Alternative poladenylation of tumor suppressor genes in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
ABSTRACT: The tumorigenesis of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is poorly understood. Recent studies have associated alternative polyadenylation with proliferation, cell transformation and cancer. Polyadenylation is the process in which the pre-mRNA is cleaved at a polyA site and a polyA tail is added. Genes with two or more polyA sites can undergo alternative polyadenylation. This produces two or more distinct mRNA isoforms with different 3’ untranslated regions. Additionally, alternative polyadenylation can also produce mRNAs containing different 3’-terminal coding regions. Therefore, alternative polyadenylation alters both the repertoire and the expression level of proteins. Here we used high-throughput sequencing data to map polyA sites and characterize polyadenylation genome-wide in three small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors and a reference sample. In the tumors sixteen genes showed significant changes of alternative polyadenylation pattern, which lead to either the 3’ truncation of mRNA coding regions or 3’ untranslated regions. Among these, 11 genes had been previously associated with cancer, with 4 genes being known tumor suppressors: DCC, PDZD2, MAGI1 and DACT2. We validated the alternative polyadenylation in 3 out of 3 cases with Q-RT-PCR. Our findings suggest that changes of alternative polyadenylation pattern in these 16 genes could be involved in the tumorigenesis of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, they also point to alternative polyadenylation as a new target for both diagnostic and treatment of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors. The identified genes with alternative polyadenylation specific to the small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors could be further tested as diagnostic markers and drug targets for disease prevention and treatment. PolyA-seq profiling of 3 human neuroendocrine tumors compared and pituitary using Direct RNA Sequencing from Helicos Biosciences Technology
Project description:In eukaryotes, the 3' ends of RNA polymerase II-generated transcripts are made in the majority of cases by site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage, followed by the addition of a poly(A) tail. By alternative polyadenylation, a gene can give rise to multiple mRNA isoforms that differ in the length of their 3' UTRs and hence in their susceptibility to post-transcriptional regulatory factors such as microRNAs. A series of recently conducted high-throughput studies of poly(A) site usage revealed an extensive tissue-specific control of 3’ UTR length and drastic changes in 3’ UTR length of mRNAs upon induction of proliferation in resting cells. To understand the dynamics of polyadenylation site usage, we recently identified binding sites of the major pre-mRNA 3’ end processing factors - cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF), cleavage stimulation factor (CstF), and cleavage factor Im (CF Im) - and mapped cleaved polyadenylation sites in HEK293 cells. Our present study extends previous findings on the role of CF Im in alternative polyadenylation and reveals that subunits of the CF Im complex generally control 3’ UTR length. More specifically, we demonstrate that the loss-of-function of CF Im68 and CF Im25 but not of CF Im59 leads to a transcriptome-wide increase of the use of proximal polyadenylation sites. 3' ends of transcripts were profiled by high-throughput sequencing in HEK 293 cells under normal conditions, and in HEK 293 cells depleted of 3' end processing factors CF Im25, CF Im59, and CF Im68.
Project description:Through alternative polyadenylation, human mRNAs acquire longer or shorter 3' untranslated regions, the latter typically associated with higher transcript stability and increased protein production. To understand the dynamics of polyadenylation site usage, we mapped transcriptome‐wide both binding sites of 3' end processing factors CPSF‐160, CPSF‐100, CPSF‐73, CPSF‐30, Fip1, CstF‐64, CstF-64tau, CF Im25, CF Im59, and CF Im68 and 3' end processing sites in HEK293 cells. We found that although binding sites of these factors generally cluster around the poly(A) sites most frequently used in cleavage, CstF‐64/CstF-64tau and CF Im proteins have much higher positional specificity compared to CPSF components. Knockdown of CF Im68 induced a systematic use of proximal polyadenylation sites, indicating that changes in relative abundance of a single 3' end processing factor can modulate the length of 3' untranslated regions transcriptome-wide, and suggesting a mechanism behind the previously observed increase in tumor cell invasiveness upon CF Im68 knockdown. 3' ends of transcripts were profiled by high-throughput sequencing in HEK 293 cells under normal conditions, and in HEK 293 cells depleted of 3' end processing factors CF Im 68 and CstF-64.
Project description:Alternative polyadenylation is an important cellular mechanism that enables generation of mRNA isoforms that differ in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and consequently in their susceptibility to miRNA and RNA binding protein mediated regulation. A dramatic change in polyadenylation site usage, leading to the systematic expression of short 3’ UTR isoforms is known to occur upon induction of proliferation in resting cells. To understand the functional consequences of short 3’ UTR isoform expression we used 3' end sequencing and quantitative mass spectroscopy to determine polyadenylation site use, mRNA and protein levels in murine and human naive and activated T cells. We found that while the process and its impact on the susceptibility to miRNA and RNA binding protein mediated regulation are evolutionarily conserved, the conservation is poor at the level of individual orthologous genes. Contrary to the common belief, we did not find that transcriptome-wide 3' UTR shortening leads to a matched increase in mRNA and protein levels of genes with tandem polyadenylation sites. 3' ends of transcripts were profiled by high-throughput sequencing in murine and human naive and activated T cells.
