Dissection of estrogen receptor alpha signaling pathways in osteoblasts using RNA-sequencing
ABSTRACT: The goal is to identify estrogen-dependent gene expression patterns using RNAseq for 3 different ERα forms in human osteoblasts. We analyzed 3 different forms of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), 1) Wild-type, 2) NERKI (DNA-binding mutant) and 3) NOER (Nuclear Only ERα, not membrane). Each was infected into hFOB (human osteoblast) cells and treated with either vehicle or E2 (10nM) (n=3 for each group/treatment). RNAseq was then performed.
Project description:The goal is to identify estrogen-dependent gene expression patterns using RNAseq for 3 different ERα forms in human osteoblasts. Overall design: We analyzed 3 different forms of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), 1) Wild-type, 2) NERKI (DNA-binding mutant) and 3) NOER (Nuclear Only ERα, not membrane). Each was infected into hFOB (human osteoblast) cells and treated with either vehicle or E2 (10nM) (n=3 for each group/treatment). RNAseq was then performed.
Project description:Aside from its well-known nuclear routes of signaling, estrogen also mediates its effects through cytoplasmic signaling. Estrogen signaling involves numerous posttranslational modifications of its receptor ERα, the best known being phosphorylation. Our research group previously showed that upon estrogen stimulation, ERα is methylated on residue R260 and forms the mERα/Src/PI3K complex, central to the rapid transduction of nongenomic estrogen signals. Regulation of ERα signaling via its phosphorylation by growth factors is well recognized, and we wondered whether they could also trigger ERα methylation (mERα). Here, we found that IGF-1 treatment of MCF-7 cells induced rapid ERα methylation by the arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 and triggered the binding of mERα to IGF-1R. Mechanistically, we showed that PRMT1 bound constitutively to IGF-1R and that PRMT1 became activated upon IGF-1 stimulation. Moreover, we found that expression or pharmacological inhibition of PRMT1 impaired mERα and IGF-1 signaling. Our findings were substantiated in a cohort of breast tumors in which IGF-1R expression was positively correlated with ERα/Src and ERα/PI3K expression, hallmarks of nongenomic estrogen signaling, reinforcing the link between IGF-1R and mERα. Altogether, these results provide a new insight into ERα and IGF-1R interference, and open novel perspectives for combining endocrine therapies with PRMT1 inhibitors in ERα-positive tumors.
Project description:The female predominance for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) suggests the involvement of gender specific factor(s) such as a reduced estrogen-estrogen receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of AD. The potential role of ERα in AD pathogenesis has been explored by several groups with mixed results. We revisited this issue of expression and distribution of ERα in AD brain using a specific ERα antibody. Interestingly, we found that ERα co-localized with neurofibrillary pathology in AD brain and further demonstrated that ERα interacts with tau protein in vivo. Immunoprecipitaion experiments found increased ERα-tau interaction in the AD cases, which may account for ERα being sequestered in neuronal tau pathology. Indeed, tau overexpression in M17 cells leads to interruption of estrogen signaling. Our data support the idea that sequestration of ERα by tau pathology underlies the loss of estrogen neuroprotection during the course of AD.
Project description:Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is expressed in tissues as diverse as brains and mammary glands. In breast cancer, ERα is a key regulator of tumor progression. Therefore, understanding what activates ERα is critical for cancer treatment in particular and cell biology in general. Using biochemical approaches and superresolution microscopy, we show that estrogen drives membrane ERα into endosomes in breast cancer cells and that its fate is determined by the presence of fibronectin (FN) in the extracellular matrix; it is trafficked to lysosomes in the absence of FN and avoids the lysosomal compartment in its presence. In this context, FN prolongs ERα half-life and strengthens its transcriptional activity. We show that ERα is associated with β1-integrin at the membrane, and this integrin follows the same endocytosis and subcellular trafficking pathway triggered by estrogen. Moreover, ERα+ vesicles are present within human breast tissues, and colocalization with β1-integrin is detected primarily in tumors. Our work unravels a key, clinically relevant mechanism of microenvironmental regulation of ERα signaling.
