Physiological and transcriptional responses of anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to diurnal temperature cycles
ABSTRACT: Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12 and 30°C, were imposed on anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After three diurnal temperature cycles (DTC), concentrations of glucose, and extracellular metabolites, as well as CO2-production rates showed regular, reproducible circadian rhytms. DTC also led to waves of transcriptional activation and repression, which involved one sixth of the yeast genome. A substantial fraction of these DTC-responsive genes appeared to primarily respond to changes in glucose concentration. Elimination of known glucose-responsive genes revealed overrepresentation of previously identified temperature-responsive genes as well as genes involved in cell cycle and de novo purine biosynthesis. Analyses of budding index and flow cytomery demonstrated that DTC led to a partial synchronization of the cell cycle of the yeast populations in the chemostat cultures, which was lost upon release from DTC. Comparison of DTC results with data from steady-state cultures showed that DTC was sufficiently slow to allow S. cerevisiae chemostat cultures to almost completely acclimatize their transcriptome and physiology at the DTC temperature maximum, and to approach acclimation at the DTC temperature minimum. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of diurnal temperature cycles on the physiology and transcriptome of S. cerevisiae and to assess the extent to which these responses can be predicted from steady-state analyses. To this end, we used a continuous cultivation set-up, in which the yeast was grown under controlled conditions and subjected to 24-h sinoidal temperature cycles. Since the sampling volume was kept within 5% of the reactor volume during 24 h, sampling from two independent duplicate cultures for microarray analysis was spread over the fifth and sixth temperature cycle. Sample points from the fifth and sixth temperature cycle were combined, resulting in six sample points covering one temperature cycle (at temperatures of 30; 21; 14.6; 12; 21 and 27.4°C). For the last time point, one additional analytical duplicate sample was taken. Furthermore, steady-state chemostat cultures at constant temperatures of 12°C and 30°C (independent duplicate cultures at both temperatures) were sampled for microarray analysis. All this resulted in a total array set of 17 arrays.
Project description:The global transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated in low temperature chemostat cultures grown in carbon or nitrogen limitation. During steady state chemostats, the growth rates and in vivo fluxes were kept constant however the growth-limiting nutrient was significantly higher at 12oC than at 30oC and had significant effects on transcriptional responses. Growth at 12oC resulted in a rearrangement of transporters for the limiting nutrient, where hexose transporters (HXTs) and ammonium permeases (MEPs) were differentially expressed in cultures grown at 30oC in carbon and nitrogen limitations, respectively. In addition, we found repression of genes encoding proteins in reserve carbohydrates metabolism and metabolism of alternative carbon or nitrogen sources other than glucose or ammonia. However, there were also similar responses when the transcriptional response was evaluated regardless of the growth-limiting nutrient. In particular, induction of ribosome biogenesis genes emphasizes the significance of transcription and translational adaptation at low temperature. In contrast, genes encoding proteins during stress response were downregulated. This down-regulation of stress elements better known as environmental stress response (ESR) is in contradiction with previous low temperature transcriptome analyses. During continuous steady state low temperature cultivation, ESR no longer plays an integral role in S. cerevisiae’s response to temperature change. Similarly, trehalose accumulation, consistent with its gene expression, was not indispensable for growth at 12oC. This response, however, does not exclude that ESR may be required for transition phase in low temperature growth when cells are transferred from one temperature to another. Keywords: chemostat temperature 12 degree celsuis 30 degree celsius The global transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated in low temperature chemostat cultures grown in carbon or nitrogen limitation at a dilution rate of 0.03h-1
Project description:In contrast to batch cultivation, chemostat cultivation allows the identification of carbon source responses without interference by carbon-catabolite repression, accumulation of toxic products, and differences in specific growth rate. This study focuses on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown in aerobic, carbon-limited chemostat cultures. Genome-wide transcript levels and in vivo fluxes were compared for growth on two sugars, glucose and maltose, and for two C2-compounds, ethanol and acetate. In contrast to previous reports on batch cultures, few genes (180 genes) responded to changes of the carbon source by a changed transcript level. Very few transcript levels were changed when glucose as the growth-limiting nutrient was compared with maltose (33 transcripts), or when acetate was compared with ethanol (16 transcripts). Although metabolic flux analysis using a stoichiometric model revealed major changes in the central carbon metabolism, only 117 genes exhibited a significantly different