Identification of activity-induced genes in cortical inhibitory neurons (RNA-Seq)
ABSTRACT: To identify the activity-induced gene expression programs in inhibitory neurons, we analyzed RNA extracted from cultured E14 mouse MGE-derived neurons (DIV 10) after these cultures were membrane-depolarized for 0, 1 and 6 hrs with 55mM extracellular KCl. Mouse E14 MGE-derived neurons were cultured for 9 days, quieted overnight with TTX and AP-5 and then membrane-depolarized for 0, 1 or 6 hours by raising the extracellular KCl-concentration to 55mM. RNA was then extracted and WT RNA-Seq was performed on ABi SOLiD
Project description:Super-enhancers are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive expression of genes that control and define cell identity. Improved understanding of the roles super-enhancers play in biology would be afforded by knowing the constellation of factors that constitute these domains and by identifying super-enhancers across the spectrum of human cell types. We describe here the population of transcription factors, cofactors, chromatin regulators and core transcription apparatus that occupy super-enhancers in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and evidence that super-enhancers are highly transcribed. We then use epigenomic data to produce a catalogue of super-enhancers in a broad range of human cell types. These super-enhancer domains are associated with genes encoding master transcription factors and other components that play important roles in the biology of these cells. Interestingly, sequence variation associated with a broad spectrum of diseases is especially enriched in the super-enhancers of disease-relevant cell types. Furthermore, we find that cancer cells generate super-enhancers at oncogenes and other genes that play important roles in tumor pathogenesis. We discuss these insights and their implications for future study of human health and disease. ChIP-Seq for transcription factors in mouse embryonic stem cells and H3K27ac in Jurkat T-ALL cell line RNA-Seq for mouse embryonic stem cells
Project description:mRNA synthesis, processing, and destruction involve a complex series of molecular steps that are incompletely understood. Because the RNA intermediates in each of these steps have finite lifetimes, extensive mechanistic and dynamical information is encoded in total cellular RNA. Here we report the development of SnapShot-Seq, a set of computational methods that allow the determination of in vivo rates of pre-mRNA synthesis, splicing, intron degradation, and mRNA decay from a single RNA-Seq snapshot of total cellular RNA. SnapShot-Seq can detect in vivo changes in the rates of specific steps of splicing, and it provides genome-wide estimates of pre-mRNA synthesis rates comparable to those obtained via labeling of newly synthesized RNA. We used SnapShot-Seq to investigate the origins of the intrinsic bimodality of metazoan gene expression levels, and our results suggest that this bimodality is partly due to spillover of transcriptional activation from highly expressed genes to their poorly expressed neighbors. SnapShot-Seq dramatically expands the information obtainable from a standard RNA-Seq experiment. These data are total RNA-Seq data, from RNA sequencing of rRNA-depleted total cellular RNA -- except the LCL 4SU data, which derive from 4SU-labeled RNA. Please see the associated paper for more details.