Project description:Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is initially expressed in the majority of breast cancers and promotes estrogen-dependent cancer progression by regulating the transcription of genes linked to cell proliferation. ERα status is of clinical importance, as ERα-positive breast cancers can be successfully treated by adjuvant therapy with antiestrogens or aromatase inhibitors. Complications arise from the frequent development of drug resistance that might be caused by multiple alterations, including components of ERα signaling, during tumor progression and metastasis. Therefore, insights into the molecular mechanisms that control ERα expression and stability are of utmost importance to improve breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we report that the atypical E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF31 stabilizes ERα and facilitates ERα-stimulated proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. We show that depletion of RNF31 decreases the number of cells in the S phase and reduces the levels of ERα and its downstream target genes, including cyclin D1 and c-myc. Analysis of data from clinical samples confirms correlation between RNF31 expression and the expression of ERα target genes. Immunoprecipitation indicates that RNF31 associates with ERα and increases its stability and mono-ubiquitination, dependent on the ubiquitin ligase activity of RNF31. Our data suggest that association of RNF31 and ERα occurs mainly in the cytosol, consistent with the lack of RNF31 recruitment to ERα-occupied promoters. In conclusion, our study establishes a non-genomic mechanism by which RNF31 via stabilizing ERα levels controls the transcription of estrogen-dependent genes linked to breast cancer cell proliferation.
Project description:Chromosomal and genome abnormalities at the 3p21.3 locus are frequent events linked to epithelial cancers, including ovarian and breast cancers. Genes encoded in the 3p21.3 cluster include HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 members of hyaluronidases involved in the breakdown of hyaluronan, an abundant component of the vertebrate extracellular matrix. However, the transcriptional regulation of HYAL genes is poorly defined. Here, we identified the estrogen receptor ERα as a negative regulator of HYAL1 expression in breast cancer cells. Integrative data mining using METABRIC dataset revealed a significant inverse correlation between ERα and HYAL1 gene expression in human breast tumors. ChIP-Seq analysis identified several ERα binding sites within the 3p21.3 locus, supporting the role of estrogen as an upstream signal that diversely regulates the expression of 3p21.3 genes at both proximal and distal locations. Of these, HYAL1 was repressed by estrogen through ERα binding to a consensus estrogen response element (ERE) located in the proximal promoter of HYAL1 and flanked by an Sp1 binding site, required to achieve optimal estrogen repression. The repressive chromatin mark H3K27me3 was increased at the proximal HYAL1 ERE but not at other EREs contained in the cluster, providing a mechanism to selectively downregulate HYAL1. The HYAL1 repression was also specific to ERα and not to ERβ, whose expression did not correlate with HYAL1 in human breast tumors. This study identifies HYAL1 as an ERα target gene and provides a functional framework for the direct effect of estrogen on 3p21.3 genes in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a sex hormone nuclear receptor that regulates various physiological events, including the immune response. Although there have been some recent studies on ERα regarding subsets of T cells, such as Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, its role in follicular helper T (TFH) cells has not yet been elucidated. To determine whether ERα controls TFH response and antibody production, we generated T cell-specific ERα knockout (KO) mice by utilizing the CD4-Cre/ERα flox system (CD4-ERα KO) and then analyzed their phenotype. At approximately 1 year of age, CD4-ERα KO mice spontaneously showed mild autoimmunity with increased autoantibody production and CD4+CD44+CXCR5+Bcl-6+ TFH cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. We next immunized 6-8-week-old CD4-ERα KO mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), which resulted in an increased proportion of TFH cells and germinal center (GC) responses. In addition, 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment decreased TFH responses in wild-type mice and suppressed the mRNA expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21. Finally, we confirmed that the production of high-affinity antigen-specific antibodies and isotype class switching induced by NP-conjugated ovalbumin immunization were elevated in CD4-ERα KO mice under sufficient estrogen conditions. These results collectively demonstrate that the female sex hormone receptor ERα inhibits the TFH cell response and GC reaction to control autoantibody production, which was related to estrogen signaling and autoimmunity.
