MRNA profile of dG9a-depleted early embryo in Drosophila melanogaster
ABSTRACT: Immunocytochemical studies revealed that dG9a moves into nucleus after cycle 8 and appears to regulate gene expression by di-methylating H3K9 from cycle 8 to cycle 11. To determine which genes are regulated by dG9a during cycles 8-11, we examined mRNA levels by performing RNA-sequence analysis using early embryos (0-2 h after egg laying) of dG9a null mutant and wild type as a control mRNA profiles of about 0-2h-old embryos of wild type (CantonS) and dG9a-depleted (dG9aRG5) strain
Project description:Various small RNA libraries from purified microtubules or Xiwi immunoprecipitates or total extract from X.tropicalis or X.laevis egg extract. Various small RNA libraries from single X.tropicalis eggs. Analysis of this series of files is described in the manuscript "Systematic and single cell analysis of Xenopus Piwi-interacting RNAs and Xiwi". Small RNAs were ligated with linkers and converted to cDNA by reverse transcription. cDNA library was amplified by PCR and was sequenced with either the 454 Genome Sequencer FLX platform or the Illumina GA-II platform.
Project description:We applied Illumina sequencing to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) in the pre- and post-gastrula chicken embryos, and simultaneously obtain a comprehensive expression profile of miRNAs at diverse developmental stages. Discovery and characterization of small RNA species from pre-gastrula and post-gastrula chicken embryos through deep sequencing
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Understanding the factors that influence human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake is critically important to the design of effective vaccination programmes. In Switzerland, HPV vaccination uptake (?1?dose) by age 16 years among women ranges from 31% to 80% across 26 cantons (states). Our objective was to identify factors that are associated with the spatial variation in HPV vaccination uptake. METHODS:We used cross-sectional data from the Swiss National Vaccination Coverage Survey 2009-2016 on HPV vaccination status (?1?dose) of 14-17-year-old girls, their municipality of residence and their nationality for 21 of 26 cantons (n=8965). We examined covariates at municipality level: language, degree of urbanisation, socioeconomic position, religious denomination, results of a vote about vaccination laws as a proxy for vaccine scepticism and, at cantonal level, availability of school-based vaccination and survey period. We used a series of conditional autoregressive models to assess the effects of covariates while accounting for variability between cantons and municipal-level spatial autocorrelation. RESULTS:In the best-fit model, living in cantons that have school-based vaccination (adjusted OR 2.51; 95% credible interval 1.77 to 3.56) was associated with increased uptake, while living in municipalities with lower acceptance of vaccination laws was associated with lower HPV vaccination uptake (OR 0.61; 95%?credible interval 0.50 to 0.73). Overall, the covariates explained 88% of the municipal-level variation in uptake. CONCLUSIONS:In Switzerland, both cantons and community opinion about vaccination play a prominent role in the variation in HPV vaccination uptake. To increase uptake, efforts should be made to mitigate vaccination scepticism and to encourage school-based vaccination.
Project description:In a number of species, individuals exposed to pathogens can mount an immune response and transmit this immunological experience to their offspring, thereby protecting them against persistent threats. Such vertical transfer of immunity, named trans-generational immune priming (TGIP), has been described in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Although increasingly studied during the last decade, the mechanisms underlying TGIP in invertebrates are still elusive, especially those protecting the earliest offspring life stage, i.e. the embryo developing in the egg. In the present study, we took the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a biological model, and combined different proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to determine whether mothers transfer a “signal” (such as fragments of infecting bacteria), mRNA and/or protein/peptide effectors to protect their eggs against two natural bacterial pathogens, namely the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and the Gram-negative Serratia entomophila (Se). We demonstrated that eggs are mainly protected by an active direct transfer of a restricted number of immune proteins and of antimicrobial peptides. In contrast, the present data clearly reject the involvement of mRNA transfer while the transmission of a “signal”, if it happens, is marginal and only occurs within 24h after maternal exposure to bacteria. This work exemplifies the power of combining global multidisciplinary approaches to disentangle the different scenarios of a complex trait, providing a comprehensive characterization of TGIP mechanisms in T. molitor. It also paves the way for future alike studies focusing on TGIP in a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates to identify additional candidates that could be specific to TGIP and to investigate whether the TGIP mechanisms found herein are specific or common to all insect species.
Project description:PURPOSE: Controversy persists over whether cancer risk is increased in communities surrounding oil fields, especially in the Oriente region of Ecuador. This ecologic study uses quantitative exposure data, updated mortality data, and improved statistical methods to study the impact of oil exploration and production activities on cancer mortality rates in the Oriente. METHODS: Cancer mortality rates in the Oriente in 1990 through 2010 were compared between seven cantons with active oil exploration and production as of 1990 and thirteen cantons with little or no such activities. Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex. In a two-stage analysis, canton-specific log-RRs were regressed against quantitative estimates of cumulative barrels of oil produced and well-years per canton, adjusting for canton-level demographic and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: Overall and site-specific cancer mortality rates were comparable between oil-producing and non-oil-producing cantons. For overall cancer mortality in males and females combined, the RR comparing oil-producing to non-oil-producing cantons was 0.85 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.72-1.00]. For leukemia mortality, the corresponding RR was 0.80 (95 % CI 0.57-1.13). Results also revealed no excess of mortality from acute non-lymphocytic, myeloid, or childhood leukemia. Standardized mortality ratios were consistent with RRs. Canton-specific RRs showed no pattern in relation to oil production volume or well-years. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this first ecologic study to incorporate quantitative measures of oil exploration and production showed no association between the extent of these activities and cancer mortality, including from cancers associated with benzene exposure.
