to individual and time-specific effects from those due to food intake. We demonstrate that the transcriptional response to food intake is robust by constructing a classifier from the gene expression traits with >90% accuracy classifying individuals as being in the fasted or fed state. Gene expression traits that were best able to discriminate the fasted and fed states were more heritable and achieved greater coherence with respect to pathways associated with metabolic traits. The connectivity structure among gene expression traits was explored in the context of coexpression networks. Changes in the connectivity structure were observed between the fasted and fed states. We demonstrate that differential expression and differential connectivity are two complementary ways to characterize changes between fasted and fed states. Both gene sets were significantly enriched for genes associated with obesity related traits. Our results suggest that the pair of fasted/fed blood expression profiles provide more comprehensive information about an individual's metabolic states.