Project description:Several reports have indicated that miR-140, a possible tumor suppressor microRNA (miR), is down-regulated in breast tumors compared with normal breast tissues. However, the role of miR-140 in breast tumorigenesis is unclear. We initiated studies that examined estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling in the tissue-specific regulation of miR-140 in breast cancer. We found that estrogen stimulation of ERα-positive breast cancer cells resulted in decreased miR-140 expression. We performed promoter analyses and examined predicted ERα binding elements in the miR-140 promoter using luciferase constructs of a miR-140 promoter deletion series. Our studies revealed that ERα binds to one specific estrogen response element flanking the miR-140 promoter and consequently suppresses miR-140 transcription. We found that the stem cell self-renewal regulator SOX2 is a novel target of miR-140, and that this miR-140/SOX2 pathway critically regulates breast tumor-initiating cell survival, providing a new link between ERα signaling and breast cancer stem cell maintenance.
Project description:The discovery that estrogen receptors (ERs) are involved in bone cells' responses to mechanical strain offered the prospect of establishing the link between declining levels of circulating estrogen and the progressive failure of the mechanically adaptive mechanisms that should maintain structurally appropriate levels of bone mass in age-related and post-menopausal osteoporosis. Such clarification remains elusive but studies have confirmed ligand-independent involvement of ERs as facilitators in a number of the pathways by which mechanical strain stimulates osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. The presence of α and β forms of ER that oppose, supplement or replace one another has complicated interpretation of studies to identify their individual roles when both are present in normal amounts. However, it appears that, in mice at least, ERα promotes cortical bone mass in both males and females through its effects in early members of the osteoblast lineage, but enhances loading-related cortical bone gain only in females. In addition to its role as a potential replacement for ERα, and modifier of ERα activity, the less well-studied ERβ appears to facilitate rapid early effects of strain including activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and downregulation of Sost in well-differentiated cells of the osteoblast lineage including osteocytes. If these different roles are substantiated by further studies, it would appear that under normal circumstances ERα contributes primarily to the size and extent of bones' osteogenic response to load bearing through facilitating anabolic influences in osteoblasts and osteoblast progenitors, whereas ERβ is more involved in the strain-related responses generated within resident cells including osteocytes.
Project description:Antiestrogens (AEs) are widely used for treatment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancer, but display variable degrees of partial agonism in estrogen target tissues and breast cancer (BC) cells. The fact that BC cells resistant to selective ER modulators (SERMs) like tamoxifen (Tam) can still be sensitive to pure AEs, also called selective ER downregulators, suggests different mechanisms of action, some of which may contribute to the more complete suppression of estrogen target genes by pure AEs. We report herein that pure AEs such as fulvestrant induce transient binding of ERα to DNA, followed by rapid release after 30-40 min without loss of nuclear localization. Loss of DNA binding preceded receptor degradation and was not prevented by proteasome inhibition. Chromatin was less accessible in the presence of fulvestrant than with estradiol or Tam as early as 20 min following treatment, suggesting that chromatin remodeling by pure AEs at ERα target regions prevents transcription in spite of receptor binding. SUMO2/3 marks were detected on chromatin at the peak of ERα binding in cells treated with pure AEs, but not SERMs. Furthermore, decreasing SUMOylation by overexpressing the deSUMOylase SENP1 significantly delayed receptor release from DNA and de-repressed expression of estrogen target genes in the presence of fulvestrant, both in ERα-expressing MCF-7 cells and in transiently transfected ER-negative SK-BR-3 cells. Finally, mutation V534E, identified in a breast metastasis resistant to hormonal therapies, prevented ERα modification and resulted in increased transcriptional activity of estrogen target genes in the presence of fulvestrant in SK-BR-3 cells. Together, our results establish a role for SUMOylation in achieving a more complete transcriptional shut-off of estrogen target genes by pure AEs vs. SERMs in BC cells.