Gene expression in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) of hyperglycemic 16-week-old Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice compared to expression the PLN of euglycemic 16-week-old NOD mice.
ABSTRACT: These experiments were performed to identify differentially expressed genes in the pancreatic lymph nodes of hyperglycemic NOD mice with high levels of destructive insulitis compared to euglycemic mice with lower levels of insulitis. The pancreatic lymph nodes of 16-week-old hyperglycemic and euglycemic NOD mice were isolated and homogenized in Trizol reagent (Invitrogen). Total RNA was extracted from the aqueous phase using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen). RNA quality was assessed using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the RNA 6000 Nano Reagent Kit (Agilent). Total RNA from the PLN of hyperglycemic mice (n=2) were labelled with Cy5 and run individually against a pool of Cy3-labeled total RNA isolated from euglycemic mice (n=2). Microarrays were performed using the Whole Mouse Genome Microarray Kit, 4×44K 2-color arrays (Agilent Technologies).
Project description:Gene expression in the islets of NOD and NOD.B10 mice at 12 weeks of age, prior to the onset of destructive insulitis. The pancreata of NOD and NOD.B10 mice (n=6) were frozen and islets were isolated by laser capture microdissection. Cryosections (8 μm) were cut and stained using the Arcturus HistoGene Frozen Section Staining kit (Applied Biosystems) and laser dissection was performed using the Leica AS LMD and the Leica IM 1000 Image Manager Basic software. Sections from at least 40 individual islets were collected and RNA was extracted using the RNeasy micro kit (Qiagen). RNA quality was assessed using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the RNA 6000 Pico Reagent Kit (Agilent). Samples were preamplified using the TrueLabeling-PicoAMP kit (SA Biosciences), post-labeled with Cy5 and run against a Cy3-labeled mouse Universal RNA control (SA Biosciences). Microarrays were performed using the Whole Mouse Genome Microarray Kit, 4×44K 2-color arrays (Agilent Technologies).
Project description:Gene expression in the islets of diseased NOD mice compared to congenic healthy NOD.B10 mice at various ages, during the progression of NOD disease. Islets were isolated from individual NOD and NOD.B10 mice by collagenase digestion. RNA was extracted using Trizol, combined with the RNeasy micro kit (Qiagen). RNA quality was assessed using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the RNA 6000 Pico Reagent Kit (Agilent). Microarrays were performed using the Whole Mouse Genome Microarray Kit, 4×44K 2-color arrays (Agilent Technologies).
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate which intrinsic differences are present in the islets of Langerhans from diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice before the onset of insulitis.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a polygenic autoimmune disorder caused by autoreactive T cells that recognize pancreatic islet antigens and subsequently destroy insulin-producing β-cells. Pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) are an essential site for the development of T1D, where tolerance to pancreatic self-antigens is first broken and the autoimmune responses are amplified. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate genes and pathways in the PLN that may contribute to the pathogenesis of T1D using a mouse model of T1D. Genome-wide gene expression was measured in individual NOD PLN at 10 days (n=6), 4 weeks (n=6) or 12 weeks of age (n=5), against a pooled sample of age-matched NOD.B10 PLN as the control (n≥6), using Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Microarrays.
Project description:Hyperglycemic memory is part of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We established a novel mouse model of intermediate-term hyperglycemic memory and demonstrated that changes in gene expression and microvascular damage in the neurovascular unit of the diabetic retina persist after euglycemic reentry, indicating memory. Using microarrays and functional annotation clustering of full genome expression data, genes meeting the criteria for hyperglycemic memory were attributed to the cytoskeletal and nuclear compartments of cells of the neurovascular unit. Overall design: 12-weeks-old STZ-diabetic animals (DC12W), 6-weeks-old STZ-diabetic animals receiving isogenic pancreatic islet transplantation for further 6 weeks (DC+Tx@12W) and age-matched controls (NC) were analyzed after 6 (@6W) and 12 weeks (@12W).
Project description:Poor outcomes in diabetic patients are observed across a range of human tumors, suggesting that cancer cells develop unique characteristics under diabetic conditions. Cancer cells exposed to hyperglycemic insults acquire permanent aggressive traits of tumor growth, even after a return to euglycemic conditions. Comparative genome-wide mapping of hyperglycemia-specific open chromatin regions and concomitant mRNA expression profiling revealed that neuregulin-1 gene, an established endogenous ligand for the HER3 receptor, is activated through a putative distal enhancer. Our findings highlight the targeted inhibition of NRG1-HER3 pathways as a potential target for the treatment breast cancer patients with associated diabetes Chromatin was extracted from hyperglycemic (HyG) and euglycemic (Control) cancer cells; FAIRE DNA and input DNA from each sample were used to generate libraries for single end sequencing on the the SOLiD 4 HQ system
Project description:This study was performed to understand what controls the aggressivity of the pancreatic infiltrate during type-I diabetes development. We used the BDC2.5 transgenic mouse model. Samples were obtained at the age of onset of insultis. Depending on their genetic background, mice transgenic for the BDC2.5 T cell receptor present very different forms of insulitis. The NOD genetic background leads to a benign insulitis whereas the C57Bl/6-H2g7/g7 leads to an aggressive insulitis. We first studied how antigen-specific T cells are affected by these differences by obtaining the transcriptional profiles of BDC2.5 T cells from pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes. We also compared the gene expression profiles of the entire leukocyte population present in the pancreatic lesion.
