Comparing Reference-Based RNA-Seq Mapping Methods for Non-Human Primate Data
ABSTRACT: We present a comparison of four reference-based mapping methods for mapping non-human primate data to a human reference sequence. We utilize TopHat2 and GSNAP for mapping to the human genome, and Bowtie2 and Stampy for mapping to the human genome and transcriptome for a total of six mapping approaches Comparison of reference-based mapping methods for 12 yellow baboons
Project description:The rising incidence of obesity and related disorders such as diabetes and heart disease has focused considerable attention on the discovery of novel therapeutics. One promising approach has been to increase the number or activity of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose depots, as this has been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and reduce the incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes. Thus, the conversion of fat-storing cells into metabolically active thermogenic cells has become an appealing therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Here, we report a screening platform for the identification of small molecules capable of promoting a white-to-brown metabolic conversion in human adipocytes. We identified two inhibitors of Janus Kinase (JAK) activity with no precedent in adipose tissue biology that permanently confer brown-like metabolic activity to white adipocytes. Importantly, these metabolically converted adipocytes exhibit elevated UCP1 expression and increased mitochondrial activity. We further found that repression of interferon signalling and activation of hedgehog signalling in JAK-inactivated adipocytes contributes to the metabolic conversion observed in these cells. Our findings highlight a novel role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the control of adipocyte function and establish a platform to identify compounds for the treatment of obesity. Human pluripotent stem-cell derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (PSC-MPCs), white adipose cells (PSC-WA), and brown adipose cells (PSC-BA) were treated with DMSO (as control), a JAK3-inhibitor compound, and a SYK-inhibitor compound respectively. Transcriptomic expression profiling was performed at 24 hours and 7 days respectively. Three biological replicates are available for each condition defined by cell type, compound, and time.
Project description:V1 interneurons are a class of inhibitory neurons that play an essential role in vertebrate locomotion; however, the factors contributing to their specification are poorly understood. Morphological and molecular evidence suggest that the zinc finger transcription factor Prdm12 may play a role in promoting V1 interneurons while repressing V2 and V0 fates. Here, we performed RNAseq on Xenopus laevis ectoderm converted to posteriorized neural tissue (with noggin and retinoic acid) in the presence or absence of a series of Prdm12 constructs (wild-type Prdm12, Prdm12-VP16, and Prdm12-engrailed-repressor). We also performed ChIPseq on a Prdm12-FLAG in wild-type or posteriorized neuralized (with noggin and retinoic acid) X. laevis ectoderm. Taken together, these data demonstrate Prdm12's genomic targets and their downstream transcription. X. laevis embryos were injected with mRNAs encoding prdm12 constructs, along with the bmp inhibitor noggin. Presumptive ectoderm (neuralized by noggin) was dissected and treated with retinoic acid. Samples were then processed into RNAseq libraries or prdm12-FLAG was immunoprecipitated and its targets sequenced. Background was input prior to IP.
Project description:Identification of blood biomarkers that prospectively predict progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease might lead to interventions that combat the tuberculosis epidemic. We aimed to assess whether global gene expression measured in whole blood of healthy people allowed identification of prospective signatures of risk of active tuberculosis disease. RESULTS:Between July 6, 2005, and April 23, 2007, we enrolled 6363 from the ACS study and 4466 from independent South African and Gambian cohorts. 46 progressors and 107 matched controls were identified in the ACS cohort. A 16 gene signature of risk was identified. The signature predicted tuberculosis progression with a sensitivity of 66·1% (95% CI 63·2–68·9) and a specificity of 80·6% (79·2–82·0) in the 12 months preceding tuberculosis diagnosis. The risk signature was validated in an untouched group of adolescents (p=0·018 for RNA sequencing and p=0·0095 for qRT-PCR) and in the independent South African and Gambian cohorts (p values <0·0001 by qRT-PCR) with a sensitivity of 53·7% (42·6–64·3) and a specificity of 82·8% (76·7–86) in 12 months preceding tuberculosis. Interpretation: The whole blood tuberculosis risk signature prospectively identified people at risk of developing active tuberculosis, opening the possibility for targeted intervention to prevent the disease. In this prospective cohort study, we followed up healthy, South African adolescents aged 12–18 years from the adolescent cohort study (ACS) who were infected with M tuberculosis for 2 years. We collected blood samples from study participants every 6 months and monitored the adolescents for progression to tuberculosis disease. A prospective signature of risk was derived from whole blood RNA sequencing data by comparing participants who developed active tuberculosis disease (progressors) with those who remained healthy (matched controls). After adaptation to multiplex qRT-PCR, the signature was used to predict tuberculosis disease in untouched adolescent samples and in samples from independent cohorts of South African and Gambian adult progressors and controls. Participants of the independent cohorts were household contacts of adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis disease.
