Derivation and characterization of Dicer and microRNA deficient human cells
ABSTRACT: We have used genome editing to generate inactivating deletion mutations in all three copies of the dicer (hdcr) gene present in the human cell line 293T. As previously shown in murine ES cells lacking Dicer function, hDcr-deficient 293T cells are severely impaired for the production of mature microRNAs (miRNAs). Nevertheless, RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) present in these hDcr-deficient cells are readily programmed by transfected, synthetic miRNA duplexes to repress mRNAs bearing either fully or partially complementary targets, including targets bearing incomplete seed homology to the introduced miRNA. Using these hDcr-deficient 293T cells, we demonstrate that human pre-miRNA processing can be effectively rescued by ectopic expression of the Drosophila Dicer 1 protein, but only in the presence of the PB isoform of Loquacious (Loqs-PB), the fly homolog of the hDcr co-factor TRBP. In contrast, Drosophila Dicer 2, even in the presence of its co-factors Loqs-PD and R2D2, was unable to support human pre-miRNA processing. Interestingly, although ectopic Drosophila Dicer 1/Loqs-PB or hDcr both rescued pre-miRNA processing effectively in these hDcr-deficient cells, there were significant differences in the ratio of the miRNA isoforms that were produced, especially in the case of miR-30 family members, and we also noted differences in the relative expression level of miRNAs versus passenger strands for a subset of human miRNAs. These data demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying the accurate processing of pre-miRNAs are largely, but not entirely, conserved between mammalian and insect cells. Series includes three datasets of total small RNA reads from wild type and Dicer negative 293T cells. Also included are total small RNA reads of the Dicer-negative cell line NoDice(4-25) transfected with a vector expressing human Dicer, Drosophila Dicer1, or mock transfected. RISC-associated small RNAs identified by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP-Seq) in wild type 293T, Dicer-negative NoDice(4-25) line, and NoDice(4-25) transfected with either hsa-miR-155 or kshv-miR-K12-11 miRNA duplexes. The final data series are PAR-CLIP libraries which identified microRNA targets in untransfected NoDice(4-25) cells and NoDice(4-25) cells transfected with either hsa-miR-92a, hsa-miR-155, kshv-miR-K12-11 miRNA duplexes
Project description:Drosophila Dicer-1 produces microRNAs (miRNAs) from pre-miRNA, whereas Dicer-2 generates small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from long dsRNA. loquacious (loqs) encodes three Dicer partner proteins, Loqs-PA, Loqs-PB, and, Loqs-PD, generated by alternative splicing. To understand the function of each Loqs isoform, we constructed loqs isoform-specific rescue flies. Loqs-PD promotes siRNA production in vivo by Dicer-2. Loqs-PA or Loqs-PB is required for viability, but the proteins are not fully redundant: Loqs-PB is required to produce a specific subset of miRNAs. Surprisingly, Loqs-PB tunes the product size cleaved by Dicer-1 from pre-miR-307a, generating a longer miRNA isoform with a distinct seed sequence and target specificity. The mouse and human Dicer-binding partner TRBP, a homolog of Loqs-PB, similarly tunes the site of pre-miR-132 cleavage by mammalian Dicer. Thus, Dicer-binding partner proteins can change the choice of cleavage site by Dicer, producing miRNAs with different target specificities than those that would be made by Dicer alone. Examination of Dicer-binding proteins on small RNA profiles of female fly heads, fly ovaries, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and mouse tail fibroblasts.
Project description:Drosophila melanogaster expresses three classes of small RNAs, which are classified according to their mechanisms of biogenesis. MicroRNAs are ~22-23-nt, ubiquitously expressed small RNAs that are sequentially processed from hairpin-like precursors by Drosha/Pasha and Dcr-1/Loquacious complexes. MicroRNAs usually associate with AGO1 and regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of ~24-28-nt associate with Piwi-family proteins and can arise from single-stranded precursors. piRNAs function in transposon silencing and are mainly restricted to gonadal tissues. Endo-siRNAs are found in both germline and somatic tissues. These ~21-nt RNAs are produced by a distinct Dicer, Dcr-2, and do not depend on Drosha/Pasha complexes. They predominantly bind to AGO2 and target both mobile elements and protein-coding genes. Surprisingly, a subset of endo-siRNAs strongly depend for their production on the dsRNA-binding protein Loquacious (Loqs), thought generally to be a partner for Dcr-1 and a co-factor for miRNA biogenesis. Endo-siRNA production depends on a specific Loqs isoform, Loqs-PD, which is distinct from the one, Loqs-PB, required for the production of microRNAs. Paralleling their roles in the biogenesis of distinct small RNA classes, Loqs-PD and Loqs-PB bind to different Dicer proteins, with Dcr-1/Loqs-PB complexes and Dcr-2/Loqs-PD complexes driving microRNA and endo-siRNA biogenesis, respectively. Small RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing Total RNA was isolated using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen) and size-fractionated by PAGE into 19-24nt. These were independently processed and sequenced using the Illumina GAII platform. In total, six libraries were analyzed.
