MeDIP-chip from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) tissue from wildtype mice, for 5-methyl-cytosine
ABSTRACT: Nerve injury in the peripheral nervous system allows spontaneous regeneration, in contrast to injury of central nerves, which lead to a differential expression pattern of regeneration-associated genes and others. These genes might be regulated by promoter DNA methylation As regeneration model, DRG tissue was analyzed for methyated gene promoters and CpG islands following both injury types. A differential methylation pattern could be identified, although most genes remained unmethylated. comparison of DRG following either sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA) or dorsal column axotomy (DCA) - each 'real injury or sham' - at 1, 3 or 7 days post-injury vs. 'naive', Each sample was pooled from two mice, yielding an immunoprecipitated sample ('Test') and an input genomic DNA sample (Ref). altogether 33 microarrays were used for 13 conditions with triplicate arrays for 'real injury' or 'naive' samples, and duplicate arrays for 'sham' samples.
Project description:Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium binding protein that identifies a subpopulation of proprioceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is also expressed in a high proportion of muscle afferents but its relationship to PV is unclear. Little is known of the phenotypic responses of muscle afferents to nerve injury. Sciatic nerve axotomy or L5 spinal nerve ligation and section (SNL) lesions were used to explore these issues in adult rats using immunocytochemistry.In naive animals, the mean PV expression was 25 % of L4 or L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and this was unchanged 2 weeks after sciatic nerve axotomy. Colocalization studies with the injury marker activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) showed that approximately 24 % of PV neurons expressed ATF3 after sciatic nerve axotomy suggesting that PV may show a phenotypic switch from injured to uninjured neurons. This possibility was further assessed using the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) injury model where injured and uninjured neurons are located in different DRGs. Two weeks after L5 SNL there was no change in total PV staining and essentially all L5 PV neurons expressed ATF3. Additionally, there was no increase in PV-ir in the adjacent uninjured L4 DRG cells. Co-labelling of DRG neurons revealed that less than 2 % of PV neurons normally expressed CGRP and no colocalization was seen after injury.These experiments clearly show that axotomy does not produce down regulation of PV protein in the DRG. Moreover, this lack of change is not due to a phenotypic switch in PV immunoreactive (ir) neurons, or de novo expression of PV-ir in uninjured neurons after nerve injury. These results further illustrate differences that occur when muscle afferents are injured as compared to cutaneous afferents.
Project description:Axon regeneration is a necessary step toward functional recovery after spinal cord injury. The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun has long been known to play an important role in directing the transcriptional response of Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons to peripheral axotomy that results in successful axon regeneration. Here we performed ChIPseq for Jun in mouse DRG neurons after a sciatic nerve crush or sham surgery in order to measure the changes in Jun's DNA binding in response to peripheral axotomy. We found that the majority of Jun's injury-responsive changes in DNA binding occur at putative enhancer elements, rather than proximal to transcription start sites. We also used a series of single polypeptide chain tandem transcription factors to test the effects of different Jun-containing dimers on neurite outgrowth in DRG, cortical and hippocampal neurons. These experiments demonstrated that dimers composed of Jun and Atf3 promoted neurite outgrowth in rat CNS neurons as well as mouse DRG neurons. Our work provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying Jun's role in axon regeneration.
Project description:Peripheral nerve injury leads to various injury-induced responses in sensory neurons including physiological pain, neuronal cell death, and nerve regeneration. In this study, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of mouse nonpeptidergic nociceptors (NP), peptidergic nociceptors (PEP), and large myelinated sensory neurons (LM) under both control and injury conditions at 3 days after sciatic nerve transection (SNT). After performing principle component and weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we categorized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into different subtypes and discovered co-regulated injury-response genes including novel regeneration associated genes (RAGs) in association with neuronal development, protein translation and cytoplasm transportation. In addition, we found significant up-regulation of the genes associated with cell death such as Pdcd2 in a subset of NP neurons after axotomy, implicating their actions in neuronal cell death upon nerve injury. Our study revealed the distinctive and sustained heterogeneity of transcriptomic responses to injury at single neuron level, implicating the involvement of different gene regulatory networks in nerve regeneration, neuronal cell death and neuropathy in different population of DRG neurons.
