Down-regulation of CD9 by methylation decreased bortezomib sensitivity in multiple myeloma
ABSTRACT: Bortezomib therapy has been proven successful for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, both intrinsic and acquired resistance has already been observed. In this study, we explored the relationship between CD9 expression and bortezomib sensitivity in MM Both intrinsic and acquired resistance has already been observed. In this study, we explored the relationship between CD9 expression and bortezomib sensitivity in MM. We found that down-regulation of CD9 by methylation decreased bortezomib sensitivity in multiple myeloma. A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate wild-type cultures of U266 cells and three separate cultures of U266 with CD9 overexpression. Each chip measures the expression level of 45,033 genes from Homo sapiens with fourteen 60-mer probe pairs (PM/MM) per gene, with three-fold technical redundancy.
Project description:We designed oligonucleotide tiling arrays spanning the t(4;14) breakpoint region on chromosome 4 to identify additional oncogenic RNAs in an unbiased fashion. Four (4) multiple myeloma bone marrow samples with t(4;14) and twelve (12) MM BM samples without t(4;14) were analyzed. Furthermore, seven (7) bladder (1 normal, 6 malignant), eight (8) colon (1 normal, 7 malignant) and eight (8) esophagus (2 normal, 6 maligant) tissue samples were analyzed. Finally, five (5) multiple myeloma cell line samples with t(4;14) - three (3) of LP-1 and two (2) of H929 - and three (3) MM cell line samples and three (3) non-MM cell line samples without t(4;14) - three (3) of U266 and three (3) of Hela - were analyzed.
Project description:Melphalan-induced modulation of miR-221/222 levels in MM cells. Melphalan-resistant U266/LR7 cells showed the highest induction of miR-221/222 after drug exposure. To study the transcriptome perturbation induced in MM cells following the combination of miR-221/222 inhibitors plus melphalan we used the whole gene expression data total RNA was obtained after single or combination treatment of the Melphalan-resistant U266/LR7 cells and the parental cell line U266/s
Project description:Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in response to bortezomib treatment (33 nM) in cell lines before and after selection for resistance. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow. While the first-to-market proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/VELCADE has been successfully used to treat myeloma patients, drug resistance remains an emerging problem. In this part of the study, we identify signatures of bortezomib sensitivity by gene expression profiling (GEP) using The human myeloma cell lines MM1.S and U266 (obtained from ATCC). Finally, these data reveal complex heterogeneity within MM and suggest resistance to one drug class reprograms resistant clones to make them more sensitive to a distinct class of drugs. This study represents an important next step in translating pharmacogenomic profiling and may be useful for understanding personalized pharmacotherapy of MM patients. Transcript profiling timecourses after treatment with Bortezomib treatment (33nm) in two myeloma cell lines.
Project description:Purpose: We applied RNA sequencing technology for high-throughput analysis of transcriptional changes within human MM cell lines JJN3 and U266 due to individual and combination drug treatment. Methods: JJN3 and U266 cells were treated with pan-HDACi panbobinostat, DNMTi 5-Azacytidine, panobinostat+5-Azacytidine or NMP for 4h or 24h in triplicate and transcriptional changes assessed by RNAseq using Illumina HiSeq platform. Specifically, JJN3 cells were treated with 10nM panobinostat, 2.5µM 5-Azacytidine, panobinostat+5-Azacytidine (at given doses), or 10mM NMP. U266 cells were treated with 10nM panobinostat, 10µM 5-Azacytidine, panobinostat+5-Azacytidine (at given doses), or 10mM NMP. Results: We report unique and overlapping transcriptional signatures that lead to the induction of apoptosis in human MM cell lines in a cell-specific manner due to individual or combination treatments. Conclusions: A detailed analysis of differential transcriptional events in human MM cell lines due to HDACi, DNMTi, HDACi+DNMTi and NMP appear to define the molecular events leading to apoptosis and drug mechanism of action. We tested triplicate experiments at 4h and 24hr time points in JJN3 and U266 cell lines against vehicle control treated cells.