Project description:Caenorhabditis elegans is a major eukaryotic experimental system employed to unravel a broad range of cellular and biological processes. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans, biochemical approaches to study tissue-specific gene expression in postembryonic stages are challenging. Here we report a novel experimental approach that enables the efficient determination of tissue-enriched transcriptomes by rapidly releasing nuclei from major tissues of postembryonic animals followed by fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting (FANS). Furthermore, we developed and applied a deep sequencing method, named 3'end-seq, which is designed to examine gene expression and identify 3' ends of transcripts using a small quantity of input RNA. In agreement with intestinal specific gene expression, promoter elements of highly expressed genes are enriched for GATA elements and their functional properties are associated with processes that are characteristic for the intestine. In addition, we systematically mapped pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation sites, or polyA sites, including >3,000 sites that have previously not been identified. The analysis of nuclear mRNA revealed widespread alternative polyA site use in intestinally expressed genes. We describe several novel approaches that will be of significance to the analysis of tissue specific gene expression using small quantity RNA samples from C. elegans and beyond. 3'end-seq of transcriptomes for input and sorted nuclei
Project description:We describe PolyA-Seq, a strand-specific method for high-throughput sequencing of the 3' ends of polyadenylated transcripts. PolyA-Seq is as accurate for digital gene expression as existing RNA sequencing approaches, and superior to microarrays. We used the approach to map polyadenylation (polyA) sites in 24 samples from normal tissues in human, rhesus, dog, mouse, and rat. Detection of polyA sites in a mixture of 24 tissues in human, mouse, rat, dog and rhesus. Samples included two replicates each of MAQC Human Brain Reference and MAQC Universal Human Reference. Two additional human sets of reads are included that were used to distinguish true polyA sites from internal priming sites.
Project description:Sequencing of the 3’ end of poly(A)+ RNA identifies cleavage and polyadenylation sites (pAs) and measures transcript expression. We previously developed a method, 3’ region extraction and deep sequencing (3’READS), to address mispriming issues that often plague 3’ end sequencing. Here we report a new version, named 3’READS+, which has vastly improved accuracy and sensitivity. Using a special locked nucleic acid oligo to capture poly(A)+ RNA and to remove bulk of the poly(A) tail, 3’READS+ generates RNA fragments with an optimal number of terminal As that balance data quality and detection of genuine pAs. With improved RNA ligation steps for efficiency, the method shows much higher sensitivity (over two orders of magnitude) compared to the previous version. Using 3’READS+, we have uncovered a sizable fraction of previously overlooked pAs located next to or within a stretch of adenylate residues in human genes, and more accurately assessed the frequency of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) in HeLa cells (~50%). 3’READS+ will be a useful tool to accurately study APA and to analyze gene expression by 3’ end counting, especially when the amount of input total RNA is limited. Nine 3'READS+ libraries were made with different amounts (100 ng, 200 ng, 400 ng, 1000 ng, 5000 ng, 15000 ng) of input Hela RNA.
Project description:For some neurological disorders, disease is primarily RNA-mediated due to expression of non-coding microsatellite expansion RNAs (RNAexp). Toxicity is thought to result from enhanced binding of proteins to these expansions and depletion from their normal cellular targets. However, experimental evidence for this sequestration model is lacking. Here, we use HITS-CLIP and pre-mRNA processing analysis of human control versus myotonic dystrophy (DM) brains to provide compelling evidence for this RNA toxicity model. MBNL2 binds directly to DM repeat expansions in the brain resulting in depletion from its normal RNA targets with downstream effects on alternative splicing and polyadenylation. Similar RNA processing defects were detected in Mbnl compound knockout mice, highlighted by dysregulation of Mapt splicing and fetal tau isoform expression in adults. These results demonstrate that MBNL proteins are directly sequestered by RNAexp in the DM brain and introduce a powerful experimental tool to evaluate RNA-mediated toxicity in other expansion diseases. HITS-CLIP analysis was performed to identify RNA binding sites of MBNL2 in control, DM type 1 (DM1), and DM type 2 (DM2) autopsy-derived brain (n=3). Two regions of the brain selected for the study included the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Libraries were sequenced and wiggle files were generated for each biological replicate as well as three pooled biological replicates (3BRs) per group (control, DM1, and DM2). In addition, differential CLIP analysis (dCLIP) was performed to normalize binding data between groups and identify statistically significant changes in binding. The dCLIP analysis generated bedgraph files representing normalized binding profiles of MBNL2 in each group (control, DM1, and DM2) for visualization and comparative analysis. PolyA-seq was performed on control, DM1, and DM2 autopsy-derived brain samples (hippocampus and frontal cortex, n=3) as well as wild-type (WT) and Mbnl1; Mbnl2 conditional double knockout (Mbnl1-/-; Mbnl2c/c; Nestin-Cre+/- or DKO) brain (n=3). Libraries were sequenced and the resultant files were processed and aligned to the reference genomes (hg19 and mm10). Further computational processing was performed to remove internal oligo(dT) mis-priming events, identify valid polyA sites, and trim to the exact polyA sites. BedGraph files were generated for each group in human (control, DM1, and DM2) and mouse (WT and Mbnl DKO) for comparative visualization.