Project description:Islet leukocytic infiltration (insulitis) is first obvious at around 4 weeks of age in the NOD mouse – a model for human type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The molecular events leading to insulitis are poorly understood. Since TIDM is caused by numerous genes, we hypothesized that multiple molecular pathways are altered and interact to initiate this disease. Analysis of the global gene expression profiles using microarrays followed by hierarchical clustering revealed that the majority (~90%) of the differentially expressed genes in NOD mice relative to control mice were repressed. Further analysis of these genes using a modern suite of multiple bioinformatics approaches identified abnormal molecular pathways that can be divided broadly into 2 categories: metabolic pathways, which were predominant at 2 weeks, and immune response pathways, which were predominant at 4 weeks. Network analysis by Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified several putative key genes/molecules that may play a role in regulating these pathways, including five that were common to both ages (TNF, HNF4A, IL15, Progesterone, and YWHAZ), and others that were unique to 2 weeks (e.g. MYC/MYCN, TGFB1, and IL2) and to 4 weeks (e.g. IFNG, beta-estradiol, p53, NFKB, AKT, PRKCA, IL12, and HLA-C). Spleen leukocytes were collected from NOD mice and two control strains, NON, and C57BL/6, at 2 and 4 weeks of age (n=5 for each strain and each age group). NON is the original diabetes-resistant control strain closely related genetically to the NOD strain, whereas C57BL/6 is a more distantly related strain with some immunogenetic similarities to NOD. RNA expression was analyzed on Affymetrix expression arrays MOE 430 A and MOE430B. The two arrays were combined prior to statistical analysis of the data giving a total of ~45,000 probe sets per sample.
Project description:The intention of this clinical study was to investigate the effect of GIP administration for 240 min on gene expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Three conditions have been tersted: 1. Sole infusion of GIP or NaCl as control; 2. GIP or NaCl administration under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions; 3. GIP or NaCl administration under hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions to mimic the postprandial state. In each participant a complete physical examination and evaluation of medical history was performed, including an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) with 75 g glucose after overnight fast to ensure the metabolic state. Standard fasting laboratory and clinical chemistry evaluations were done. Synthetic human GIP (1-42) was dissolved in saline (0.9% NaCl-solution) under sterile conditions. All studies were done in the morning in the overnight fasted state (>10h since last meal). The effect of GIP administration on gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue was studied under 3 different conditions in a single blind design. Either the participants received only a GIP- or a saline- infusion (0.9% NaCl-isotonic solution, Fresenius, Germany) for 240 min. At different investigation days participants underwent euglycemic (EU)- and hyperglycemic (HC), hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with GIP- or placebo-infusions for 240 min at different examination days in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design. The capillary glucose concentration was 80mg/dl during EU-clamp and 140mg/dl during HC-clamp. The following numbers of treatments were performed: EU with GIP-infusion (N=9); EU with NaCl-infusion (N=9); HC with GIP-infusion (N=8), HC with NaCl-infusion (N=8); sole GIP-infusion (N=11) and sole placebo-infusion (N=11). Between examination days an intermission time of at least 7 days was maintained.
Project description:A microarray study performed in the pancreatic lymph nodes of Deaf1 knock-out and BALB/c control mice to identify genes that are regulated by the transcriptional regulator Deaf1. These experiments constitute a portion of the study described below: Abstract: Type 1diabetes (T1D) can result from a breakdown in peripheral tolerance which is controlled by peripheral tissue antigen (PTA) expression in lymph nodes. Here, we identified a transcriptional regulator, deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1 (Deaf1), which regulates the expression of various PTAs in the pancreatic lymph node (PLN). We found, by microarray, that Deaf1 controls the expression of ~600 genes in the PLN. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D, we identified a wild-type form of Deaf1 (DF1) and a truncated alternatively spliced variant (DF1-VAR1) that hetero-dimerizes with and decreases the transcriptional activity of DF1. The expression of DF1 correlates with the expression of various pancreatic PTAs such as insulin, and during the onset of destructive insulitis in NOD mice, DF1 expression is downregulated, while the DF1-VAR1 expression is upregulated in the PLN. A reduction in DF1-controlled PTA expression in the PLN, leading to decreased peripheral tolerance, could underlie the pathogenesis of NOD disease. Deaf1-KO mice (4 wk old) and age-matched BALB/c control mice were sacrificed, and the PLN were removed and immediately homogenized in Trizol Reagent. RNA was extracted in Trizol and then purified using the RNeasy kit (Qiagen). RNA quality was assessed using the Agilent RNA 6000 Nano Reagents, RNA Nano chips, and the Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies), according to manufacturer’s instructions. Control and Deaf1-KO mouse RNA was amplified, labeled with Cy3 and Cy5, respectively, and combined with spike A and spike B mix, respectively, using the Agilent low RNA input fluorescence linear amplification kit (Agilent Technologies). The amplified cRNA was purified using the RNeasy kit (Qiagen), and specific activity was determined with the NanoDrop 1000 spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific). Samples were prepared with the gene expression hybridization kit (Agilent Technologies) and two color microarrays were performed using the whole mouse genome (4x44K) Oligo microarray kit, according to manufacturer’s instructions. Microarray chips were washed and scanned using the DNA microarray scanner (Agilent Technologies). Data was processed with Feature Extraction Software (Agilent Technologies), and analyzed using GeneSpring GX 7.3 Software (Agilent Technologies). This submission shows the data obtained from two individual Deaf1 knockout mice measured against a pool of 4 BALB/c control mice.