Expression analysis of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 LAC in response to vehicle and benzbromarone.
ABSTRACT: Compilation fo whole genome gene expression changes in Staphylococcus aureus USA300 LAC cultures grown in the presence of vehicle or the anti-gout drug benzbromarone. The drug was intially screened as effective against the agr quorum sensing system in Staphylococcus aureus AH1677. A microarray study using total RNA harvested from three cultures of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 LAC plus vehicle control and three cultures of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 LAC plus 12 uM benzbromarone.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. In the United States, many of these infections are caused by a strain known as USA300. Although progress has been made, our understanding of the S. aureus molecules that promote bacteremia and survival in human blood is incomplete. To that end, we analyzed the USA300 transcriptome during culture in human blood, human serum, and trypticase soy broth (TSB), a standard laboratory culture media. Notably, genes encoding several cytolytic toxins were up-regulated in human blood over time, and hlgA, hlgB, and hlgC (encoding gamma-hemolysin subunits HlgA, HlgB, and HlgC) were among the most highly up-regulated genes at all time points. Culture supernatants derived from a USA300 isogenic hlgABC-deletion strain (LACΔhlgABC) had significantly reduced capacity to form pores in human neutrophils and ultimately cause neutrophil lysis. Compared with the wild-type USA300 strain (LAC), LACΔhlgABC had modestly reduced ability to cause mortality in a mouse bacteremia model. On the other hand, wild-type and LACΔhlgABC strains caused virtually identical disease in a mouse skin infection model, and bacterial survival and neutrophil lysis after phagocytosis in vitro was similar between these strains. Comparison of the cytolytic capacity of culture supernatants from wild-type and isogenic deletion strains lacking hlgABC, lukS/F-PV (encoding PVL), and/or lukDE revealed significant functional redundancy among two-component leukotoxins in vitro. These findings may explain in part the apparent limited contribution of any single two-component leukotoxin to USA300 immune evasion and virulence. S. aureus strain USA300 transcriptome during culture in human blood, human serum, and trypticase soy broth (TSB): time course.
Project description:S. aureus biofilms are associated with the organism's ability to cause disease. Biofilm associated bacteria must cope with the host's innate immune system. We used commercially available Affymetrix S. aureus GeneChips to compare the gene expression properties of 4 and 6 day established biofilms following short (1 hr)- and long (24 hr)- term exposure to macrophages and neutrophils. S. aureus strain USA300 LAC biofilms where formed for 4 or 6 days. Established biofilms were then exposed to macrophages for 1 or 24 hr. Alternatively, biofilms were exposed to neutrophils for 1 or 4 hr. Total bacterial RNA was isolated and subjected to GeneChip hybridization and analysis. We sought to determine the regulatory effects of Macrophages and Neutrophils on established S. aureus biofilms.
Project description:The emergence of serious infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has fueled interest in the contributions of specific staphylococcal virulence factors to clinical disease. To assess the contributions of agr-dependent factors to the fate of organisms in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), we examined the consequences for organism and host cells of feeding PMN with wild-type CA-MRSA (LAC) or CA-MRSA (LAC agr KO) at different multiplicities of infection (MOIs). Phagocytosed organisms rapidly increased the transcription of RNAIII in a time- and MOI-dependent fashion; extracellular USA300 (LAC) did not increase RNAIII expression despite having the capacity to respond to autoinducing peptide-enriched culture medium. HOCl-mediated damage and intracellular survival were the same in the wild-type and USA300 (LAC agr KO). PMN lysis by ingested USA300 (LAC) was time- and MOI-dependent and, at MOIs >1, required ?-hemolysin (hla) as USA300 (LAC agr KO) and USA300 (LAC hla KO) promoted PMN lysis only at high MOIs. Taken together, these data demonstrate activation of the agr operon in human PMN with the subsequent production of ?-hemolysin and PMN lysis. The extent to which these events in the phagosomes of human PMN contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of infections with USA300 (LAC) merits further study.
