Two secreted phospholipase A2 enzymes, PLA2G5 and PLA2G2E, are induced in hypertrophic adipocytes and distinctly regulate obesity
ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders including obesity and insulin resistance have their basis in dysregulated lipid metabolism and low-grade inflammation. In a microarray search of unique lipase-related genes whose expressions are associated with obesity, we found that two secreted phospholipase A2s (sPLA2s), PLA2G5 and PLA2G2E, were robustly induced in adipocytes of obese mice. Analyses of Pla2g5-/- and Pla2g2e-/- mice revealed distinct and previously unrecognized roles of these sPLA2s in diet-induced obesity. PLA2G5 hydrolyzed phosphatidylcholine in fat-overladen low-density lipoprotein to release unsaturated fatty acids, which prevented palmitate-induced M1 macrophage polarization. As such, PLA2G5 tipped the immune balance toward an M2 state, thereby counteracting adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and obesiy. PLA2G2E altered minor lipoprotein phospholipids, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and moderately facilitated lipid accumulation in adipose tissue and liver. Collectively, the identification of metabolic sPLA2s adds this gene family to a growing list of lipolytic enzymes that act as metabolic coordinators. white adipose tissues of C57BL/6 mice; two-condition experiment–high fat diet or low fat diet feeding for 18 weeks; 2 replicates, respectively
Project description:We identified differentially expressed genes in epididymal white adipose tissue of high fat diet(HFD)-fed mice compared to low fat diet-fed mice using microarray analysis. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to lipolysis, fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial energy transduction, oxidation-reduction, insulin sensitivity, and skeletal system development were downregulated in HFD-fed mice, and genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, ECM remodeling, and inflammation were upregulated. The top 10 up- or downregulated genes include Acsm3, mt-Nd6, Fam13a, Cyp2e1, Rgs1, and Gpnmb, whose roles in obesity-associated adipose tissue deterioration are poorly understood. Total RNA of epididymal white adipose tissue was obtained from low fat diet (10 kcal% fat)- and high fat diet(45 kcal% fat)-fed mice and mRNA expression was measured using microarray analysis.
Project description:Cytokines of the IL-1 family are important modulators of obesity-induced inflammation and the development of systemic insulin resistance. Here, we report that IL-37, a newly-described antiinflammatory member of the IL-1 family, affects obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. IL-37 transgenic mice (IL-37tg) did not develop an obese phenotype in response to a high-fat diet (HFD). Unlike WT mice, IL-37tg mice exhibited reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages and preserved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after 16 weeks of HFD. A short-term HFD intervention revealed that the IL-37-mediated improvement in glucose tolerance is independent of bodyweight. IL-37tg mice manifested a beneficial metabolic profile with higher circulating levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin. In vitro treatment of differentiating adipocytes with recombinant IL-37 reduced adipogenesis. The beneficial effects of recombinant IL-37 involved activation of AMPK signaling. In humans, steady-state IL-37 adipose tissue mRNA levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity, lower adipose tissue levels of leptin and a lower inflammatory status of the adipose tissue. These findings reveal IL-37 as an important anti-inflammatory modulator during obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in both mice and humans and suggest that IL-37 is a potential target for the treatment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Gene arrays were performed on epidydimal white adipose tissue samples from wild type and human IL37-overexpressing transgenic mice fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks.
Project description:Adipose tissue plays an important role in storing excess nutrients and preventing ectopic lipid accumulation in other organs. Obesity leads to excess lipid storage in adipocytes, resulting in the generation of stress signals and the derangement of metabolic functions. SIRT1 is an important regulatory sensor of nutrient availability in many metabolic tissues. Here we report that SIRT1 functions in adipose tissue to protect from the development of inflammation and obesity under normal feeding conditions, and the progression to metabolic dysfunction under dietary stress. Genetic ablation of SIRT1 from adipose tissue leads to gene expression changes that highly overlap with changes induced by high fat diet in wild type mice, suggesting that dietary stress signals inhibit the activity of SIRT1. Indeed, we show that high fat diet induces the cleavage of SIRT1 in adipose tissue by the inflammation-activated caspase-1, providing a link between dietary stress and predisposition to metabolic dysfunction. Four replicates from four different biological conditions: 1) SIRT1 wild-type fed low fat diet, 2) SIRT1 wild-type fed high fat diet, 3) SIRT1 knock-out fed low fat diet, 4) SIRT1 knock-out fed high fat diet
Project description:Despite wide efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain enigmatic. Here, we carried out phosphoproteomic analysis of mouse white adipose tissues (WAT) upon low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD) to dissect underlying molecular mechanisms of obesity. Of the 7696 phosphopeptides quantified, 191 proteins including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes functioning in lipid homeostasis, exhibited differential phosphorylation with high-fat feeding. Kinase predictions and integrated network analysis identified several deregulated kinase signaling pathways, and suggested possibilities of HFD-induced transcriptional rewiring. Further, functional validation of a novel HFD-responsive site on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming ACSS2 (S263) suggested that the phosphorylation is important in regulating insulin signaling and maintaining triglyceride levels. This study represents one of the first comprehensive phosphoproteome data in mouse obesity models, and describes a systems-level approach for identifying deregulated molecular events and potential therapeutic targets in the context of high-fat feeding and adipocyte perturbation.