Project description:In multiple myeloma (MM), abnormal plasma cells interact with bone marrow (BM) stromal cells and vascular cells among others. A part of the BM milieu is considered highly hypoxic, and myeloma cells in situ may be influenced by circumstances other than normoxia in vitro. Hence, we attempted to confirm the role of hypoxic MM-derived exosomes in the BM milieu. We established a novel hypoxia-resistant cell line, U266HR, derived from U266 cells cultured for >4 months under hypoxia (1% O2), as a model of MM cells localizing in an extensively hypoxic milieu. We used U266 cells and U266HR cells, as donor cells, and HUVECs as recipient cells. Exosomes derived from U266 cells (normoxia or hypoxia) and exosomes derived from U266HR cells (hypoxia-resistant sub-line) were used for validation of angiogeneic activity, such as tube formation assay. Exosomes derived from the U266HR cells significantly increased tube formation of HUVECs than those from U266 cells. To identify intercellular and exosomal miRNAs specifically expressed in hypoxia-resistant cells, we assess the expression profiles of intercellular and extracellular miRNAs in U266 cells and U266HR cells using Taqman MicroRNA Array v2.0 (Applied Biosystems, Bedford, MA). U266 cells were cultured for 24 hours under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) or normoxic conditions (20% O2). The exosome fraction was obtained from culture medium using Exoquick Exosome Precipitation Solution (System Biosciences, Mountain View, CA, USA). Isolation of cellular and exosomal miRNAs was performed using the miRNsasy kit (Qiagen). The expression profile of miRNAs was determined using the Human Taqman miRNA Arrays A (Applied Biosystems). RNU6B and a spike control (ath-miR159) were used as an invariant control for the cell and exosome, respectively. QRT-PCR was carried out on an Applied Biosystems 7900HT thermal cycler using the manufacturer’s recommended program. Finally, all the raw data from each array was run on Data Assist Software ver.3.1 (Applied Biosystems).
Project description:Gene expression (GE) profiling of multiple myeloma (MM) cells is a promising means of identifying high-risk MM patients. The analyses depend on plasma cell purification by CD138+ cell separation. Considering the sensitivity of gene transcription, we wanted to test if cell separation distorts true in vivo GE patterns. We performed a controlled study of running 4 human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs: U266, INA-6, RPMI 8226, and NCI H929) through a CD138+ separation procedure identical to the handling of clinical samples. We then compared the resulting effects on gene expression. Using U266 as a screening model, we performed global GE analysis using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Sample cells showed significant changes (adj. p<0,05) in 670 genes compared to the non-separated controls. We searched for upregulated genes of myeloma and/or cancer relevance and chose (in decending fold change order) FOS, DUSP1, MIRN21, NFKBIA, and ATF4 for PCR validation. Note: Only U266 cells were used for microarray analysis. The other cell lines were used later to validate the array results.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). The genetic background and clinical course of the disease are largely heterogeneous, and MM pathophysiology ranges from the premalignant condition of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to smoldering MM, symptomatic MM, and extramedullary MM/plasma cell leukemia (PCL). Recent genome-wide sequencing efforts have provided the rationale for molecularly aimed treatment approaches, identifying mutations that can be specifically targeted, such as those in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which represent the most prevalent mutations in MM. Among these, mutations affecting BRAF gene, detected in 4-15% of patients, are of potential immediate clinical relevance due to the availability of effective inhibitors of this serine-threonine kinase which are in fact being explored also in myeloma. In this study, we screened by next generation sequencing (NGS) a large and representative series of intramedullary and extramedullary MM patients, including primary and secondary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL and sPCL, respectively), for mutations in BRAF, NRAS and KRAS genes. We evaluated the relationship of identified variants with other clinical and biological features and determined the transcriptional signature associated with MAPK pathway activation in MM. To further elucidate the transcriptional programs modulated by BRAF activation in MM, we used the PLX4032 drug to inhibit BRAF activity in U266 human myeloma cell line (HMCL), carrying K601N mutation and showing constitutive activation of MEK/ERK signaling. After confirming its ability to suppress MAPK pathway and myeloma cell proliferation in culture in the U266 cell line, we investigated the specific modulation of gene expression induced by the drug. U266 cells were treated with PLX4032 (30 µM) or DMSO for 12 hours and subjected to gene expression profiling (GEP) analysis by using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0ST arrays.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in anaerobic, nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation in the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans Here we report on a study to identify genes associated with nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation by whole-genome transcriptional (microarray) assays including the use of FeCO3, Fe2+, and U(IV) oxides as electron donors under denitrifying conditions. A 25 chip study using total RNA recovered from wild-type T. denitrificans was cultivated at 30oC under strictly anaerobic conditions with growth medium that contained 20 mM thiosulfate, 20 mM nitrate, and 30 mM bicarbonate (pH ~7) and exposed to 8 treatments. Each chip measures the expression level of 2832 ORFs with N 24-mer probe pairs (PM/MM) per gene, with three-fold technical redundancy.
Project description:We used microarrays to examine changes in gene expression in multiple myeloma cell lines following treatment with arsenic trioxide and darinaparsin Experiment Overall Design: Four multiple myeloma cell lines (U266, MM.1s, KMS11, 8226/S) were treated with either arsenic trioxide (ATO) for 6, 24, or 48 hours or darinaparsin (DAR) for 6 or 24 hours; RNA was extracted from treated and control cells for microarray analysis
Project description:Comparison of acetate- to phenylacetate-grown F. placidus cells to identify genes that are potentially involved in anaerobic phenylacetate degradation by this unique hypertherophilic archaeon. A four chip study using total RNA recovered from two separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown with 1 mM phenylacetate (experimental condition) and two separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown on 10 mM acetate (control condition). Each chip measures the expression level of 2613 genes from Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 with nine 45-60-mer probe pairs (PM/MM) per gene, with three-fold technical redundancy.