Transcription profiling by array of Arabidopsis knocked out for At5g10140 grown at 27degC
ABSTRACT: FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a MADS box transcription factor that plays a well characterised role in repressing the vegetative to floral transition of Arabidopsis thaliana. FLC has also been shown to affect the Arabidopsis circadian clock, with mutant seedlings showing short circadian periods. In a previous study, we identified the temperature-dependent circadian period QTL PerCv5b near the FLC locus on the top arm of Chromosome 5. PerCv5b caused a significant period effect at 27oC but not at 12oC or 22oC. Temperature-dependent circadian period phenotypes and a known polymorphism in the Ler allele made FLC a strong candidate gene for PerCv5b. The period effect of FLC was enhanced by combination with alleles of FRIGIDA (FRI), a gene shown to up-regulate FLC's expression. We were interested in identifying how FLC affects the circadian clock, so we decided to identify its target genes. Greatest phenotypic difference was observed between fri; flc and FRI; FLC genotype seedlings at 27oC, so expression was compared between these lines (previously described in Michaels and Amasino1999 and 2001) on the Affymetrix ATH1 microarray. Seedlings were grown on media (MS 1.5% Agar containing 3% Sucrose) for 6 days under constant cool white fluorescent light (55-60 micro EINSTEINS) at 22oC then entrained for 4 days under (12h , 12h) light , dark cycles at 22oC. At dawn on the fourth day of entrainment they were transferred to constant light (25-30 micro EINSTEINS) at 27oC. Four samples were taken at 6 hour intervals starting 24h after the transfer to continuous conditions at the times 24h, 30h, 36h and 42h. Equal amounts of total RNA were pooled from the three time points to produce one sample per genotype. The pooling strategy was employed to reduce the effect of circadian regulation on genes expression. This was particularly important in our case as some interesting genes would likely be regulated by the circadian clock and may only show expression differences at particular phases that could easily be missed if using just one time point. Experimenter name = Kieron Edwards; Experimenter phone = 0131 651 3326; Experimenter fax = 0131 650 5392; Experimenter department = Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences; Experimenter institute = University of Edinbugh; Experimenter address = Kings Buildings; Experimenter address = Mayfield Road; Experimenter address = Edinburgh; Experimenter zip/postal_code = EH9 3JH; Experimenter country = UK Experiment Overall Design: 4 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:This experiment was annotated by TAIR (http://arabidopsis.org).FRI FLC time series Experimenter name = Markus Schmid Experimenter phone = ++49-7071-601-1413 Experimenter fax = ++49-7071-601-1412 Experimenter department = Detlef Weigel Laboratory Germany Experimenter institute = Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology Experimenter address = Dept. of Molecular Biology Experimenter address = Spemannstr. 37-39 Experimenter address = Tübingen Experimenter zip/postal_code = 72076 Experimenter country = Germnay Keywords: time_series_design; strain_or_line_design; innate_behavior_design Overall design: 36 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:This experiment was annotated by TAIR (http://arabidopsis.org).FRI FLC time series; Experimenter name = Markus Schmid; Experimenter phone = ++49-7071-601-1413; Experimenter fax = ++49-7071-601-1412; Experimenter department = Detlef Weigel Laboratory Germany; Experimenter institute = Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology; Experimenter address = Dept. of Molecular Biology; Experimenter address = Spemannstr. 37-39; Experimenter address = Tübingen; Experimenter zip/postal_code = 72076; Experimenter country = Germnay Experiment Overall Design: 36 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:BACKGROUND: The circadian system drives pervasive biological rhythms in plants. Circadian clocks integrate endogenous timing information with environmental signals, in order to match rhythmic outputs to the local day/night cycle. Multiple signaling pathways affect the circadian system, in ways that are likely to be adaptively significant. Our previous studies of natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions implicated FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) as a circadian-clock regulator. The MADS-box transcription factor FLC is best known as a regulator of flowering time. Its activity is regulated by many regulatory genes in the "autonomous" and vernalization-dependent flowering pathways. We tested whether these same pathways affect the circadian system. RESULTS: Genes in the autonomous flowering pathway, including FLC, were found to regulate circadian period in Arabidopsis. The mechanisms involved are similar, but not identical, to the control of flowering time. By mutant analyses, we demonstrate a graded effect of FLC expression upon circadian period. Related MADS-box genes had less effect on clock function. We also reveal an unexpected vernalization-dependent alteration of periodicity. CONCLUSION: This study has aided in the understanding of FLC's role in the clock, as it reveals that the network affecting circadian timing is partially overlapping with the floral-regulatory network. We also show a link between vernalization and circadian period. This finding may be of ecological relevance for developmental programming in other plant species.