Project description:Using standardized, semipurified diets is a crucial factor for reproducibility of experimental nutritional studies. For the purpose of comparability and integration of research, two European consortia, Mitofood and BIOCLAIMS, proposed an AIN-93-based standard reference diet, the standardized BIOCLAIMS low-fat diet (LFD) as well as a high-fat diet (HFD). In order to evaluate the BIOCLAIMS LFD and HFD, we performed short-term (5 days) and long-term (12 weeks) feeding experiments using male C57BL/6 mice. The HFD has the same composition as the LFD except the fat content is increased to 40% energy in exchange for carbohydrates. Both diets were accepted by the animals and proof of principle was given that the BIOCLAIMS HFD increases body weight and body fat and affects glucose homeostasis. Short-term feeding trials (5 days) were performed in order to identify metabolic and molecular parameters which can serve as acute predictors for metabolic disorders due to high-fat diet-induced obesity. We analyzed gene expression in gonadal white adipose tissue of short- and long-term fed animals with whole genome microarrays. The BIOCLAIMS HFD strongly influenced gene expression in white adipose tissue after short- and long-term intervention. A total number of 973 and 4678 transcripts were significantly different between both diets after 5 days feeding and 12 weeks feeding, respectively. A total number of 764 transcripts encoding 549 genes were significantly differentially regulated between LF and HF animals after 12 weeks feeding as well as after 5 days feeding. Of these 549 overlapping genes, a substantial number (434 genes) were expressed at a lower level and 115 genes were expressed at a higher level in the HF mice compared to the LF mice. Without exception, all genes were regulated equally. Pathway analysis revealed a prominent role for genes involved in lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The high predictive value of gene expression changes in our short-term study compared to long-term high fat feeding is a promising step to get well-defined, early biomarkers that could shorten animal trials considerably and allow a more rapid and efficient screening of different compounds. C57BL/6J wildtype male mice, aged 12 weeks, received a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet for 5 days or 12 weeks. After sacrification, white adipose tissue depots were dissected, and immediately snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was isolated, quantified and qualified, and subsequently used for global gene expression profiling using Agilent 4x44K microarrays.
Project description:Oxidative stress in adipose tissue and liver has been linked to the development of obesity. NADPH oxidases (NOX) enzymes are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The current study was designed to determine if NOX2-generated ROS play a role in development of obesity and metabolic syndrome after high fat feeding. Wild type (WT) mice and mice lacking the cytosolic NOX2 activated protein p47phox (P47KO) were fed AIN-93G diets or high fat diets (HFD) containing 45% fat and 0.5% cholesterol for 13 weeks from weaning. Affymetrix array analysis revealed dramatically less expression of mRNA of genes linked to energy metabolism, adipocyte differentiation (PPARγ, Runx2) and fatty acid uptake (CD36, lipoprotein lipase) in fat pads from female HFD-P47KO mice compared to HFD-WT females. These data suggest that NOX2 is an important regulator of metabolic homeostasis and that NOX2-associated ROS plays an important role in development of diet-induced obesity particularly in the female fat pads from p47phox and wild type fed a high fat or control diet
Project description:Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity and diabetes, suggesting an important role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here we aim to investigate the interaction between adipose tissue and liver in NAFLD, and identify potential early plasma markers that predict NASH. Research Design and Methods: C57Bl/6 mice were chronically fed a high fat diet to induce NAFLD and compared with mice fed low fat diet. Extensive histological and phenotypical analyses coupled with a time-course study of plasma proteins using multiplex assay was performed. Results: Mice exhibited pronounced heterogeneity in liver histological scoring, leading to classification into 4 subgroups: LF-low (LFL) responders displaying normal liver morphology, LF-high (LFH) responders showing benign hepatic steatosis, HF-low (HFL) responders displaying pre-NASH with macrovesicular lipid droplets, and HF-high (HFH) responders exhibiting overt NASH characterized by ballooning of hepatocytes, presence of Mallory