transcript level when sugars and C2-compounds were provided as the growthlimiting nutrient. Despite the extensive knowledge on carbon source regulation in yeast, many of the carbon source-responsive genes encoded proteins with unknown or incompletely characterized biological functions. In silico promoter analysis of carbon source-responsive genes confirmed the involvement of several known transcriptional regulators and suggested the involvement of additional regulators. Transcripts involved in the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis showed a good correlation with in vivo fluxes. This correlation was, however, not observed for other important pathways, including the pentose-phosphate pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and, in particular, glycolysis. These results indicate that in vivo fluxes in the central carbon metabolism of S. cerevisiae grown in steadystate, carbon-limited chemostat cultures are controlled to a large extent via post-transcriptional mechanisms. Experiment Overall Design: Cultivation of microorganisms in chemostats offers numerous advantages for studying the structure and regulation of metabolic networks (11). In chemostat cultures, individual culture parameters can be changed, while keeping other relevant physical and chemical culture parameters (composition of synthetic medium, pH, temperature, aeration, etc.) constant. An especially important parameter in this respect is the specific growth rate, which, in a chemostat, is equal to the dilution rate, which can be accurately controlled. This allows the experimenter to investigate the effects of environmental changes or genetic interventions at a fixed specific growth rate, even if these changes result in different specific growth rates in batch cultures. In a chemostat, growth can be limited by a single, selected nutrient. The very low residual concentrations of this growth-limiting nutrient in chemostat cultures alleviate effects of catabolite repression and inactivation. Furthermore, these low residual substrate concentrations prevent substrate toxicity, which, for example, occurs when S. cerevisiae is grown on ethanol or acetate as the carbon source in batch cultures . Experiment Overall Design: The central goal of the present study is to assess to what extent carbon source-dependent regulation of fluxes through central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae is regulated at the level of transcription. To this end, we compare the transcriptome of carbon-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures grown on four different carbon sources: glucose, maltose, ethanol, and acetate. Data from the transcriptome analysis are compared with flux distribution profiles calculated with a stoichiometric metabolic network model. Questions that will be addressed are as follows: (i) does glucose-limited aerobic cultivation lead to a complete alleviation of glucose-catabolite repression; (ii) how (in)complete is our understanding of the genes involved in the transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae to four of the most common carbon sources for this yeast; and (iii) to what extent do transcriptome analyses with microarrays provide a reliable indication of flux distribution in metabolic networks?
Project description:Cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A is a precursor for many biotechnologically relevant compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this yeast, cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis and growth strictly depend on expression of either the Acs1 or Acs2 isoenzyme of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). Since hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate in the ACS reaction constrains maximum yields of acetyl-CoA-derived products, this study explores replacement of ACS by two ATP-independent pathways for acetyl-CoA synthesis. After evaluating expression of different bacterial genes encoding acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (A-ALD) and pyruvate-formate lyase (PFL), acs1Δ acs2Δ S. cerevisiae strains were constructed in which A-ALD or PFL successfully replaced ACS. In A-ALD-dependent strains, aerobic growth rates of up to 0.27 h-1 were observed, while anaerobic growth rates of PFL-dependent S. cerevisiae (0.21 h-1) were stoichiometrically coupled to formate production. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures, intracellular metabolite analysis did not reveal major differences between A-ALD-dependent and reference strains. However, biomass yields on glucose of A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains were lower than those of the reference strain. Transcriptome analysis suggested that reduced biomass yields were caused by acetaldehyde and formate in A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains, respectively. Transcript profiles also indicated that a previously proposed role of Acs2 in histone acetylation is probably linked to cytosolic acetyl-CoA levels rather than to direct involvement of Acs2 in histone acetylation. While, for the first time, demonstrating that yeast ACS can be fully replaced by alternative reactions, this study demonstrates that further modifications are needed to achieve optimal in vivo efficiencies of the supply of acetyl-CoA as product precursor. To investigate the impact of introduced changes in native pathway of cytosolic acetyl-CoA formation in S. cerevisiae, a DNA microarray-based transcriptome analysis was performed on aerobic or anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures.