Project description:We developed a novel approach, m1A-seq, for high-resolution mapping of the transcriptome-wide m1A landscape, based on antibody-mediated capture followed by massively parallel sequencing Identification of m1A modified sequences in human, mouse and yeast cell lines
Project description:The objective of this experiment was to use transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to develop a better understanding of the metabolic basis for poor weaned-pig transition. A total of 1,054 pigs were reared in commercial conditions and weighed at birth, weaning, and 3 weeks post- weaning. Transition average daily gain (tADG) was calculated as the average daily gain for the 3-week period post-weaning. Nine pigs from each of the lowest 10th percentile (low tADG) and the 60th-70th percentile (high tADG) were harvested at 3 weeks post-weaning. Differential expression analysis was conduced in both tissues using RNA-Seq methodology mRNA profiling in two different tissues (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) harvested at 3 weeks post-weaning
Project description:Analysis of the maize alternative splicing landscape, including transcript discovery and mapping of genotype-dependent variations in alternative splicing using B73, Mo17 and the SX19 inbred mapping population Total RNA was isolated from 5 week old leaves of hydroponically grown maize plants and used to construct RNA seq libraries
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study were to identify quantitative gene expression differences between macrophages derived from wild type and PI3Kgamma null macrophages Methods: mRNA profiles of MCSF, IL4 and IFNg/LPS stimulated macrophage wild-type (WT) and PI3Kinase gamma knockout (p110g-/-) mice were generated by single read deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq2000. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were aligned to mouse transcriptome using the bowtie2 aligner. Gene-level summaries were normalized and analyzed for differential expression using DESeq. qRT–PCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays. Conclusions: Our study represents the first detailed analysis of the role of p110g in the control of the macrophage immune response, with biological replicates, generated by RNA-seq technology. mRNA profiles of wild type (WT) and p110g-/- macrophages were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq2000.
Project description:We report that a high affinity, selective, small molecule Gpr120 agonist (cpdA), exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vitro, and in obese mice in vivo. Gpr120 agonist treatment of high fat diet (HFD)/obese mice causes improved glucose tolerance, decreased hyperinsulinemia, increased insulin sensitivity and decreased hepatic steatosis. This suggests that Gpr120 agonists could become new insulin sensitizing drugs for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and other human insulin resistant states in the future. Examination of effects of DHA and compound A on primary macrophages stimulated by LPS, 3 replicates for each condition
Project description:The ability to differentiate stimuli predicting positive or negative outcomes is critical for survival, and perturbations of emotional processing underlie many psychiatric disease states. Different neuronal populations of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) encode fearful or rewarding associations, but the molecular identity of these functionally distinct populations of BLA neurons remained unknown. Here, we show that BLA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc-projectors) or the centromedial amygdala (CeM-projectors) underwent opposing synaptic changes following fear or reward conditioning. The photostimulation of NAc projectors supported positive reinforcement while photostimulation of CeM projectors mediated negative reinforcement. In search of defining molecular characteristics of these functionally-distinct BLA neuronal populations, we compared gene expression profiles of NAc- and CeM-projectors. For comparison of gene expression profiles of NAc- and CeM-projectors, we conducted two independent RNA sequencing experiments. In experiment-1, a total of n=9 samples (n=4 NAc- and n=5 CeM-projectors) are analyzed. In experiment-2, a total of n=8 samples (n=4 NAc- and n=4 CeM-projectors) are analyzed.
Project description:Biochemistry suggests e2f4 forms a complex with the coiled-coiled protein multicilin (MCIDAS), a protein that is necessary and sufficient to specify multiciliated cells in vertebrates. Here, we performed RNAseq on Xenopus laevis ectoderm in the presence of multicilin alone or multicilin and a dominant-negative e2f4 construct. We also performed ChIPseq on e2f4 in the presence or absence of multicilin. Taken together, these data demonstrate how multicilin affects e2f4 genomic targets and their downstream transcription. RNAseq: misexpression of multicilin-HGR +/- dominant-negative e2f4 messenger RNAs in X. laevis animal caps, multicilin induced with dexamethasone at mid-stage 11 and harvested at 3 timepoints (3, 6, and 9 hours after induction, roughly corresponding to stages 13, 16, and 18) with 3 biological replicates. ChIPseq: misexpression of e2f4-GFP +/- multicilin-HGR messenger RNAs in X. laevis animal caps, multicilin induced at mid-stage 11 and harvested at one timepoint (6 hours after induction, roughly corresponding to stage 16), immunoprecipitated with anti-GFP and sequenced; 2 biological replicates. Background was input prior to IP.