Project description:Regulation of cell-cell junction formation and regulation of cell migration were enriched among EMT (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition)-associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT-associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMTassociated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT-associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT-dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT-associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT-associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression. Examination of transcriptomes of HMLE/Twist-ER before and after induction of EMT by tamoxifen
Project description:The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy consists of a splicing cascade with sex-specific transcription directing somatic sexual dimorphism. Our understanding of this pathway, and many others, is incomplete. Here we pioneer an approach to expand our knowledge of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) by leveraging natural genetic variation. This approach is generalizable to any natural population, including humans. Two studies from Drosophila female head tissue were used – the DSPR collection (alleles from 15 natural variants) and F1-hybrid collection (alleles from heterozygotes of 75 isogenic lines crossed to w1118) – in a structural equation model (SEM) analysis. We expanded the sex hierarchy GRN by adding novel links among genes in the pathway and by adding novel genes to the pathway. A link from fruitless (fru) to Sex-lethal (Sxl) was found in both populations, which is supported by the presence of fru binding sites in the Sxl locus. The splicing factors male-specific lethal 2 and Rm62 were correctly identified as downstream targets of Sxl. There were 754 additional candidate genes for an expanded sex hierarchy GRN. These candidates were enriched for genes with sex-biased splicing and many components of the spliceosome were placed in the GRN. As with other population-genetic analyses, the number of alleles limits the number of observable interactions. Network expansion was only clear in the F1-hybrid population, which has an average of twice as many alleles as the DSPR population. Independent studies of doublesex and transformer mutants support many novel connections, including evidence for a link between the sex hierarchy and metabolism, with the inclusion of Insulin-like receptor in the sex hierarchy GRN. RNA sequencing was performed on mRNA derived from adult male or female heads, for a total of 9 samples. These samples included females that produce the male isoform of dsx [w/+;DsxD/dsxm+r15 (XX)], and two dsx mutants: females [w/+; dsxm+r15/dsxd+r3 (XX)] and males [w;dsxm+r15/dsxd+r3 (XY)]. Two wild type genotypes (Berlin and Canton-S) were sequenced at the same time, but have previously been published as part of GSE50515. There were at least 3 replicates from biological samples.
Project description:Drosophila melanogaster adult males perform an elaborate courtship ritual to entice females to mate. fruitless (fru), a gene that is one of the key regulators of male courtship behavior, encodes multiple male-specific isoforms (FruM). These isoforms vary in their carboxy-terminal zinc finger domains, which are predicted to facilitate DNA binding. By over-expressing individual FruM isoforms in fru-expressing neurons in either males or females and assaying the global transcriptional response by RNA-sequencing, we show that three FruM isoforms have different regulatory activities that depend on the sex of the fly. We identified several sets of genes regulated downstream of FruM isoforms. RNA seqeuncing was performed on mRNA derived from adult male or female heads, for a total of 39 samples. These samples included two wild type genotypes (Berlin and Canton-S), two transheterozygous mutants for fru P1 (Df(3R)P14/Df(3R)fru4-40 and fruw12/ Df(3R)ChaM5), and 3 overexpressing genotypes (fru P1-Gal4: UAS-FruMA, UAS-FruMB, UAS-FruMC). There were at least 3 replicates from biological samples for all sex by genotype combinations.
Project description:Alternative pre-mRNA splicing has long been proposed to greatly contribute to proteome complexity. However, the extent to which mature mRNA isoforms are successfully translated into protein remains controversial. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to better evaluate the translation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. To increase proteome coverage and improve protein quantitation, we optimized cell fractionation and sample processing steps at both the protein and peptide level. Furthermore, we generated a custom spectral library trained on analysis of RNA-Seq data with MAJIQ, an algorithm optimized to detect differential and unannotated junction usage for a given splice site. Using this custom library to match against tandem mass spectra acquired by data independent acquisition (DIA), we improved identification of splicing-derived proteoforms by ~30% as compared to use of the SwissProt database alone. Moreover, our increased depth and detection of proteins allowed us to track changes in the transcriptome and proteome induced by T cell stimulation, as well as fluctuations in protein sub-cellular localization. In sum, our data here confirms that use of generic databases in proteomic studies under-estimates the number of spliced mRNA isoforms that are translated into protein and provides a workflow that improves isoform detection in large-scale proteomic experiments.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity. Thus, a fundamental question is whether autism represents an aetiologically heterogeneous disorder in which the myriad genetic or environmental risk factors perturb common underlying molecular pathways in the brain. Here, we demonstrate consistent differences in transcriptome organization between autistic and normal brain by gene co-expression network analysis. Remarkably, regional patterns of gene expression that typically distinguish frontal and temporal cortex are significantly attenuated in the ASD brain, suggesting abnormalities in cortical patterning. We further identify discrete modules of co-expressed genes associated with autism: a neuronal module enriched for known autism susceptibility genes, including the neuronal specific splicing factor A2BP1 (also known as FOX1), and a module enriched for immune genes and glial markers. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing we demonstrate dysregulated splicing of A2BP1-dependent alternative exons in the ASD brain. Moreover, using a published autism genome-wide association study (GWAS) data set, we show that the neuronal module is enriched for genetically associated variants, providing independent support for the causal involvement of these genes in autism. In contrast, the immune-glial module showed no enrichment for autism GWAS signals, indicating a non-genetic aetiology for this process. Collectively, our results provide strong evidence for convergent molecular abnormalities in ASD, and implicate transcriptional and splicing dysregulation as underlying mechanisms of neuronal dysfunction in this disorder. To identify potential A2BP1-dependent differential splicing events in ASD brain, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on three autism samples with significant downregulation of A2BP1 (average fold change by quantitative RT-PCR = 5.9) and three control samples with average A2BP1 levels. The list of potential A2BP1-depending differential splicing events in ASD is given in the Supplementary file linked at the foot of this record.