Project description:Prolonged cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures (dilution rate, 0·10 h–1) resulted in a progressive decrease of the residual glucose concentration (from 20 to 8 mg l–1 after 200 generations). This increase in the affinity for glucose was accompanied by a fivefold decrease of fermentative capacity, and changes in cellular morphology. These phenotypic changes were retained when single-cell isolates from prolonged cultures were used to inoculate fresh chemostat cultures, indicating that genetic changes were involved. Kinetic analysis of glucose transport in an ‘evolved’ strain revealed a decreased Km, while Vmax was slightly increased relative to the parental strain. Apparently, fermentative capacity in the evolved strain was not controlled by glucose uptake. Instead, enzyme assays in cell extracts of the evolved strain revealed strongly decreased capacities of enzymes in the lower part of glycolysis. This decrease was corroborated by genome-wide transcriptome analysis using DNA microarrays. In aerobic batch cultures on 20 g glucose l–1, the specific growth rate of the evolved strain was lower than that of the parental strain (0·28 and 0·37 h–1, respectively). Instead of the characteristic instantaneous production of ethanol that is observed when aerobic, glucose-limited cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae are exposed to excess glucose, the evolved strain exhibited a delay of 90 min before aerobic ethanol formation set in. This study demonstrates that the effects of selection in glucose-limited chemostat cultures extend beyond glucose-transport kinetics. Although extensive physiological analysis offered insight into the underlying cellular processes, the evolutionary ‘driving force’ for several of the observed changes remains to be elucidated Experiment Overall Design: A crucial feature of bakers' yeast is its capacity to produce CO2, referred to as fermentative capacity (van Hoek et al., 1998). After prolonged glucose-limited cultivation of S. cerevisiae, in addition to an increased affinity for glucose, we observed a dramatic decrease in fermentative capacity. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to perform an integral analysis of the long-term adaptation of S. cerevisiae during prolonged glucose-limited, aerobic cultivation in chemostat cultures, with special emphasis on the regulation of glucose transport and glycolytic capacity. To this end, we applied an integrated approach that combined transcriptome analysis, measurement of fermentative capacity and activities of glucose transport and glycolytic enzymes, and characterization of cellular morphology.
Project description:Prolonged cultivation (>25 generations) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic, maltose-limited chemostat cultures led to profound physiological changes. Maltose hypersensitivity was observed when cells from prolonged cultivations were suddenly exposed to excess maltose. This substrate hypersensitivity was evident from massive cell lysis and loss of viability. During prolonged cultivation at a fixed specific growth rate, the affinity for the growth-limiting nutrient (i.e., maltose) increased, as evident from a decreasing residual maltose concentration. Furthermore, the capacity of maltose-dependent proton uptake increased up to 2.5-fold during prolonged cultivation. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis showed that the increased maltose transport capacity was not primarily due to increased transcript levels of maltose-permease genes upon prolonged cultivation. We propose that selection for improved substrate affinity (ratio of maximum substrate consumption rate and substrate saturation constant) in maltose-limited cultures leads to selection for cells with an increased capacity for maltose uptake. At the same time, the accumulative nature of maltose-proton symport in S. cerevisiae leads to unrestricted uptake when maltose-adapted cells are exposed to a substrate excess. These changes were retained after isolation of individual cell lines from the chemostat cultures and nonselective cultivation, indicating that mutations were involved. The observed trade-off between substrate affinity and substrate tolerance may be relevant for metabolic engineering and strain selection for utilization of substrates that are taken up by proton symport. Experiment Overall Design: In a recent study (25) we analyzed glucose efflux upon exposure of S. cerevisiae to excess maltose, with yeast cells originating from “young” chemostat cultures (<20 generations). In these experiments no cell lysis was observed upon exposure to excess maltose. However, in further work on this subject, we observed an apparent effect of chemostat culture age on transport capacity. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effect of prolonged maltose-limited chemostat cultivation on the physiology of S. cerevisiae. To this end we monitored the affinity for maltose, genome-wide transcript levels, activities of key enzymes, and physiological responses to maltose excess during long-term cultivation in maltose-limited chemostat cultures. Experiment Overall Design: Jansen, M. L. A., J. H. de Winde, and J. T. Pronk. 2002. Hxt-carrier-mediated glucose efflux upon exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSaccharomyces cerevisiae to excess maltose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:4259-4265.