Project description:Individual plant cells have a genetic circuit, the circadian clock, that times key processes to the day-night cycle. These clocks are aligned to the day-night cycle by multiple environmental signals that vary across the plant. How does the plant integrate clock rhythms, both within and between organs, to ensure coordinated timing? To address this question, we examined the clock at the sub-tissue level across Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under multiple environmental conditions and genetic backgrounds. Our results show that the clock runs at different speeds (periods) in each organ, which causes the clock to peak at different times across the plant in both constant environmental conditions and light-dark (LD) cycles. Closer examination reveals that spatial waves of clock gene expression propagate both within and between organs. Using a combination of modeling and experiment, we reveal that these spatial waves are the result of the period differences between organs and local coupling, rather than long-distance signaling. With further experiments we show that the endogenous period differences, and thus the spatial waves, can be generated by the organ specificity of inputs into the clock. We demonstrate this by modulating periods using light and metabolic signals, as well as with genetic perturbations. Our results reveal that plant clocks can be set locally by organ-specific inputs but coordinated globally via spatial waves of clock gene expression.
Project description:Circadian clocks synchronize internal processes with environmental cycles to ensure optimal timing of biological events on daily and seasonal time scales. External light and temperature cues set the core molecular oscillator to local conditions. In Arabidopsis, EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) is thought to act as an evening-specific repressor of light signals to the clock, thus serving a zeitnehmer function. Circadian rhythms were examined in completely dark-grown, or etiolated, null elf3-1 seedlings, with the clock entrained by thermocycles, to evaluate whether the elf3 mutant phenotype was light-dependent. Circadian rhythms were absent from etiolated elf3-1 seedlings after exposure to temperature cycles, and this mutant failed to exhibit classic indicators of entrainment by temperature cues, consistent with global clock dysfunction or strong perturbation of temperature signaling in this background. Warm temperature pulses failed to elicit acute induction of temperature-responsive genes in elf3-1. In fact, warm temperature-responsive genes remained in a constitutively "ON" state because of clock dysfunction and, therefore, were insensitive to temperature signals in the normal time of day-specific manner. These results show ELF3 is broadly required for circadian clock function regardless of light conditions, where ELF3 activity is needed by the core oscillator to allow progression from day to night during either light or temperature entrainment. Furthermore, robust circadian rhythms appear to be a prerequisite for etiolated seedlings to respond correctly to temperature signals.