Project description:A defining feature of the mammalian liver is polyploidy, a numerical change in the entire complement of chromosomes. The first step of polyploidization involves cell division with failed cytokinesis. Although polyploidy is common, affecting ~90% of hepatocytes in mice and 50% in humans, the specialized role played by polyploid cells in liver homeostasis and disease remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify novel signals that regulate polyploidization, and we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs). First, to test whether miRNAs could regulate hepatic polyploidy we examined livers from Dicer1 liver-specific knockout mice, which are devoid of mature miRNAs. Loss of miRNAs resulted in a 3-fold reduction in binucleate hepatocytes, indicating that miRNAs regulate polyploidization. Secondly, we surveyed age-dependent expression of miRNAs in wild-type mice and identified a subset of miRNAs, including miR-122, that is differentially expressed at 2-3 weeks, a period when extensive polyploidization occurs. Next, we examined Mir122 knockout mice and observed profound, life-long depletion of polyploid hepatocytes, proving that miR-122 is required for complete hepatic polyploidization. Moreover, the polyploidy defect in Mir122 knockout mice was ameliorated by adenovirus-mediated over-expression of miR-122, underscoring the critical role miR-122 plays in polyploidization. Finally, we identified direct targets of miR-122 (Cux1, Rhoa, Iqgap1, Mapre1, Nedd4l and Slc25a34) that regulate cytokinesis. Inhibition of each target induced cytokinesis failure and promoted hepatic binucleation. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that miR-122 is both necessary and sufficient in liver polyploidization. Among the different signals that have been associated with hepatic polyploidy, miR-122 is the first liver-specific signal identified. These studies will serve as the foundation for future work investigating miR-122 in liver maturation, homeostasis and disease. Livers from C57Bl/6 mice were isolated at defined ages: embryonic day 15.5 (n=3; mixed gender), 2 weeks (n=3; male), 3 weeks (n=3, male) and 7 weeks (n=3; male). Differential miRNA expression was assessed using the nCounter Mouse miRNA Expression Assay Kit (nanoString).
Project description:Drosophila melanogaster expresses three classes of small RNAs, which are classified according to their mechanisms of biogenesis. MicroRNAs are ~22-23-nt, ubiquitously expressed small RNAs that are sequentially processed from hairpin-like precursors by Drosha/Pasha and Dcr-1/Loquacious complexes. MicroRNAs usually associate with AGO1 and regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of ~24-28-nt associate with Piwi-family proteins and can arise from single-stranded precursors. piRNAs function in transposon silencing and are mainly restricted to gonadal tissues. Endo-siRNAs are found in both germline and somatic tissues. These ~21-nt RNAs are produced by a distinct Dicer, Dcr-2, and do not depend on Drosha/Pasha complexes. They predominantly bind to AGO2 and target both mobile elements and protein-coding genes. Surprisingly, a subset of endo-siRNAs strongly depend for their production on the dsRNA-binding protein Loquacious (Loqs), thought generally to be a partner for Dcr-1 and a co-factor for miRNA biogenesis. Endo-siRNA production depends on a specific Loqs isoform, Loqs-PD, which is distinct from the one, Loqs-PB, required for the production of microRNAs. Paralleling their roles in the biogenesis of distinct small RNA classes, Loqs-PD and Loqs-PB bind to different Dicer proteins, with Dcr-1/Loqs-PB complexes and Dcr-2/Loqs-PD complexes driving microRNA and endo-siRNA biogenesis, respectively. Small RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing Overall design: Total RNA was isolated using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen) and size-fractionated by PAGE into 19-24nt. These were independently processed and sequenced using the Illumina GAII platform. In total, six libraries were analyzed.
