S. aureus gene expression of WT (USA300) vs fakAKO
ABSTRACT: S. aureus response to fakA deletion Gene expression profiles were generated by microarray analysis of S. aureus WT (USA300) or fakAKO S. aureus was grown in LB to an OD600nm of 0.45, and RNA was extracted to look at the gobal gene expression.
Project description:Compilation fo whole genome gene expression changes in Staphylococcus aureus USA300 LAC cultures grown in the presence of vehicle or the anti-gout drug benzbromarone. The drug was intially screened as effective against the agr quorum sensing system in Staphylococcus aureus AH1677. A microarray study using total RNA harvested from three cultures of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 LAC plus vehicle control and three cultures of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 LAC plus 12 uM benzbromarone.
Project description:Subinhibitory concentrations of the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ) are well-known to enhance the killing of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) by β-lactam antibiotics, however, the mechanism underlying the synergy between TDZ and β-lactams is not fully understood. In the present study we have examined the effect of a subinhibitory concentration of TDZ on antimicrobial resistance, the global transcriptome, and the cell wall composition of MRSA USA300. We show that TDZ is able to sensitize the bacteria to several classes of antimicrobials targeting the late stages of peptidoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, our microarray analysis demonstrates that TDZ modulates the expression of genes encoding membrane and surface proteins, transporters, and enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. Interestingly, resemblance between the transcriptional profile of TDZ treatment and the transcriptomic response of S. aureus to known inhibitors of cell wall synthesis suggests that TDZ disturbs peptidoglycan biosynthesis at a stage that precedes transpeptidation. In support of this notion, dramatic changes in the muropeptide profile of USA300 were observed following growth in the presence of TDZ, indicating that TDZ can interfere with the formation of the pentaglycine branches. Strikingly, the addition of glycine to the growth medium relieved the effect of TDZ on the muropeptide profile. Furthermore, exogenous glycine offered a modest protective effect against TDZ-induced β-lactam sensitivity. We propose that TDZ exposure leads to a shortage of intracellular amino acids, including glycine, which is required for the production of normal peptidoglycan precursors with pentaglycine branches, the correct substrate of S. aureus penicillin-binding proteins. Collectively, this work demonstrates that TDZ has a major impact on the cell wall biosynthesis pathway in S. aureus and provides new insights into how MRSA may be sensitized towards β-lactam antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus USA300 was grown to early exponential phase and treated with TDZ (16 µg/ml) alone or in combination with DCX (0.125 µg/ml) for 30 min. Changes in global gene expression were analyzed using the untreated culture as control. Hybridizations were performed in triplicate using RNA isolated from independent cultures.
Project description:S. aureus response to exogenous fatty acid (oleic acid) Gene expression profiles were generated by microarray analysis of S. aureus cells grown in media without or with oleic aicd Comparison of expression profiles after growth of S. aureus in exogenous fatty acid S. aureus was grown in media with and without oleic acid to an OD600nm of 0.5, and RNA was extracted to look at the gobal gene expression.
Project description:The study aims to compare gene expression patterns of Staphyloccoccus aureus USA300 vs USA300 sae knockout. Samples were hybridized on aminosilane coated slides with 70-mer oligos. 12 arrays total.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. In the United States, many of these infections are caused by a strain known as USA300. Although progress has been made, our understanding of the S. aureus molecules that promote bacteremia and survival in human blood is incomplete. To that end, we analyzed the USA300 transcriptome during culture in human blood, human serum, and trypticase soy broth (TSB), a standard laboratory culture media. Notably, genes encoding several cytolytic toxins were up-regulated in human blood over time, and hlgA, hlgB, and hlgC (encoding gamma-hemolysin subunits HlgA, HlgB, and HlgC) were among the most highly up-regulated genes at all time points. Culture supernatants derived from a USA300 isogenic hlgABC-deletion strain (LACΔhlgABC) had significantly reduced capacity to form pores in human neutrophils and ultimately cause neutrophil lysis. Compared with the wild-type USA300 strain (LAC), LACΔhlgABC had modestly reduced ability to cause mortality in a mouse bacteremia model. On the other hand, wild-type and LACΔhlgABC strains caused virtually identical disease in a mouse skin infection model, and bacterial survival and neutrophil lysis after phagocytosis in vitro was similar between these strains. Comparison of the cytolytic capacity of culture supernatants from wild-type and isogenic deletion strains lacking hlgABC, lukS/F-PV (encoding PVL), and/or lukDE revealed significant functional redundancy among two-component leukotoxins in vitro. These findings may explain in part the apparent limited contribution of any single two-component leukotoxin to USA300 immune evasion and virulence. S. aureus strain USA300 transcriptome during culture in human blood, human serum, and trypticase soy broth (TSB): time course.