Project description:Despite the scientific and applied interest in anaerobic metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, not all genes whose transcription is up-regulated under anaerobic conditions have yet been linked to known transcription factors. Experiments with a reporter construct in which the promoter of the anaerobically up-regulated TIR1 gene was fused to LacZ revealed a complete loss of anaerobic up-regulation in a snf7Δ mutant. Anaerobic up-regulation was restored by expression of a truncated allele of RIM101 that encodes for a constitutively active Rim101p transcription factor. Analysis of LacZ expression in several deletion mutants confirmed that the effect of Snf7p on anaerobic up-regulation of TIR1 involved Rim101p and did not require a functional multi-vesicular body sorting pathway (in which Snf7p also participates). Transcriptome analysis in anaerobic chemostat cultures revealed that 26 additional genes exhibited a Snf7p/Rim101p dependent anaerobic up-regulation. Since, in its activated form, Rim101p is generally known as a transcriptional repressor, its role in anaerobic up regulation of TIR1 and other ‘anaerobic’ yeast genes must involve additional factors. Further studies with deletion mutants in NRG1, NRG2 and SMP1, which were previously shown to be regulated by Rim101p, showed that these genes were not involved in the regulation of TIR1. However, the aerobic repression mechanism of TIR1 involved the general repressor Ssn6p-Tup1p complex. The physiological relevance of Snf7p/Rim101p-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes in anaerobic yeast cultures was evident from reduced growth of a snf7Δ under anaerobic conditions. Experiment Overall Design: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of SNF7 in the regulation of TIR1, to assess whether this role involves the Rim101p pathway, and to investigate whether Snf7p and/or Rim101p are also involved in regulation of other ‘anaerobic’ S. cerevisiae genes. After analyzing transcriptional regulation of TIR1 in several genetic backgrounds, a chemostat-based transcriptome analysis was performed on snf7Δ and rim101Δ strains as well as on the isogenic reference strain. Sets of genes that were differentially expressed in the snf7 and rim101 deletion strains were then compared to sets of genes that were previously shown to be transcriptionally up-regulated in anaerobic chemostat cultures of S. cerevisiae (Piper et al., 2002; Tai et al., 2005) Experiment Overall Design: Piper MD, Daran-Lapujade P, Bro C, Regenberg B, Knudsen S, Nielsen J & Pronk JT (2002) Reproducibility of oligonucleotide microarray transcriptome analyses. An interlaboratory comparison using chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 277: 37001-37008. Experiment Overall Design: Tai SL, Boer VM, Daran-Lapujade P, Walsh MC, de Winde JH, Daran JM & Pronk JT (2005) Two-dimensional transcriptome analysis in chemostat cultures. Combinatorial effects of oxygen availability and macronutrient limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 280: 437-447.
Project description:Aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown with six different nitrogen sources were subjected to transcriptome analysis. The use of chemostats enabled an analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcriptional regulation at a fixed specific growth rate. A selection of preferred (ammonium and asparagine) and non-preferred (leucine, phenylalanine, methionine and proline) nitrogen sources was investigated. For each nitrogen source, distinct sets of genes were induced or repressed relative to the other five nitrogen sources. A total number of 131 of such ‘signature transcripts’ were identified in this study. In addition to signature transcripts, genes were identified that showed a transcriptional co-response to two or more of the six nitrogen sources. For example, 33 genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in leucine-, phenylalanine- and methionine-grown cultures, which was partly attributed to the involvement of common enzymes in the dissimilation of these amino acids. In addition to specific transcriptional responses elicited by individual nitrogen sources, their impact on global regulatory mechanisms such as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) could be monitored. NCR-sensitive gene expression in the chemostat cultures showed that, ammonia and asparagine were ‘rich’ nitrogen sources. By this criterion, leucine, proline and methionine were ‘poor’ nitrogen sources and phenylalanine showed an ‘intermediate’ NCR response. Keywords: Response to growth on various nitrogen source transcriptome Chemostat based transcriptomics study. Each growth condition was performed in triplicate.