Project description:In animals, microRNAs frequently form families with related sequences. The functional relevance of miRNA families and the relative contribution of family members to target repression have remained, however, largely unexplored. Here, we used the C. elegans miR-58 miRNA family, comprised primarily of four highly abundant members: miR-58.1, miR-80, miR-81 and miR-82, as a model to investigate the redundancy of miRNA family members and their impact on target expression in an in vivo setting. RNA was extracted from different miR-58 family mutants (mir-58.1, mir-80; mir-58.1 and mir-80; mir-58.1; mir-81-82) and wild-type Bristol C. elegans strain at late L4 stage and submitted to transcriptome sequencing with Illumina HiSeq2000. The goal was to compare miR-58 target RNA expression and system-wide perturbations across various samples.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Low-dose computed tomography screening (LDCT) was recently shown to anticipate the time of diagnosis, thus reducing lung cancer mortality. We identifed a serum microRNA signature (the miR-Test) that could identify the optimal target population for LDCT screening. Here, we performed a large-scale validation study of the miR-Test in high-risk individuals enrolled in the Continuous Observation of Smoking Subjects (COSMOS) lung cancer screening program. RT-qPCR of circulating microRNA purified from serum samples. Trizol-LS and miRNEASY Mini kit (Qiagen) were used for miRNA purification. Custom TaqMan® Low Density Array microRNA Custom Panel (Life Technologies) was used to screen serum circulating microRNA.
Project description:Smoking is a significant risk factor for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While microRNAs are regulators of many airway gene-expression changes induced by smoking, their role in modulating changes associated with lung cancer in these cells remains unknown. Here, we use next-generation sequencing of small RNAs in the airway to identify miR-4423 as a novel primate-specific microRNA associated with lung cancer and expressed primarily in mucociliary epithelium. The endogenous expression of miR-4423 increases as bronchial epithelial cells undergo differentiation into mucociliary epithelium in vitro and its overexpression during this process causes an increase in the number of ciliated cells. Furthermore, expression of miR-4423 is reduced in most lung tumors and in cytologically normal epithelium of the mainstem bronchus of smokers with lung cancer. In addition, ectopic expression of miR-4423 in a subset of lung cancer cell lines reduces their anchorage-independent growth and significantly decreases the size of the tumors formed in a mouse xenograft model. Consistent with these phenotypes, overexpression of miR-4423 induces a differentiated-like pattern of airway epithelium gene expression and reverses the expression of many genes that are altered in lung cancer. Together, our results indicate that miR-4423 is a novel regulator of airway epithelium differentiation and that the abrogation of its function contributes to lung carcinogenesis. Small RNA expression was profiled from pooled bronchial airway epithelial cell brushings (n=3 patients/pool) obtained during bronchoscopy from healthy never (NS) and current smokers (S) and smokers with (C) and without (NC) lung cancer. MicroRNA hsa-miR-4423 was over expressed in H1299, Calu6, SW900 and H2170 lung cancer cell lines.
Project description:As the biogenesis of miRNAs depends on the cleavage by the RNase III enzyme Dicer, miR-18a may change the miRNA expression profiles by targeting dicer. We then performed the miRNA array assay to investigate the miRNA profiles change caused by miR-18a. Total RNA obtained from two pairs,one is the miR-18a overexpression cell line compared to the miRNAs (control), the other is the over-expression miR-18a cell line transfected Dicer plasmid.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many genes critical for tumorigenesis. We profiled miRNAs from 11 normal breast tissues, 17 non-invasive, 151 invasive breast carcinomas, and 6 cell lines by in-house-developed barcoded Solexa sequencing. miRNAs were organized in genomic clusters representing promoter-controlled miRNA expression and sequence families representing seed-sequence-dependent miRNA-target regulation. Unsupervised clustering of samples by miRNA sequence families best reflected the clustering based on mRNA expression available for this sample set. Clustering and comparative analysis of miRNA read frequencies showed that normal breast samples were separated from most non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas by increased miR-21 (the most abundant miRNA in carcinomas) and multiple decreased miRNA families (including mir-98/let-7), with most miRNA changes apparent already in the non-invasive carcinomas. In addition, patients that went on to develop metastasis demonstrated increased expression of mir-423, and triple negative breast carcinomas were most distinct from other tumor subtypes due to up-regulation of the mir-17~92 cluster. However, absolute miRNA levels between normal breast and carcinomas did not reveal any significant differences. We also discovered two polymorphic nucleotide variations among the more abundant miRNAs miR-181a (T19G) and miR-185 (T16G), but we did not identify nucleotide variations expected for classical tumor suppressor function associated with miRNAs. The differentiation of tumor subtypes and prediction of metastasis based on miRNA levels is statistically possible, but is not driven by deregulation of abundant miRNAs, implicating far fewer miRNAs in tumorigenic processes than previously suggested. 21 barcoded sequencing runs, including 185 unique samples and 54 samples in replicate (6 in triplicate and the remaining in duplicate). The details of each sample can be found in Supplementary Tables S1 and S2.