Project description:Our aim is to study the circadian expression of genes to aid in our attempt of modelling the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Circadian microarray data have previously been published for plants after white light (WL)-dark cycles, using the 8k chip (Harmer et al. 2000). We intend to repeat this experiment using the 26k chips and are coordinating with Dr. Harmer, who is pursuing complementary experiments in UC Davis. Plants will be transferred to continuous WL after entrainment to 12h:12h light dark cycles. RNAs will be harvested every 4 hours over two days, with the same accession and sampling intervals used previously by Harmer et al. The two days of sampling provide internal replication. Our experience shows that this is the most economical design: it is easier to identify rhythms over a two-day timecourse than in two replicates of a single day. Hence: 13 RNA samples on 13 chips in total. METHOD: Seed was sown on MS agar plates with 3% sucrose, imbibed at 4 C for 96 hours. Seed was then entrained for 7 days at 22C, in cycles of 12 hours white light, 12 hours darkness. After 7 days they were transferred to constant white light at 22 C: this is time 0h. Tissue harvested at the time points shown after time 0. Experimenter name = Kieron Edwards; Experimenter phone = 024 7652 8374; Experimenter fax = 024 7652 3701; Experimenter department = Department of Biological Sciences; Experimenter institute = University of Warwick; Experimenter address = Department of Biological Sciences; Experimenter address = University of Warwick; Experimenter address = Gibbet Hill Road; Experimenter address = Coventry; Experimenter zip/postal_code = CV4 7AL; Experimenter country = UK Experiment Overall Design: 13 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:Plant chloroplasts are not only the main cellular location for storage of elemental iron (Fe), but also the main site for Fe, which is incorporated into chlorophyll, haem and the photosynthetic machinery. How plants measure internal Fe levels is unknown. We describe here a new Fe-dependent response, a change in the period of the circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, the period lengthens when Fe becomes limiting, and gradually shortens as external Fe levels increase. Etiolated seedlings or light-grown plants treated with plastid translation inhibitors do not respond to changes in Fe supply, pointing to developed chloroplasts as central hubs for circadian Fe sensing. Phytochrome-deficient mutants maintain a short period even under Fe deficiency, stressing the role of early light signalling in coupling the clock to Fe responses. Further mutant and pharmacological analyses suggest that known players in plastid-to-nucleus signalling do not directly participate in Fe sensing. We propose that the sensor governing circadian Fe responses defines a new retrograde pathway that involves a plastid-encoded protein that depends on phytochromes and the functional state of chloroplasts.
Project description:The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.
Project description:Pleiotropic regulatory factors mediate concerted responses of the plant's trait network to endogenous and exogenous cues. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) is such a factor that has been predominantly described as a regulator of early developmental traits. Although its closest homologs LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) and LWD2 affect photoperiodic flowering, a role of TTG1 in flowering time regulation has not been reported. Here we reveal that TTG1 is a regulator of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana and changes transcript levels of different targets within the flowering time regulatory pathway. TTG1 mutants flower early and TTG1 overexpression lines flower late at long-day conditions. Consistently, TTG1 can suppress the transcript levels of the floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 and can act as an activator of circadian clock components. Moreover, TTG1 might form feedback loops at the protein level. The TTG1 protein interacts with PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR)s and basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX 92 (bHLH92) in yeast. In planta, the respective pairs exhibit interesting patterns of localization including a recruitment of TTG1 by PRR5 to subnuclear foci. This mechanism proposes additional layers of regulation by TTG1 and might aid to specify the function of bHLH92. Within another branch of the pathway, TTG1 can elevate FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcript levels. FLC mediates signals from the vernalization, ambient temperature and autonomous pathway and the circadian clock is pivotal for the plant to synchronize with diurnal cycles of environmental stimuli like light and temperature. Our results suggest an unexpected positioning of TTG1 upstream of FLC and upstream of the circadian clock. In this light, this points to an adaptive value of the role of TTG1 in respect to flowering time regulation.
Project description:HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) and its paralog HUB2 act in a conserved heterotetrameric complex in the chromatin-mediated transcriptional modulation of developmental programs, such as flowering time, dormancy, and the circadian clock. The KHD1 and SPEN3 proteins were identified as interactors of the HUB1 and HUB2 proteins with in vitro RNA-binding activity. Mutants in SPEN3 and KHD1 had reduced rosette and leaf areas. Strikingly, in spen3 mutants, the flowering time was slightly, but significantly, delayed, as opposed to the early flowering time in the hub1-4 mutant. The mutant phenotypes in biomass and flowering time suggested a deregulation of their respective regulatory genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) that are known targets of the HUB1-mediated histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub). Indeed, in the spen3-1 and hub1-4 mutants, the circadian clock period was shortened as observed by luciferase reporter assays, the levels of the CCA1? and CCA1? splice forms were altered, and the CCA1 expression and H2Bub levels were reduced. In the spen3-1 mutant, the delay in flowering time was correlated with an enhanced FLC expression, possibly due to an increased distal versus proximal ratio of its antisense COOLAIR transcript. Together with transcriptomic and double-mutant analyses, our data revealed that the HUB1 interaction with SPEN3 links H2Bub during transcript elongation with pre-mRNA processing at CCA1 Furthermore, the presence of an intact HUB1 at the FLC is required for SPEN3 function in the formation of the FLC-derived antisense COOLAIR transcripts.