Project description:A MT02 sensitive and resistant strain of Staphylococcus LAC USA300 JE2 were exposed to MT02. From those cell RNA was extracted and anylsed by RNA-Seq Overall design: Comparison of the expression profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains resistent and sensitive to MT02
Project description:A major shortcoming to plasmid-based genetic tools is the necessity of using antibiotics to ensure plasmid maintenance. While selectable markers are very powerful, their use is not always practical, such as during in vivo models of bacterial infection. During previous studies, it was noted that the uncharacterized LAC-p01 plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus USA300 isolates was stable in the absence of a known selection and therefore could serve as a platform for new genetic tools for Staphylococcus species. LAC-p01 was genetically manipulated into an Escherichia coli-S. aureus shuttle vector that remained stable for at least 100 generations without antibiotic selection. The double- and single-stranded (dso and sso) origins were identified and found to be essential for plasmid replication and maintenance, respectively. In contrast, deletion analyses revealed that none of the four LAC-p01 predicted open reading frames were necessary for stability. Subsequent to this, the shuttle vector was used as a platform to generate two plasmids. The first plasmid, pKK22, contains all genes native to the plasmid for use in S. aureus USA300 strains, while the second, pKK30, lacks the four predicted open reading frames for use in non-USA300 isolates. pKK30 was also determined to be stable in Staphylococcus epidermidis Moreover, pKK22 was maintained for 7 days postinoculation during a murine model of S. aureus systemic infection and successfully complemented an hla mutant in a dermonecrosis model. These plasmids that eliminate the need for antibiotics during both in vitro and in vivo experiments are powerful new tools for studies of StaphylococcusIMPORTANCE Plasmid stability has been problematic in bacterial studies, and historically antibiotics have been used to ensure plasmid maintenance. This has been a major limitation during in vivo studies, where providing antibiotics for plasmid maintenance is difficult and has confounding effects. Here, we have utilized the naturally occurring plasmid LAC-p01 from an S. aureus USA300 strain to construct stable plasmids that obviate antibiotic usage. These newly modified plasmids retain stability over a multitude of generations in vitro and in vivo without antibiotic selection. With these plasmids, studies requiring genetic complementation, protein expression, or genetic reporter systems would not only overcome the burden of antibiotic usage but also eliminate the side effects of these antibiotics. Thus, our plasmids can be used as a powerful genetic tool for studies of Staphylococcus species.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. In the United States, many of these infections are caused by a strain known as USA300. Although progress has been made, our understanding of the S. aureus molecules that promote survival in human blood and ultimately facilitate metastases is incomplete. To that end, we analyzed the USA300 transcriptome during culture in human blood, human serum, and trypticase soy broth (TSB), a standard laboratory culture media. Notably, genes encoding several cytolytic toxins were up-regulated in human blood over time, and hlgA, hlgB, and hlgC (encoding gamma-hemolysin subunits HlgA, HlgB, and HlgC) were among the most highly up-regulated genes at all time points. Compared to culture supernatants from a wild-type USA300 strain (LAC), those derived from an isogenic hlgABC-deletion strain (LAC?hlgABC) had significantly reduced capacity to form pores in human neutrophils and ultimately cause neutrophil lysis. Moreover, LAC?hlgABC had modestly reduced ability to cause mortality in a mouse bacteremia model. On the other hand, wild-type and LAC?hlgABC strains caused virtually identical abscesses in a mouse skin infection model, and bacterial survival and neutrophil lysis after phagocytosis in vitro was similar between these strains. Comparison of the cytolytic capacity of culture supernatants from wild-type and isogenic deletion strains lacking hlgABC, lukS/F-PV (encoding PVL), and/or lukDE revealed functional redundancy among two-component leukotoxins in vitro. These findings, along with a requirement of specific growth conditions for leukotoxin expression, may explain the apparent limited contribution of any single two-component leukotoxin to USA300 immune evasion and virulence.