Project description:To understand the effects of the microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster on host gene expression, we compared the transcriptome of guts from conventionally reared flies to their axenically (germ-free)-reared counterparts. Our analysis used dissected intestines from 4-7 day-old adult females and included two wild-type fly lines, OregonR and CantonS, as well as an immune-deficient line, RelishE20. With one of the wild-type lines, CantonS, we also looked at the impact of microbiome on the transcriptional profile of dissected intestines from aged cohorts (35-40 day-old females) and young (4-7 day-old) non-gut tissues (all tissues remaining from samples dissected for the analysis of guts.
Project description:Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent stage-by-stage examinations on nearly one hundred miRNAs in the silkworm. Results: Our results show that miRNAs display a wide variety of expression profiles over the whole life of the silkworm, including continuous expression from embryo to adult (bmo-miR-184), up-regulation over the entire life cycle (bmo-let-7 and miR-100), down-regulation over the entire life cycle (miR-124), expression associated with embryogenesis (miR-29 and miR-92), up-regulation from early 3rd instar to pupa (miR-275), and complementary pulses in expression between miR-34b and miR-275. Stage-by-stage examinations revealed further expression patterns, such as emergence at specific time-points during embryogenesis and up-regulation of miRNA groups in late embryos (miR-1 and bantam), expression associated with stage transition between instar and molt larval stages (miR-34b), expression associated with silk gland growth and spinning activity (miR-274), continuous high expression from the spinning larval to pupal and adult stages (miR-252 and miR-31a), a coordinate expression trough in day 3 pupae of both sexes (miR-10b and miR-281), up-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-29b), and down-regulation in pupal metamorphosis of both sexes (miR-275). Conclusions: We present the full-scale expression profiles of miRNAs throughout the life cycle of Bombyx mori. The whole-life expression profile was further investigated via stage-by-stage analysis. Our data provide an important resource for more detailed functional analysis of miRNAs in this animal. In the study presented here, we performed a whole-life test and subsequent stage-by-stage examinations on nearly one hundred miRNAs in the silkworm, leading to a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA expression and stage transitions. In all, 59 unique developmental timepoints were inspected in this study.
Project description:While recent work emphasizes the multi-dimensionality of mobility, no current measure incorporates multiple domains of mobility. Using existing conceptual frameworks we identified four domains of mobility (physical, cognitive, social, transportation) to create a "Mobility Over Varied Environments Scale" (MOVES). We then assessed expected patterns of MOVES in the Canadian population.An expert panel identified survey items within each MOVES domain from the Canadian Community Health Survey- Healthy Aging Cycle (2008-2009) for 28,555 (weighted population n = 12,805,067) adults (?45 years). We refined MOVES using principal components analysis and Cronbach's alpha and weighted items so each domain was 10 points. Expected mobility trends, as assessed by average MOVES, were examined by sociodemographic and health factors, and by province, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).MOVES ranged from 0 to 40, where 0 represents individuals who are immobile and 40 those who are fully mobile. Mean MOVES was 29.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.49, 29.67) (10th percentile: 24.17 (95% CI 23.96, 24.38), 90th percentile: 34.70 (CI 34.55, 34.85)). MOVES scores were lower for older, female, and non-white Canadians with worse health and lower socioeconomic status. MOVES was also lower for those who live in less urban areas.MOVES is a holistic measure of mobility for characterizing older adult mobility across populations. Future work should examine individual or neighborhood predictors of MOVES and its relationship to broader health outcomes. MOVES holds utility for research, surveillance, evaluation, and interventions around the broad factors influencing mobility in older adults.
Project description:In a federal state such as Switzerland, the 26 cantons enjoy wide autonomy in all policy areas, including health policy. In the late 1980s, after the signing of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion, the Swiss Confederation and the cantons decided to create a foundation whose goal it was to initiate, coordinate and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention activities throughout the country. Thirty years later, the many stakeholders in the field have accepted health Promotion Switzerland as a key actor. The foundation was able to successfully initiate and coordinate projects in such priority areas as "Healthy Body Weight," "Mental Health -Stress" and "Strengthening Health Promotion & Prevention." But several challenges remain, for example, chronic noncommunicable diseases, an aging population, mental disorders, prevention in healthcare-challenges the foundation will have to face and to which it is expected to provide solutions.
Project description:The binding patterns of some transcription factors have been shown to diverge substantially between closely related species. Here, we show that the binding pattern of the developmental transcription factor Twist is highly conserved across six Drosophila species, revealing strong functional constraints at developmental enhancers. Conserved binding correlates with sequence motifs for Twist and its partners, permitting the de novo discovery of their cooperative binding. It also includes over 10,000 low-occupancy sites near the detection limit, which tend to mark enhancers of later developmental stages. We predict that conservation, dynamic occupancy, and combinatorial regulation will be generally true for developmental enhancers.