bodies, and activated inflammatory cells. Compared to HFL responders, HFH mice gained weight more rapidly and exhibited adipose tissue dysfunction characterized by decreased final fat mass, enhanced macrophage infiltration and inflammation, and adipose tissue remodelling. Plasma haptoglobin, IL-1β, TIMP-1, adiponectin and leptin were significantly changed in HFH mice. Multivariate analysis indicated that in addition to leptin, plasma CRP, haptoglobin, eotaxin and MIP-1α early in the intervention were positively associated with liver triglycerides. Intermediate prognostic markers of liver triglycerides included IL-18, IL-1β, MIP-1γ and MIP-2, whereas insulin, TIMP-1, GCP-2 and MPO emerged as late markers. Conclusions: Our data support the existence of a tight relationship between adipose tissue dysfunction and NASH pathogenesis and point to several novel potential predictive biomarkers for NASH. Keywords: Expression profiling by array Male wildtype C57Bl/6 mice were fed LFD or HFD for 21 weeks. Mice were divided into 4 groups based on liver histology.
Project description:To identify novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARg) responsive secretory and/or transmembrane genes that is related to obesity, we integrated the expression data from the adipose tissue derived from obese mice with the other two data sets: expression profiling of adipocyte differentiation using ST2 cells and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pparg during ST2 cell adipogenesis. We used microarrays to detect the up-regulated genes in adipose tissue derived from mice fed a high fat diet compared to a control. Total RNA from adipose tissue was obtained and from mice fed a high fat diet HFD32 (MOUSE_HFD) from 6 week-old to 18 week-old, or a normal diet CE-2 (MOUSE_ND) as a control. Pooled RNAs of each three animals were analyzed by the Affymetrix GeneChip microarray system.
Project description:Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased iNKT cell numbers and marginal effects of iNKT cell depletion on insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions. Here, we focused on the role of iNKT cells under normal conditions. We showed that iNKT cell–deficient mice on a low-fat diet, considered a normal diet for mice, displayed a distinctive insulin resistance phenotype without overt adipose tissue inflammation. Insulin resistance was characterized by adipocyte dysfunction, including adipocyte hypertrophy, increased leptin, and decreased adiponectin levels. The lack of liver abnormalities in CD1d-null mice together with the enrichment of CD1d-restricted iNKT cells in both mouse and human adipose tissue indicated a specific role for adipose tissue–resident iNKT cells in the development of insulin resistance. Strikingly, iNKT cell function was directly modulated by adipocytes, which acted as lipid antigen-presenting cells in a CD1d-mediated fashion. Based on these findings, we propose that, especially under low-fat diet conditions, adipose tissue–resident iNKT cells maintain healthy adipose tissue through direct interplay with adipocytes and prevent insulin resistance. four samples
Project description:Inflammasome activation in adipose tissue has been implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, when and how inflammasome is activated in adipose tissue remains speculative. Here we test the hypothesis that extracellular ATP, a potent stimulus of inflammasome in macrophages via purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2X7), may play a role in inflammasome activation in adipose tissue in obesity. Our data show that inflammasome is activated in adipose tissue upon 8-week feeding of 60% HFD, coinciding with the onset of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia as well as the induction of P2X7 in adipose tissue. Unexpectedly, P2X7-deficient animals on HFD exhibit no changes in metabolic phenotypes, nor in inflammatory responses or inflammasome activation when compared to the wildtype controls. Similar observations have been obtained in hematopoietic cell-specific P2X7-deficient animals generated by bone marrow transplantation. Thus, we conclude that inflammasome activation in adipose tissue in obesity coincides with the onset of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but unexpectedly, is not mediated by the ATP-P2X7 signaling axis. The nature of the inflammasome-activating danger signal(s) in adipose tissue in obesity remains to be characterized. Wild type and P2X7 knockout mice were fed a low fat diet (chow) or high fat diet for 12 weeks. After the diet intervention period, the animals were killed and epididymal white adipose tissue was removed. Total RNA was isolated and subjected to gene expression profiling.