Project description:Poplar (Populus trichocarpa, clone Nisqually-1) plants were grown in a Conviron PGR 15 growth chamber using precise control of temperature, light, and humidity. Diurnal (driven) conditions included 12L:12D light cycles and 25C/12C thermocycles in three different combinations. These were: photocycles (LDHH), 12 hrs. light (L)/12 hrs. dark (D) at a constant temperature (25C; HH); photo/thermocycles (LDHC): 12 hrs. light (L) /12 hrs. dark (D) with a high day temperature (25C) and a low night temperature (12C); and thermocycles (LLHC): continuous light (LL) with 12 hrs. high/12 hrs. low temperature (25C, day; 12C, night). Light intensity and relative humidity were 700 micromol m-2s-2 and 50%, respectively. Three-month-old poplar plants were entrained for at least one week under the respective condition prior to initiation of each experiment. Leaves and stems from individual poplar plants were collected every four hours for 48 hrs in driven (diurnal) conditions followed by a two day freerun spacer under continuous light/temperature followed by two additional days of sampling under the same continuous free run condition.
Project description:Rice (Oryza sativa, ssp. Japonica, cv. Nipponbare 1) plants were grown in a Conviron PGR 15 growth chamber using precise control of temperature, light, and humidity.<br>Diurnal (driven) conditions included 12L:12D light cycles and 31C/20C thermocycles in three different combinations. These were: photocycles (LDHH), 12 hrs. light (L)/12 hrs. dark (D) at a constant temperature (31C; HH); photo/thermocycles (LDHC): 12 hrs. light (L) /12 hrs. dark (D) with a high day temperature (31C) and a low night temperature (20C); and thermocycles (LLHC): continuous light (LL) with 12 hrs. high/12 hrs. low temperature (31C, day; 20C, night). Light intensity and relative humidity were 1000 micromol m-2s-2 and 60%, respectively.<br>Three-month-old rice plants were entrained for at least one week under the respective condition prior to initiation of each experiment. Leaves and stems from individual rice plants were collected every four hours for 48 hrs in driven (diurnal) conditions followed by a two day freerun spacer under continuous light/temperature followed by two additional days of sampling under the same continuous free run condition.<br>
Project description:Study of the short term (within the first 330 seconds) transcriptional response of S.cerevisiae upon a sudden addition of glucose. Experiment Overall Design: Chemostat cultivation – Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN PK 113-7D) was cultivated in an aerobic carbon-limited chemostat culture in a 7-litres fermentor (Applikon, The Netherlands) with a working volume of 4-l on the adapted doubled mineral medium (Verduyn et al., 1992) with 27.1 g.l-1 of glucose and 1.42 g.l-1 of ethanol, to support a biomass concentration of about 15 g dry weight.l-1. The dilution rate was set to be 0.05 hr-1 and the airflow rate was set to be 200 l.hr-1. Other fermentation parameters are: a pH controlled at 5, a temperature controlled at 30˚C, an overpressure of 0.3 bar and stirrer speed of 600 rpm. The chemostat was considered to obtain its stable steady state condition 5 resident times after the end of its batch phase. Experiment Overall Design: Glucose pulse experiment - At the age of 7 dilution times, the steady state chemostat culture was perturbed by the addition of 20 ml of glucose solution (200 g/l) to the fermentor so that the residual glucose concentration was suddenly increased to about 1 g/l (5.56 mM). The glucose solution was rapidly injected by a pneumatic system (< 1 s). Samples were taken prior to the glucose pulse (steady state samples) and within 360 s transient after the perturbation. Experiment Overall Design: Verduyn,C., Postma,E., Scheffers,W.A., and van Dijken,J.P. (1992). Effect of benzoic acid on metabolic fluxes in yeasts: a continuous-culture study on the regulation of respiration and alcoholic fermentation. Yeast 8, 501-517.