Project description:S. aureus has the propensity to survive a range of NaCl challenge conditions We used commercially available Affymetrix S. aureus GeneChips (part number 900514) to compare the gene expression properties of wild type cells during growth at no or high (2M) NaCl. S. aureus strain USA300-lac cells were grown to late exponential phase growth in the absence or presence of 2M NaCl, total bacterial RNA was isolated and subjected to GeneChip hybridization and analysis. We sought to determine the regulatory effects of high NaCl.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus USA300 represents the dominant community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus lineage in the USA, where it is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections. Previous comparative genomic studies have described the population structure and evolution of USA300 based on geographically restricted isolate collections. Here, we investigated the USA300 population by sequencing genomes of a geographically distributed panel of 191 clinical S. aureus isolates belonging to clonal complex 8 (CC8), derived from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial program. Isolates were collected at 12 healthcare centres across nine USA states in 2004, 2009 or 2010. Reconstruction of evolutionary relationships revealed that CC8 was dominated by USA300 isolates (154/191,?81?%), which were heterogeneous and demonstrated limited phylogeographic clustering. Analysis of the USA300 core genomes revealed an increase in median pairwise SNP distance from 62 to 98 between 2004 and 2010, with a stable pattern of above average dN/dS ratios. The phylogeny of the USA300 population indicated that early diversification events led to the formation of nested clades, which arose through cumulative acquisition of predominantly non-synonymous SNPs in various coding sequences. The accessory genome of USA300 was largely homogenous and consisted of elements previously associated with this lineage. We observed an emergence of SCCmec negative and ACME negative USA300 isolates amongst more recent samples, and an increase in the prevalence of ?Sa5 prophage. Together, the analysed S. aureus USA300 collection revealed an evolving pan-genome through increased core genome heterogeneity and temporal variation in the frequency of certain accessory elements.
Project description:The precise mechanism and effects of antibiotics in host gene expression and immunomodulation in MRSA infection is unknown. Using a well characterized Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate USA300 in a murine model of infection, we determined that linezolid and vancomycin induced differential production of bacterial toxins and host cytokines, differences in host gene expression, and differences in immunomodulators during MRSA bloodstream infection. A total of 35 A/J mice, categorized into seven groups (no infection; no infection with linezolid; no infection with vancomycin; 2 hour post-infection (hpi) S. aureus; 24 hpi S. aureus; 24 hpi S. aureus with linezolid; and 24 hpi S. aureus with vancomycin), were used in this study. Mice were injected with USA300 (6 x 106 CFU/g via i.p. route), then intravenously treated with linezolid (25 mg/kg) or vancomycin (25 mg/kg) at 2 hpi. Control and S. aureus infected mice were euthanized at each time point (2 h or 24h) following injection. Whole blood RNA was used for microarray; three cytokines and two S. aureus toxins [PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL) and alpha hemolysin] were quantified in mouse serum by ELISA. S. aureus CFUs were significantly reduced in blood and kidney after linezolid or vancomycin treatment in S. aureus-infected mice. In vivo IL-1β in mouse serum was significantly reduced in both linezolid (p=0.001) and vancomycin (p=0.006) treated mice compared to untreated ones. IL-6 was significantly reduced only in linezolid treated (p<0.001) but not in vancomycin treated mice. However, another proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, did not exhibit altered levels in either linezolid or vancomycin treated mice (p=0.3 and p=0.51 respectively). In vivo level of bacterial toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, in mouse serum was significantly reduced only in linezolid treated mice (p=0.02) but not in vancomycin treated mice. There was no significant effect of either treatment in in vivo level of alpha hemolysin production. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using the gene expression data from 35 microarrays revealed distinct clustering based on infection status and treatment group. Study of the antibiotic-specific difference in gene expression identified the number of genes uniquely expressed in response to S. aureus infection, infection with linezolid treatment, and infection with vancomycin treatment. Pathway associations study for the differentially expressed genes in each comparison group (Control vs. 24 h S. aureus infection, 24 h S. aureus infection vs. 24 h S. aureus linezolid, and 24 h S. aureus infection vs. 24 h S. aureus vancomycin) in mice using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) identified toll-like receptor signaling pathway to be common to every comparison groups studied. Glycerolipid metabolism pathway was uniquely associated only with linezolid treatment comparison group. The findings of this study provide the evidence that protein synthesis inhibitor like linezolid does a better job in treating MRSA sepsis compared to cell wall acting antibiotics like vancomycin. To identify differences in host gene expression in a murine sepsis model treated with a) linezolid and b) vancomycin, we used whole blood gene expression (RNA) signatures from A/J inbred mice infected with USA 300 MRSA to evaluate differences in host gene expression among mice treated with linezolid and vancomycin. We used 5 RNA samples from MRSA-infected, linezolid- or vancomycin-treated mice. A total of 7 experimental groups have been employed: 1) Uninfected control group: (negative controls). 2) Uninfected, linezolid-treated group: Uninfected, linezolid-treated mice. 3) Uninfected vancomycin-treated group: Uninfected, vancomycin-treated mice. 4) Infected control group (positive control 2 h) MRSA-infected, untreated mice. 5) Infected control group (positive control 24 h): MRSA-infected, untreated mice. 6) Infected linezolid group: MRSA-infected, linezolid-treated mice. 7) Infected vancomycin group: MRSA-infected, vancomycin-treated mice.
Project description:S. aureus biofilms are associated with the organism's ability to cause disease. Biofilm associated bacteria must cope with the host's innate immune system. We used commercially available Affymetrix S. aureus GeneChips to compare the gene expression properties of 4 and 6 day established biofilms following short (1 hr)- and long (24 hr)- term exposure to macrophages and neutrophils. S. aureus strain USA300 LAC biofilms where formed for 4 or 6 days. Established biofilms were then exposed to macrophages for 1 or 24 hr. Alternatively, biofilms were exposed to neutrophils for 1 or 4 hr. Total bacterial RNA was isolated and subjected to GeneChip hybridization and analysis. We sought to determine the regulatory effects of Macrophages and Neutrophils on established S. aureus biofilms.
Project description:To monitor the global changes in gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 TCH1516 under hypochlorite stress by RNA-seq, cultivation was performed in Luria Bertani (LB) medium in triplicate at 37C until cells have reached an optical density at 540nm of 2.0. Cells were harvested by centrifugation, washed with Belitsky minimal medium (BMM) and adapted to BMM for one hour before exposure to 150 M NaOCl stress. S. aureus cells of 3 replicate experiments were harvested before and 30 min after exposure to 150 M NaOCl and disrupted in 3 mM EDTA/ 200 mM NaCl lysis buffer with a Precellys24 Ribolyzer. RNA isolation was performed using the phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol approach. After precipitation with 3 M sodium acetate and isopropanol, the total RNA was washed with cold ethanol and the pellet was solved in sterile water. Initially RNA quality was checked by Trinean Xpose (Gentbrugge,Belgium) and Agilent RNA Nano 6000 kit on Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Bblingen, Germany). Samples contaminated with DNA were treated with DNase (Qiagen), cleaned as described above and rechecked by Xpose and Agilent Bioanalyzer. Finally RNA was free of DNA with an RNA Integrity Number (RIN) > 9 and rRNA Ratio [23s / 16s] > 1.5. Ribo-Zero rRNA Removal Kit (Bacteria) from Illumina (San Diego, CA, USA) was used to remove the ribosomal RNA molecules from the isolated total RNA. Removal of rRNA was checked by Agilent RNA Pico 6000 kit on Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Bblingen, Germany). RNA was free of detectable rRNA. TruSeq Stranded mRNA Library Prep Kit from Illumina (San Diego, CA, USA) was used to prepare cDNA libraries. The resulting cDNAs were sequenced paired end on an Illumina HiSeq 1500 and MiSeq system (San Diego, CA, USA) using 50 and 75 bp read length, respectively.