Project description:The staphylococcal accessory regulator A (sarA) impacts the extracellular accumulation of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors at the level of intracellular production and extracellular protease-mediated degradation. To assess the relative impact of these two functions, we previously used a proteomics approach that measures protein abundance as a function of all proteoforms to demonstrate that mutation of sarA results in increased levels of extracellular proteases and assess the impact of this on the accumulation of S. aureus exoproteins1. While this approach confirmed that protease-mediated degradation has a significant impact on the S. aureus exoproteome, it was potentially limited in that it did not take into account the possibility that large, stable proteolytic products from a given protein could result in false negatives when quantified by total proteoforms. Here, we present an expanded proteomics approach that utilizes a dual quantitative method for measuring abundance at both the total proteoform and full-length exoprotein levels. Specifically, proteins present in conditioned medium from overnight, stationary phase cultures of the USA300 strain LAC, an isogenic sarA mutant, and a sarA mutant unable to produce any of the known extracellular proteases (sarA/protease) were resolved using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using methods that focus on total proteoforms vs. methods that focus specifically on full-length proteins, quantitative proteomic comparisons of sarA vs sarA/protease mutants identified proteins that were degraded in a protease dependent manner owing to mutation of sarA, while comparisons of a sarA/protease mutant vs the LAC parent strain identified proteins in which abundance was altered in a sarA mutant in a protease-independent manner. Furthermore, the proteins uniquely identified by the full-length data analysis approach eliminated false negatives observed in the total proteoform analysis. This approach provided for a more comprehensive and robust analysis of the impact of mutating sarA and protease-mediated degradation on the S. aureus exoproteome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The msaABCR operon regulates several staphylococcal phenotypes such as biofilm formation, capsule production, protease production, pigmentation, antibiotic resistance, and persister cells formation. The msaABCR operon is required for maintaining the cell wall integrity via affecting peptidoglycan cross-linking. The msaABCR operon also plays a role in oxidative stress defense mechanism, which is required to facilitate persistent and recurrent staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent cause of chronic implant-associated osteomyelitis (OM). The CA-MRSA USA300 strains are predominant in the United States and cause severe infections, including bone and joint infections. RESULTS:The USA300 LAC strain caused significant bone damage, as evidenced by the presence of severe bone necrosis with multiple foci of sequestra and large numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts. Intraosseous survival and biofilm formation on the K-wires by USA300 LAC strains was pronounced. However, the msaABCR deletion mutant was attenuated. We observed minimal bone necrosis, with no evidence of intramedullary abscess and/or fibrosis, along reduced intraosseous bacterial population and significantly less biofilm formation on the K-wires by the msaABCR mutant. microCT analysis of infected bone showed significant bone loss and damage in the USA300 LAC and complemented strain, whereas the msaABCR mutant's effect was reduced. In addition, we observed increased osteoblasts response and new bone formation around the K-wires in the bone infected by the msaABCR mutant. Whole-cell proteomics analysis of msaABCR mutant cells showed significant downregulation of proteins, cell adhesion factors, and virulence factors that interact with osteoblasts and are associated with chronic OM caused by S. aureus. CONCLUSION:This study showed that deletion of msaABCR operon in USA300 LAC strain lead to defective biofilm in K-wire implants, decreased intraosseous survival, and reduced cortical bone destruction. Thus, msaABCR plays a role in implant-associated chronic osteomyelitis by regulating extracellular proteases, cell adhesions factors and virulence factors. However additional studies are required to further define the contribution of msaABCR-regulated molecules in osteomyelitis pathogenesis.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that is capable of producing an expansive repertoire of cell surface-associated and extracellular virulence factors. Herein we describe an S. aureus regulatory RNA, SSR42, which modulates the expression of approximately 80 mRNA species, including several virulence factors, in S. aureus strains UAMS-1 and USA300 (LAC) during stationary-phase growth. Mutagenesis studies revealed that SSR42 codes for an 891-nucleotide RNA molecule and that the molecule's regulatory effects are mediated by the full-length transcript. Western blotting and functional assays indicated that the regulatory effects of SSR42 correlate with biologically significant changes in corresponding protein abundances. Further, in S. aureus strain LAC, SSR42 is required for wild-type levels of erythrocyte lysis, resistance to human polymorphonuclear leukocyte killing, and pathogenesis in a murine model of skin and soft tissue infection. Taken together, our results indicate that SSR42 is a novel S. aureus regulatory RNA molecule that contributes to the organism's ability to cause disease.
Project description:Neutrophils are the first line of defense after a pathogen has breached the epithelial barriers, and unimpaired neutrophil functions are essential to clear infections. Staphylococcus aureus is a prevalent human pathogen that is able to withstand neutrophil killing, yet the mechanisms used by S. aureus to inhibit neutrophil clearance remain incompletely defined. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a vital neutrophil antimicrobial mechanism. Herein, we test the hypothesis that S. aureus uses the SaeR/S two-component gene regulatory system to produce virulence factors that reduce neutrophil ROS production. With the use of ROS probes, the temporal and overall production of neutrophil ROS was assessed during exposure to the clinically relevant S. aureus USA300 (strain LAC) and its isogenic mutant LAC?saeR/S Our results demonstrated that SaeR/S-regulated factors do not inhibit neutrophil superoxide (O2-) production. However, subsequent neutrophil ROS production was significantly reduced during exposure to LAC compared with LAC?saeR/S In addition, neutrophil H2O2 production was reduced significantly by SaeR/S-regulated factors by a mechanism independent of catalase. Consequently, the reduction in neutrophil H2O2 resulted in decreased production of the highly antimicrobial agent hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite anion (HOCl/-OCl). These findings suggest a new evasion strategy used by S. aureus to diminish a vital neutrophil antimicrobial mechanism.