Project description:Following injury, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons undergo transcriptional changes so as to adopt phenotypic changes that promote cell survival and axonal regeneration. Here we used a microarray approach to profile changes in a population of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) in the L4 and L5 DRG following sciatic nerve transection. Results showed that 20 miRNA transcripts displayed a significant change in expression levels, with 8 miRNAs transcripts being altered by more than 1.5-fold. Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we demonstrated that one of these miRNAs, miR-21, was upregulated by 7-fold in the DRG at 7 days post-axotomy. In dissociated adult rat DRG neurons lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of miR-21 promoted neurite outgrowth on a reduced laminin substrate. miR-21 directly downregulated expression of Sprouty2 protein, as confirmed by Western blot analysis and 3' untranslated region (UTR) luciferase assays. Our data show that miR-21 is an axotomy-induced miRNA that enhances axon growth, and suggest that miRNAs are important players in regulating growth pathways following peripheral nerve injury.
Project description:Galanin expression markedly increases in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after sciatic nerve axotomy and modulates pain behavior and regeneration of sensory neurons. Here, we describe transgenic mice expressing constructs with varying amounts of sequence upstream of the murine galanin gene marked by LacZ. The 20 kb region upstream of the galanin gene recapitulates the endogenous expression pattern of galanin in the embryonic and adult intact DRG and after axotomy. In contrast, 1.9 kb failed to drive LacZ expression in the intact DRG or after axotomy. However, the addition of an additional 2.7 kb of 5' flanking DNA (4.6 kb construct) restored the expression in the embryonic DRG and in the adult after axotomy. Sequence analysis of this 2.7 kb region revealed unique 18 and 23 bp regions containing overlapping putative Ets-, Stat-, and Smad-binding sites, and adjacent putative Stat- and Smad-binding sites, respectively. Deletion of the 18 and 23 bp regions from the 4.6 kb construct abolished the upregulation of LacZ expression in the DRG after axotomy but did not affect expression in the embryonic or intact adult DRG. Also, a bioinformatic analysis of the upstream regions of a number of other axotomy-responsive genes demonstrated that the close proximity of putative Ets-, Stat-, and Smad-binding sites appears to be a common motif in injury-induced upregulation in gene expression.
Project description:Repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb) is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor and sensitizer of BMP signaling, highly expressed in adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We used a murine RGMb knock-out to gain insight into the physiological role of RGMb in the DRG, and address whether RGMb-mediated modulation of BMP signaling influences sensory axon regeneration. No evidence for altered development of the PNS and CNS was detected in RGMb(-/-) mice. However, both cultured neonatal whole DRG explants and dissociated DRG neurons from RGMb(-/-) mice exhibited significantly fewer and shorter neurites than those from wild-type littermates, a phenomenon that could be fully rescued by BMP-2. Moreover, Noggin, an endogenous BMP signaling antagonist, inhibited neurite outgrowth in wild-type DRG explants from naive as well as nerve injury-preconditioned mice. Noggin is downregulated in the DRG after nerve injury, and its expression is highly correlated and inversely associated with the known regeneration-associated genes, which are induced in the DRG by peripheral axonal injury. We show that diminished BMP signaling in vivo, achieved either through RGMb deletion or BMP inhibition with Noggin, retarded early axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury. Our data suggest a positive modulatory contribution of RGMb and BMP signaling to neurite extension in vitro and early axonal regrowth after nerve injury in vivo and a negative effect of Noggin.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that a number of cytokines and their receptors are involved in the processes that lead to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain states. Here we demonstrate that levels of CX3CR1 (the receptor for the chemokine fractalkine) mRNA in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) increase 5.8-fold 7 days after sciatic nerve axotomy, and 1.7- and 2.9-fold, 3 and 7 days respectively, after the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. In contrast, no significant change in the levels of fractalkine mRNA is apparent in the DRG after axotomy or SNI. The increase in CX3CR1 mRNA is paralleled by a 3.9- and 2.1-fold increase in the number of CX3CR1-positive macrophages in the DRG 7 days after axotomy and SNI, respectively. Expression of CX3CR1 in macrophages is also markedly increased in the sciatic nerve proximal to site of injury, by 25.7-fold after axotomy and 16.2-fold after SNI, 7 days after injury. Intra-neural injection into the sciatic nerve of 400 ng or 100 ng of fractalkine in adult 129OlaHsd mice significantly delayed the development of allodynia for 3 days following SNI. Further, CX3CR1 knockout (KO) mice display an increase in allodynia for three weeks after SNI compared to strain-matched Balb/c controls. Taken together, these results suggest an anti-allodynic role for fractalkine and its receptor in the mouse.