Project description:Abstract: Alternative splicing (AS) plays a major role in the generation of proteomic diversity and in gene regulation. However, the role of the basal splicing machinery in regulating AS remains poorly understood. Here we show that the core snRNP protein SmB/B’ self-regulates its expression by promoting the inclusion of a highly-conserved alternative exon in its own pre-mRNA that targets the spliced transcript for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Depletion of SmB/B’ in human cells results in reduced levels of snRNPs and in a striking reduction in the inclusion levels of hundreds of alternative exons, with comparatively few effects on constitutive exon splicing levels. The affected alternative exons are enriched in genes encoding RNA processing and other RNA binding factors, and a subset of these exons also regulate gene expression by activating NMD. Our results thus demonstrate a role for the core spliceosomal machinery in controlling an exon network that appears to modulate the levels of many RNA processing factors. HeLa cells were transfected with a control non-targeting siRNA pool (siNT), or with siRNA pools designed to knockdown SmB/B' or SRSF1 (also known as SF2/ASF/SFRS1). Sequence reads were aligned to exon-exon junction sequences in a database of EST/cDNA-mined cassette-type alternative splicing events. Processed data files (.bed and .txt) provided as supplementary files on the Series record. Processed data file build information: hg18.
Project description:RBM10 is an RNA binding protein that was identified as a component of spliceosome complex, suggesting its potential role in splicing regulation. However, the direct experimental evidence for this function has been lacking. Here we characterized in vivo RBM10-RNA interactions and investigated the role of RBM10 in splicing regulation at the global level. We observed significant RBM10-RNA interactions in the vicinity of splice sites and identified hundreds of splicing changes following perturbation of cellular RBM10 abundance. A RNA splicing map integrating the binding pattern and splicing profiles revealed a significant correlation between RBM10-enhanced exon skipping events and its binding close to the splicing sites of both upstream and downstream introns. Furthermore, we demonstrated the splicing defects in a patient carrying a RBM10 mutation. Overall, our data provided insights into the mechanistic model of RBM10-mediated splicing regulation and established genomic resources for future studies on its function in different pathophysiological contexts. We sequenced the mRNA of HEK293 cells and LCL cells, and we determined the RBM10 binding sites using PARCLIP in HEK293 cells. In total we sequenced four mRNA-Seq libraries for KD and two for OE in HEK293 cells; for each of these libraries, we also sequenced one control library. We also sequenced the mRNA of one patient LCL and two normal LCL libraries. Two replicates of PARCLIP sequencing were perfomed.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify target genes of the SR protein kinase SPK-1. spk-1(RNAi) leads to defects in cell polarity. We were therefore primarily interested in genes who exhibit changes in splicing regulation upon depletion of SPK-1 and could underlie the polarity phenotype of spk-1(RNAi). Transcriptome profiling of control and spk-1(RNAi) worms by RNAseq