Project description:Molecules and pathways that suppress growth are expressed in postmitotic neurons, a potential advantage in mature neural networks, but a liability during regeneration. In this work, we probed the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli)-?-catenin partner pathway in adult peripheral sensory neurons during regeneration. APC had robust expression in the cytoplasm and perinuclear region of adult DRG sensory neurons both before and after axotomy injury. ?-catenin was expressed in neuronal nuclei, neuronal cytoplasm and also in perineuronal satellite cells. In injured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons and their axons, we observed paradoxical APC upregulation, despite its role as an inhibitor of growth whereas ?-catenin was downregulated. Inhibition of APC in adult sensory neurons and activation of ?-catenin, LEF/TCF transcriptional factors were associated with increased neuronal plasticity in vitro. Local knockdown of APC, at the site of sciatic nerve crush injury enhanced evidence for electrophysiological, behavioural and structural regeneration in vivo. This was accompanied by upregulation of ?-catenin. Collectively, the APC-?-catenin-LEF/TCF transcriptional pathway impacts intrinsic mechanisms of axonal regeneration and neuronal plasticity after injury, offering new options for addressing axon regeneration.
Project description:To identify isoform differential expression underlying peripheral nerve regeneration we performed RNA-Sequencing on DRG neurons after axotomy. Overall design: RNA was sequenced from peripheral Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neurons from adult male mice 7 days after a conditioning lesion at the level of the sciatic nerve (Crushed samples) or after a sham surgery (Controls surgery).
Project description:Several pharmacological approaches to promote neural repair and recovery after CNS injury have been identified. Blockade of either astrocyte-derived chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) or oligodendrocyte-derived NogoReceptor (NgR1) ligands reduces extrinsic inhibition of axonal growth, though combined blockade of these distinct pathways has not been tested. The intrinsic growth potential of adult mammalian neurons can be promoted by several pathways, including pre-conditioning injury for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and macrophage activation for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Singly, pharmacological interventions have restricted efficacy without foreign cells, mechanical scaffolds or viral gene therapy. Here, we examined combinations of pharmacological approaches and assessed the degree of axonal regeneration. After mouse optic nerve crush injury, NgR1-/- neurons regenerate RGC axons as extensively as do zymosan-injected, macrophage-activated WT mice. Synergistic enhancement of regeneration is achieved by combining these interventions in zymosan-injected NgR1-/- mice. In rats with a spinal dorsal column crush injury, a preconditioning peripheral sciatic nerve axotomy, or NgR1(310)ecto-Fc decoy protein treatment or ChondroitinaseABC (ChABC) treatment independently support similar degrees of regeneration by ascending primary afferent fibers into the vicinity of the injury site. Treatment with two of these three interventions does not significantly enhance the degree of axonal regeneration. In contrast, triple therapy combining NgR1 decoy, ChABC and preconditioning, allows axons to regenerate millimeters past the spinal cord injury site. The benefit of a pre-conditioning injury is most robust, but a peripheral nerve injury coincident with, or 3 days after, spinal cord injury also synergizes with NgR1 decoy and ChABC. Thus, maximal axonal regeneration and neural repair are achieved by combining independently effective pharmacological approaches.